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The World Plan also recommends that governments adopt their own strategies and timetables for implementation of the Plan. There is no single government agency equipped to undertake this task. Nor is there a government agency equipped to assess and review U.S. progress regarding the goals of the Plan. Suggestions have been made for a special commission, a cabinet-level department, and/or a series of official conferences to promote and monitor the U.S. implementation plan for the World Plan of Action. The existing and proposed organizations should be reviewed so that an effective mechanism can be established as soon as possible.
U.S. Relations with International Organizations—The World Plan of Action and the resolutions adopted by the Conference call for increased participation of women in international affairs. Like the Congressional Symposium on International Women's Year, the Conference concluded that women have been virtually excluded from every aspect of the foreign policy area. International organizations, including the United Nations, are major offenders in denying women equal opportunities in this field.
In response to this problem, I sponsored an amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1974 that requires all U.S. representatives to international organizations to integrate women into the implementation of assistance programs as well as professional positions in those organizations. Conclusions from both the Conference and the Symposium indicate that the role of women in foreign policy ought to be reviewed by appropriate Congressional Committees.
Congressional activity on this issue has centered in the Foreign Relations Committee. The Government Operations Committee may want to examine it from the perspective of how our relations with international organizations can be geared to improve the status of women throughout the world. An examination of the causes and consequences of exclusion of women by international organizations would be useful in determining what steps can be taken to substantially increase women's active role in society.
Other Areas for Congressional Action.—Many of the specific recommendations for national action contained in both the World Plan of Action and the report of the Congressional Symposium require Congressional action for implementation. These recommendations fall within the jurisdiction of several Committees. Some remedial measures are already under consideration.
Education. The importance of equal educational opportunity to equal rights and opportunities for women cannot be overstated. The United States has made significant progress in this area, but much remains to be accomplished.
Federal agencies must have the funds and authority to effectively enforce existing antidiscrimination statutes, particularly Title IX of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Sufficient funds should be provided for research and development efforts under existing programs designed to combat sex discrimination in education. Existing education statutes should be amended to assure that federally-funded education and educational materials are free from sex role stereotypes.
Employment and Career Opportunities.-Equality in education alone is not sufficient to guarantee equal access to employment and career opportunities.
As with education, existing antidiscrimination statutes must be effectively enforced. A special program should be established to assist female-owned business through loans or loan guarantees, technical information and government contract opportunities. The effectiveness of recently-enacted legislation prohibiting discrimination in the granting of credit on the basis of sex or marital status should be closely monitored. The Federal Government should provide or encourage the provision of aids to women and men who have both work and family duties such as flexible work hours, part-time employment opportunities, quality child-care, and maternity protection.
Health and Nutrition.-Although the United States has greater resources in this area than any other nation, it lags behind many countries in maternal and child health. Many people, particularly women and children, still do not have an adequate or nutritious diet.
Adequate health care, particularly maternal and child care, should be physically and financially accessible to all. The Federal Government should expand its nutrition education programs and should assure that all those who are eligible for food stamps are able to apply for and receive them.
UNITED STATES DELEGATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS WORLD CON
FERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S YEAR, MEXICO City, JUNE 19-JULY 2, 1975
UNITED STATES DELEGATION Delegates Patricia Hutar, United States Representative on the Commission on
the Status of Women of the Economic and Social Council of the
United Nations (Head of the Delegation). Jewel Lafontant, Deputy Solicitor General, Department of Justice. Daniel Parker, Administrator, Agency for International Development
(Co-Head of Delegation June 19-21). Jill E. Ruckelshaus, Presiding Officer, National Commission on the
Observance of International Women's Year. Alternate Delegates Virginia R. Allan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs,
Department of State. Anne L. Armstrong, Member, National Commission on the Observ
ance of International Women's Year. Ruth Clusen, President, League of Women Voters of the United
States. Arvonne S. Fraser, Former President, Women's Equity Action League. Joan Goodin, Assistant Director, International Affairs Department,
Brotherhood of Railway, Airline, and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees, American Federation
of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations. Rita E. Hauser, Member, United States Advisory Commission on
International Educational and Cultural Affairs. Rita Johnston, United States Delegate to and Vice Chairman of the
Inter-American Commission of Women. Joseph J. Jova, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
United States Embassy, Mexico City. Patricia H. Lindh, Special Assistant to the President for Women,
The White House. Carmen R. Maymi, Director, Women's Bureau, Department of Labor. Virginia Trotter, Assistant Secretary for Education, Department of
Health, Education and Welfare. Barbara M. White, Ambassador, Alternate United States Representa
tive for Special Political Affairs, United States Mission to the
United Nations. Congressional Advisers Hon. Birch Bayh, United States Senate. Hon. Charles H. Percy, United States Senate. Hon. Bella S. Abzug, United States House of Representatives. Hon. Margaret M. Heckler, United States House of Representatives.
