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Tor cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexes see same topic and KEY-NUMBER
BENEFICIAL ASSOCIATIONS. who had transmitted orders through insolvent

correspondent held not to state cause of action.
See Insurance, cm 770–797.

-Bouton v. Van Buren, 127 N. E. 477, 229

N. Y. 17.
BILLS AND NOTES.

Complaint in representative action for ac-

counting held insufficient.-Id.
I. REQUISITES AND VALIDITY.
(B) Form

Contents of Promissory IV. COMPENSATION AND LIEN.

Notes and Duebills.
36 (N.Y.Sup.) Note payable after date, vent sale to purchaser he had introduced to

En 56(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Broker, who tried to pre-
without grace, held "negotiable instrument pay.
able on demand."-Keister v. Wade, 119.

owner, not entitled to commission.-Weinhart

v. Dotzel, 886.
II. CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION. Em 60 (N.Y.Sup.) Breach of agreement to buy

from a seller to be procured by broker gives
w 129(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Where no specific time broker cause of action. Newman v. Pierson,
of payment is mentioned, note is payable im-

227.
mediately on demand.-Keister v. Wade, 119.

60 (N.Y.Sup.) Seller held not entitled to de-
V. RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES ON IN- / feat broker's right to commissions by consent-

ing to cancellation of contract.-Frederick Zit-
DORSEMENT OR TRANSFER.

tel & Sons y, Schwartz, 638.
(A) Indorsement Before Dellvery to or

Omw 69 (N.Y.Sup.) Buyer's refusal to buy from
Transfer by Payee.

seller procured by broker entitles broker to
256 (N.Y.Sup.) Indorser not liable, where reasonable value of services.-Newman v. Pier-
payee's indorsement forged and maker paid

son, 227.
payee.-Greene v, Poz, 900.

w71 (N.Y.) Broker's commission computed

on fixed annual rental, not on contemplated
(C) Assignment or Sale.

profits.--Nacirema Co. v. Cassidy, 127 N. E.
318 (N.Y.Sup.) Negotiation of notes by 262, 228 N. Y. 459.
payee a breach of faith.-Title Guarantee & Omw 73 (N.Y.Sup.) No defense that commission
Trust Co. v. Pam, 824.

belonged to plaintiff's employer.-Cadman v.

Garcia, 797.
VI. PRESENTMENT, DEMAND, NO.
TICE, AND PROTEST.

V. ACTIONS FOR COMPENSATION.
410 (N.Y.Sup.) Notary's certificate of pro- i em82(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Complaint held defective
test may be contradicted by evidence.-Greene in failing to allege value of services.-Newman
v. Poz, 900.

v. Pierson, 227.
421 (N.Y.Sup.) Notice to payee in care of 87 (N.Y.Sup.) Commissions on gross rent,
indorser not sufficient.-Greene v. Poz, 900. als of lease procured do not extend to per-

centage of rentals under optional renewal lease.
VIII. ACTIONS.

-McMahon v. Beard, 475.
525 (N.Y.Sup.) Assignee held to have ac-
tual knowledge of defects in assignor's title.
Title Guarantee & Trust Co. v. Pam, 824.

CANALS.
537(8) (N.Y.Sup.) Issue of mutilation with 1. ESTABLISHMENT, CONSTRUCTION,
intent to cancel held for jury.-Greene v. Poz,

AND MAINTENANCE.
900.

ww15 (N.Y.Ct.CI.) No liability for excavating
BROKERS.

Barge Canal outside excavation lines as shown
See Factors.

by plans, in absence of contract.-S. Pearson &

Son v. State, 481.
II. EMPLOYMENT AND AUTHORITY. Contractor cannot recover for mispresenta-
em 6 (N.Y.Sup.) Stockbrokers were brokers tions as to character of material to be en-
stocks carried on margin.–Lipkien v. Krinski, tra excavation due to state's failure to com-
as to other firm acting for customers in buying countered, in absence of plea.--Id.

No recovery allowable to contractor for ex-
454.
Om 8(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held to show re-

plete specified dam, in the absence of warranty
lationship of stockbroker and client between

of completion.-Id.
firms.-Lipkien v. Krinski, 454.

Contractor cannot recover for excavations

required to bring plant to winter quarters.--Id.
III. DUTIES AND LIABILITIES TO

Interference with construction by power com-
PRINCIPAL.

pany held proper basis of claim by contractor

against state.-Id.
37 (N.Y.Sup.) Stockbrokers merely clear Contractor cannot recover damages caused
ing for other brokers acting for customers may by, encountering, barder material, where re-
be compelled to account.-Lipkien v. Krinski, quired to make his own investigations.-Id.
454.

Contractor held not entitled to compensation
Stockbrokers receiving customer's money for for harder material than anticipated as for
purchase of securities may be compelled to ac- misrepresentations.-Id.
count.--Id.

Time to enable contractor to investigate be-
en 38(3) (N.Y.) Complaint for accounting fore contract held: not insufficient.-Id.
against stockbrokers on behalf of principals Evidence held not to show that contractor

to

V.

was misled as to character of material to be

(D) Personal Injaries. excavated.--Id. Contractor may recover increased cost of to keep children inside car.---Longacre v. Yon

m281 (N.Y.Sup.) Not obliged to close door plant made necessary by misrepresentations. kers R. Co., 373. -Id. Omw 18 (N.Y.Ct.CI.) Persons driving into open depended on reasonable prudence, not on hon

Cum 281 (N.Y.Sup.) Duty to a sick passenger bridge must show negligence of state.- Fraser esty in assuming he was drunk.–Middleton v. V. State, 491. Evidence insufficient to sustain burden of uw 316(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Passenger bas burden

Third Ave. Ry. Co., 598. showing absence of watchman at open bridge. of proving carrier's negligence.-Slomka v. Nas-Id. em 18 (N.Y.Ct.C.) State held liable for in- 318(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Where adjustable seat

sau Electric R. Co., 156. juries to lands due to the seeping of water.- collapsed,' evidence held to warrant finding that Thaxter v. State, 199.

the carrier was not negligent.-Slomka v. Nas

sau Electric R. Co., 156. *CARRIERS.

318(5) (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held not to

show negligence.-Longacre v. Yonkers R. Co., II. CARRIAGE OF GOODS.

373.

Om318(8) (N.Y.) Evidence held justify (B) Bills of Lading, Shipping Receipts, finding that motorman was negligent in runand Special Contracts.

ning by intending passenger.-Campbell mm 55 (N.Y.Sup.) Bill of lading held. nonnego- Richmond Light & R. Co., 127 N. E. 271, 228 tiable.-Gubelman v. Panama R. Co., 403.

N. Y. 383. Failure to mark nonnegotiable bill to be such

of Person did not render it negotiable.-Id.

(E) Contributory Negligence

Injured. Omar 56 (N.Y.Sup.) Negotiable bill transferred only by indorsement.-Gubelman v. Panama R. em 346(V2) (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held. not to Co., 403.

show absence of contributory negligence.em 57 (N.Y.Sup.) Nonnegotiable bills of lad- Longacre v. Yonkers R. Co., 373. ing transferred by delivery, but carrier must 347 (3) (N.Y.) Contributory negligence of have notice.-Gubelman v. Panama R. Co., 403. intending passenger, waiting for car, held a jury Cw58 (N.Y.Sup.) Nonnegotiable bills of lad- question.--Campbell v. Richmond Light & R. ing transferred by delivery, but carrier must Co., 127 N. E. 271, 228 N. Y. 383. have notice.-Gubelman v. Panama R. Co., 403.

(G) Passengers' Effects. (D) Transportation and Delivery by 401 (N.Y.) Bound to exercise ordinary Carrier.

care to protect passenger's possession of prop94(4) (N.Y.Sup.) Damages for failure to erty-Foulke v. New York Consol. R. Co., 127 transport measured by value at place of des- N. E. 237, 228 N. Y. 269. tination.-Seaver v. Lindsay Light Co., 30. Package left on car in carrier's possession as

gratuitous bailee.-Id. (I) Connecting Carriers. Sa 177 (4) (N.Y.Sup.) Carmack Amendment

CHAMPERTY AND MAINTENANCE. does not render connecting carrier liable for prior losses: - Grand Trunk Ry. Co. of Canada for attorney not retroactive.-Sadden v. Se

Cam 3 (N.Y.Sup.) Statute prohibiting soliciting v. Satuloff, 81. C180 (2) (N.Y.Sup.) Limitation in bill of bring, 1. lading governs after receipt by road to which diverted.-Grand Trunk Ry. Co. of Canada y.