Women's Year, Washington, D.C.
Department of State (Secretary of Delegation). Emily Carssow, Assistant Professor of Law, University of Georgia. Catherine S. East, Deputy Coordinator, Secretariat for International
Women's Year, Department of State. Gilda Bojorquez Gjurich, Member, National Commission on the Ob
servance of International Women's Year. Mary M. Haselton, Bureau of Oceans and International Environ
mental and Scientific Affairs, Department of State. Carl J. Hemmer, Bureau of Population and Humanitarian Assistance.
Agency for International Development. Shirley B. Hendsch, Bureau of International Organization Affairs,
Department of State. Marion N. Javits, Public Affairs Consultant, New York. Karen Keesling, Director, Oflice of Women's Programs, The White
House. John W. Kimball, Bureau of International Organization Affairs,
Department of State. Nira H. Long, Coordinator for Women in Development, Agency for
International Development. Mildred K. Marcy, Coordinator for International Women's Year, De
partment of State. Morag M. Simchak, Office of Labor Affairs, Agency for International
ment of State.
SUMMARY OF WORLD PLAN OF ACTION Introduction
Notes that despite the adoption of various U.N. instruments proclaiming that the full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause of peace require the maximum participation of women as well as men in all fields, progress in translating these principles into practical reality is proving slow and uneven. While there are significant differences in the status of women in different countries and regions of the world, basic similarities unite women to fight differences wherever they exist.
States that Governments should ensure for both women and men equality before the law, equality of educational opportunities, equality in conditions of employment, including remuneration and adequate social security, the right to employment on equal conditions regardless of marital status, and maternity protection.
Notes individuals and couples have the right to determine the number and spacing of their children and the vital importance of child-care centers in promoting equality between men and women.
States that it is the aim of the Plan to ensure that the original and multidimensional contribution of women is not overlooked in existing concepts for development action programs and an improved world economic equilibrium. National Action
States that the Plan is intended to provide guidelines for national action over the 10-year period from 1975 to 1985 as part of a sustained, long-term effort to achieve the objectives of International Women's Year. Recommends that governments decide on their own national strategies, identify their own targets and priorities within the Plan, and establish short, medium and long-term targets to implement the Plan. Recommends the establishment of interdisciplinary and multisectoral machinery within government, such as national commissions, women's bureaus and other bodies, with adequate staff and budget, as effective transitional measures for accelerating the achievement of equal opportunity for women and their full integration in national life.
States that by the end of the first 5-year period, the achievement of the following should be seen as a minimum:
A marked increase in literacy of women;
Extension of vocational training in basic skills, including modern farming methods;
Parity of enrollment at the primary level of education;
Establishment and increase of intrastructural services required in rural areas and others;
Enactment of legislation on equal political participation with men, equal employment opportunities and remunerations, and on equality in legal capacity and the exercise thereof;
Encouragement of increased participation of women in the formulation of action-policies at all levels;
Increased provision for comprehensive measures for health, education and services, sanitation, nutrition, family education, family planning and other welfare services;
Provision for parity in the exercise of civil, social and political rights such as those pertaining to marriage, citizenship and commerce;
Recognition of the economic value of women's work in the home, in domestic food production and marketing and in voluntary activities not traditionally remunerated;
To direct formal, non-formal and life-long education towards the re-evaluation of men and women in order to ensure their full realization as individuals in the family and in society;
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