CHANCERY. Satuloff, 81.

See Equity. (J) Charges and Liens.

CHATTEL MORTGAGES. mw 193 (N.Y.Sup.) Last carrier may recover all freight charges advanced by it.-Grand I. REQUISITES AND VALIDITY. Trunk Ry. Co. of Canada v. Satuloff, 81.

(A) Nature

Essentials of Transfers Last carrier entitled to recover charges of

of Chattels as Security. connecting carrier against whom owner has 34 (N.Y.Sup.) Bill of sale, with paper counterclaim for loss.-Id. Om 196 (N.Y.Sup.) Consignee cannot offset showing transfer as security, constitute mortdamages on line of preceding carrier against gage.-F'inkenberg v. Levinson, 18. freight claimed by last carrier.--Grand Trunk

IX. FORECLOSURE. Ry. Co. of Canada v. Satuloff, 81.

Paw 255 (N.Y.Sup.) To enforce payment of IV. CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS,

loan, sale and not delivery of collateral will be

ordered. Finkenberg v. Levinson, 18. (A) Relation Between Carrier and Pas- em 275 (N.Y.Sup.) Other creditor necessary senger.

party in suit to satisfy debt from security Cm 235 (N.Y.) Company and taxicab held re- Finkenberg v. Levinson, 18. spectively a "common carrier" and a “public conveyance” within accident policy.--Anderson

CHILDREN. v. Fidelity & Casualty Co. of New York, 127 N. E. 581, 228 N. Y. 475.

See Infants.

and

For cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexes see same topic and KEY-NUMBER
CHURCHES.

II. CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION,

AND ENFORCEMENT OF CON-
See Religious Societies.

STITUTIONAL PROVISIONS,
CITIES.

ww48 (N.Y.Sup.) Legislature presumed to

have sufficient evidence to enable it to act.See Municipal Corporations.

Kuenzli v. Stone, 680.

Com 48 (N.Y.Mun.Ct.) Construction rendering CIVIL RIGHTS.

statute valid will be adopted.-Seventy-Eighth

Street & Broadway Co. v. Rosenbaum, 505. See Constitutional Law, 87-91.

COMMERCE

III. DISTRIBUTION OF GOVERN

MENTAL POWERS AND
I. POWER TO REGULATE IN GEN-

FUNCTIONS.
ERAL.

(A) Legislative Powers and Delegation om 10 (N.Y.Sup.) State laws govern contracts

Thereot. for interstate shipment, in absence of legislation by Congress.-Gubelman v. Panama R. Co., Om 56 (N.Y.) Statute making award of damag403.

es by a board of revision of assessments final

not unconstitutional, as infringing general juII. SUBJECTS OF REGULATION. risdiction of Supreme Court.-People ex rel.

27 (6) (N.Y.Sup.) Brakeman on car carry- | Crane v. Hahlo, 127 N. E. 402, 228 N. Y. 309, ing interstate freight is engaged in "interstate 56 (N.Y.Sup.) Legislature cannot deprive commerce" where loading an intrastate ship- court of jurisdiction conferred by Constitution. ment.-Evans v. U. S. Railroad Administration, -In re Levy, 792. 310.

(B) Judicial Powers and Functions. COMMERCIAL PAPER.

Ow70(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Courts will not investigate See Bills and Notes.

whether facts warrant legislation.-Kuenzli v. Stone, 680.

Ow70(3) (N.Y.Mun.Ct.) Efficacy and soundCOMMISSIONERS.

ness of statute legislative question.-SeventySee Public Service Commissions.

Eighth Street & Broadway Co. v. Rosenbaum,

505. COMPROMISE AND SETTLEMENT. (C) Executive Powers and Functions. See Accord and Satisfaction.

Om79 (N.Y.Sup.) President cannot delegate 5(2) (N.Y.Sup.) Acceptance of check, with judicial powers.---In re_Schuster, 357. indorsement of payment in full, evidences ac

Omw 80(1) (N.Y.Sup.) President cannot delecord and satisfaction.-Hoerst v. Forest Box & gate power to except persons from classificaLumber Co., 903.

tion as alien enemies.-In re Schuster, 357. w 15(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Express company on find. ing lost trunk could not retain it on refusal

V. PERSONAL CIVIL AND POLITIto repay amount paid in settlement for loss.

CAL RIGHTS. --Roe v. American Ry. Express Co., 895.

Om 87 (N.Y.Mun.Ct.) State may interfere with

rights of private property, where safety, health, CONDEMNATION.

and morals demand it.-Seventy-Eighth Street

& Broadway Co. v. Rosenbaum, 505. See Eminent Domain.

cm 90 (N.Y.sup.) Ordinance giving mayor discretion to control free speech is invalid.-City

of Buffalo v. Till, 418. CONSPIRACY.

un 91 (N.Y.Sup.) Ordinance giving mayor disI. CIVIL LIABILITY.

cretion to control free assembly is valid.-City

of Buffalo v. Till, 418. (A) Acts Constituting Conspiracy and Li

ability Therefor. Can 13 (N.Y.Sup.) Party to conspiracy liable

VI. VESTED RIGHTS. for previous acts of conspirators.-Rosco Trad-w94 (N.Y.Sup.) Adoptive child not "heir” of ing Co. v. Goldenberg, 711.

life tenant, entitled to take under devise, unler (B) Actions.

theory of vested right.-In re Frost's Will, 559.

Cam 100 (N.Y.Sup.) Taxpayer has no vested Om 19 (N.Y.Sup.) May be shown by circum- right in statutory privileges or immunities.stantial evidence.-Finnegan v. Butler, 671.

Pardee v. Rayfield, 3.

Taxpayer without vested right to have tax CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.

apportionment remain unaltered.-Id.

Cam 106 (N.Y.Sup.) Remedy given by LegislaFor validity of statutes relating to particular ture repealable.-Kuenzli v. Stone, 680.

subjects, see also the various specific topics. No vested right to particular remedy.-Id.

VII. OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS. III. MODIFICATION AND MERGER. (A) Powers of States in General.

237(2) (N.Y.Sup.) Compromise held suffiOw117 (N.Y.Sup.) Obligation of contracts

cient consideration to support modified agreeclause does not restrict police power of state.

ment.-Nahoum v. Slocum, Avram & Slocum -Kuenzli v. Stone, 680.

Trading Co., 318. Legislature not estopped by private contracts. Em 238(2) (N.Y.) Party orally agreeing that -Id.

written contract need not be strictly performed

not entitled to rescind for nonperformance.(B) Contracts of States and Municipal. Imperator Realty Co. v. Tull, 127 N. E. 263, ities.

228 N. Y. 447. Om 135 ·(N.Y.Sup.) Franchise regulating rates may be modified by statute; obligation of con

V. PERFORMANCE OR BREACH. tracts.--Village of Warsaw v. Pavilion Natural 280(1). (N.Y.Sup.) Contractor doing work Gas Co., 73.

on cost plus basis must exercise good faith.

Title Guarantee & Trust Co. v. Pam, 824. (C) Contracts of Individuals and Private 322(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held insuffi Corporations.

cient to show complete performance of lighter148 (N.Y.Mun.Ct.) Retrospective statute, age contract.–Edward J. Barton Lighterage Co. permitting tenant to set up oppressiveness of v. La Brecque Co., 170. rent, would impair obligation of contracts.-m322(4) * (N.Y.Sup.) In action on notes giv. Seventy-Eighth Street & Broadway Co. v. Ros en to contractor, evidence held to establish enbaum, 505.

great overcharges and reckless expenditures. On 170 (N.Y.Sup.) Tenant's relief act held not --Title Guarantee & Trust Co. v. Pam, 824. unconstitutional.-Kuenzli v. Stone, 680. On 323(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Whether dyers properly

performed work held for jury.-H. F. Bindseil VIII. RETROSPECTIVE AND EX POST & Son v. Aaron Littman & Co., 176. FACTO LAWS.

VI. ACTIONS FOR BREACH. Om 186 (N.Y.Sup.) Adjustment between school districts of money expended for construction Emo324(1), (N.Y.Sup.) Contractor, who has fully not unconstitutional, though retroactive. -Par- performed contract, may sue either on condee v. Rayfield, 3.

tract or on quantum meruit.--Raile v. Peerless 193 (N.Y.Sup.) Legislature may by cura

American Products Co., 721. tive act validate anything it could have au. Em346(12) (N.Y.Sup.) Recovery on quantum thorized.-Pardee v. Rayfield, 3.

meruit improper, where not claimed.-Greif v. B. L. B. Motor Repair Co., 765.

Ou348 (N.Y.Sup.) No recovery for substantial CONTRACTS.

performance, without showing cost of part unSee Assignments; Bills and Notes; Cham

performed.-Conforti v. Singhi, 899. perty and Maintenance; Compromise and Settlement; Covenants; Frauds, Statute of;

CONVERSION. Indemnity; Sales; Specific Performance; 16(4) (N.Y.Sur.) Will

construed not to Stipulations; Vendor and Purchaser.

work an equitable conversion of real estate.I. REQUISITES AND VALIDITY.

In re Kingston's Estate, 528. (D) Consideration,

CORPORATIONS. Om75(1) (N.Y.Sup.) Promise to perform legal obligation insufficient as consideration.--Na-See Banks and Banking; Carriers; Gas; Muhoum v. Slocum, Avram & Slocum Trading Co.,

nicipal Corporations; Public Service Com318.

missions; Railroads; Street Railroads; Tel

egraphs and Telephones. II. CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION. (A) General Rules of Construction.

II. CORPORATE EXISTENCE AND

FRANCHISE. 143 (N.Y.) Construction not permitted in absence of reasonable doubt.--First Nat. Bank ww40 (N.Y.Sup.) Increase of board of diree v. National Surety Co., 127 N. E. 479, 228 N. | Cabana v. Holstein-Friesian Ass'n of America,

tors not legally effective until certificate filed.Y. 469. Om 143 (N.Y.Sup.) Construed

whole.

658. Frederick Zittel & Sons v. Schwartz, 638.

Certificate of increase of directors insufficient, wa 147(3), (N.Y.) Intention of parties must be where not signed by majority.-Id. ascertained from whole.-Paige v. Faure, 127 N. E. 898, 229 N. Y. 114.

III. CORPORATE NAME, SEAL, DOM

ICILE, BY-LAWS AND RECORDS. (B) Parties.

ww43 (N.Y.Sup.) Equity will disregard corOn 186(4) (N.Y.Sup.) Weigher owes no duty porate form and treat parties as partners, to person not employing him to accurately where justice requires and facts warrant.weigh merchandise. --Glanzer v. Shepard, 178. Thomashefsky v. Edelstein, 707. www 187 (2) (N.Y.Sup.) Third person could not Equity will disregard corporate form and enrecover on promise for his benefit.-Dayton v. force individual liability of the copartners in White, 902.

case of fraud.-Id.

as

a

For cases in Dec.Dig. & Am.Dig. Key-No.Series & Indexes gee same topic and KEY-NUMBER
IV. CAPITAL, STOCK, AND DIVI. m400 (N.Y.Sup.) Company may specify offi-
DENDS.

cers who shall bind it and manner in which they
(B) Subscription to Stock.

shall act.--Spitzer v. Born, Inc., 327.
Cm71 (N.Y.Sup.). Right to preferences for ity bound, despite secret limitations of by-laws.

Company, which gives agent apparent author-
stockholders as to corporate stock held not af- - Id.
fected by statute.-People ex rel. Recess Ex-429 (N.Y.Sup.) By-laws of trading com-
porting & Importing Corporation v. Hugo, 9.
Preferences between preferred and common

pany not binding on party relying on authority

of general officers.--Spitzer v. Born, Inc., 327.
stock held not against public policy.-Id.

Limitation of by-laws on president's author-
(D) Transfer of Shares.

ity to execute lease binding on other party.-Id.
Om 117 (N.Y.Sup.) Completion of building to (D) Contracts and Indebtedness.
be leased to corporation by certain date held

458 (N.Y.Sup.) Offer to transfer stock of
not of essence of contract for sale of stock.-
Frederick Zittel & Sons v. Schwartz, 638.

seller corporation held a breach of contract
em 145 (N.Y.Sup.) Evidence held to show lia- I to deliver bill of sale to tts property.-L. R.
bility of transferee to transferor of stock for Lunch & Restaurant Co. v. Zusman, 878.
assessments paid by latter.-Gaffney v. People's sell pledged bonds of third person, despite fraud

474 (N.Y.Sup.) Pledgee in good faith may
Trust Co. of Binghamton, 451.

of pledgor.-Gouert v. Mechanics & Metals Nat.

Bank of City of New York, 579.
V. MEMBERS AND STOCKHOLDERS.

Third persons, whose bonds were wrongfully
(A) Rights and Liabilities as to Corpora- pledged, may insist that securities rightfully
tion.

pledged be first applied.-Id.
Om 178 (N.Y.Sur.) Stockholder has no lien on

XII. FOREIGN CORPORATIONS.
assets.-In re Collier's Estate, 93..

en 668(9) (N.Y.Sup.) That liability was in-

curred prior to foreign corporation surrender-
VI. OFFICERS AND AGENTS,

ing right to do business in state must affirma-
(A) Election, or Appointment, Qualifica- tively appear to sustain service.-Hexter v.
tion, and Tennre.

Day-Elder Motors Corporation, 717.
289 (N.Y.Sup.) Right of directors and offi- Service on foreign corporation after surren-
cers to hold office not subject to collateral at- der of authority to do business in state held
tack.-Cabana v. Holstein-Friesian Ass'n of ineffectual.-Id.
America, 658.

Om672(3) (N.Y.Sup.) Plaintiff, suing foreign

corporation subsequent to surrender of author-
(C) Rights, Datics, and Liabilities as to ity to do business, must allege that contract
Corporation and Its Members.

was made in state to make service effectual.
310(2) (N.Y.Sup.) Directors liable to com-

-Hexter V. Day-Elder Motors Corporation,
pany for ultra vires acts only when they par-

717.
ticipate therein.-Holmes v. Crane, 270.

COSTS.
Directors not liable for acts in good faith not
ultra vires.-Id.

I. NATURE, GROUNDS, AND EXTENT
Cun312(2) (N.Y.Sup.) Depositing in trust com.

OF RIGHT IN GENERAL.
pany organized ultra vires by corporation held uw 12 (N.Y.Sup.) Not awarded in parents' ac-
not to render directors liable.-Holmes v. Crane, tion against infant defendant to annul marriage.
270.

--Kuykendall v. Kuykendall, 308.
312(7) (N.Y.Sup.) Stockholder ratifies ul-
tra vires acts by accepting benefits.-Holmes v.
Crane, 270.

COUNTERCLAIM.
Stockholders held not to have knowledge of See Set-Off and Counterclaim.
ultra vires act by representation at meeting.
-Id.

COUNTIES.
320(!!) (N.Y.Sup.) Directors held to have
been acting in good faith and not liable to ac- III. PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, AND
count.-Holmes v. Crane, 270.

LIABILITIES.

(B) Contracts.
VII. CORPORATE POWERS AND

Cw117 (N.Y.Sup.) Contract for repairs to
LIABILITIES.

county courthouse awarded without advertise-
(A) Extent and Exercise of Powers in ment construed to be valid; “local laws;" "or-
General.

ders;" "rules."-Obelisk Waterproof Co, v.
377 (1) (N.Y.Sup.) Dissolution of trust Cloher, 303.
company by stockholding corporation held not ww123 (N.Y.Sup.) Board of supervisors held
ultra vires.--Holmes v. Crane, 270.

to have waived giving of bond required by con-

tract.--Obelisk Waterproof Co. v. Cloher, 303.
(B) Representation of Corporation by 0f-
ficers and Agents.

VI. ACTIONS.
Bar 399(1) (N.Y.Sup.) General officer has pow- 208 (N.Y.Sup.) Suit may be maintained
er to do any act which directors can ratify.- against county in its name.-Delano v. Suffolk
Spitzer v. Born, Inc., 327.

County, 693.

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