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Women into the development process. It recommends the use of impact statements, review and appraisal systems and research efforts to measure progress and evaluate program impact on women. It also calls for equal employment opportunities for women in decisionmaking positions that govern planning and implementation of development assistance programs.
Education and Training.-- This resolution afirms the right of every individual to basic education and advocates free and compulsory primary and secondary education as far as resources permit. It recommends the elimination of sex bias from all aspects of education, including educational materials, teacher training.comseling, and school administration and suggests the use of media and technology to expand educational opportunities. It also calls on governments, the C.X. and nongovernmental organizations to support programs that enhance educational opportunities for
The Situation of Il'omen in the Employ of the United Nations and Specialized Agencies. This measure calls on the U.N., its specialized agencies and subsidiary bodies to set an example to member States in the liring and promotion of women.
Women's Contribution to World Peace through Participation in International Conferences. The resolution urges governments of member States to increase substantially the number of women delegates to all C.X. meetings, especially meetings of the main committees of the General Assembly.
Population Participation (Self-Thelp).--This resolution asks member States to sponsor voluntary social promotion programs, such as self-help groups, cooperatives, women's groups and other organizations at all socioeconomic levels to improve the status of women and their families.
International Research and Training Institute for the Promotion of Women,-The resolution establishes the Institute under the auspices of the United Nations, with voluntary contributions, to finance research and training programs to increase earning potential for women and encourage their pursuit of leadership.
Family Planning and the Full Integration of Women in Development.--This measure urges implementation of the World Population Plan of Action and calls on governments to provide women and children with access to health services. It also calls for women's access to advice about the number and spacing of children and for information on parenthood for young people. It recommends that women be included proportionately with men at all levels on boards and policymaking bodies concerned with socioeconomic development and population planning. This record of initiative and contribution to seven major Conference resolutions shows the scope of the U.S. delegation's role. Two of the seven resolutions initiated or cosponsored by the C.S. delegation dealt with the integration of women in development. Eight resolutions adopted by the Conference focused on the same issue. I was particularly pleased that this issue received such strong international support. Vany of the Conference resolutions directed the U.N. not to launch further development projects without evaluating their impact on
women. This shows world recognition of women's role in economic ! development.
As a member of the U.S. Delegation to the 29th session of the C.V. General Assembly, I urged the U.N. to live up to its Charter by taking immediate action to eliminate discrimination in the hiring and promotion of women, especially for key policy positions. Three of the rest lutions adopted by the Conference, two of which were initiated by the U.S. delegation, addressed this problem. The resolutions called on the U.N. and its member states to provide women a greater role in international diplomacy and directed the U.N. in particular to set an example in its own personnel policies.
Full texts of the resolutions and the decision as adopted by the Conference are in appendix C.
DECLARATION OF MEXICO
By a vote of 89 to 3, with 18 abstentions, the Conference adopted the “Declaration of Mexico." The declaration, which was drafted by the “Group of 77” Third World nations, states the need to advance i women's rights, linking these goals with economic and political objectives. Regrettably, a negative reference to Zionism and a call for implementation of the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States precluded U.S. support of the Declaration. A summary of the Declaration of Mexico is in appendix D.
1 The United States, Israel, and Denmark voted against. Denmark later stated that it
had intended to abstain.
The IWY Tribune, which met concurrently with the World Conference of IWY, was an unofficial forum organized by nongovernmental organizations in consultative status with the U.N. Economic and Social Council. It was attended by representatives of U.N. affiliated nongovernmental organizations, other national and international groups representing a variety of women's interests and a large number of individuals, many of whom were from Mexico and the United States. Over the two-week period, approximately 5,000 men and women participated in activities at the Tribune.
The Tribune activities consisted of panel discussions, speeches by experts in various fields and general discussion. Along with the themes 3 of the World Conference, the Tribune considered numerous issues and
topics such as “Women Across Cultures,” “Law and the Status of Women," "Population," "Women in Public Life," and "Changing Patterns of the Family.” Organizers of the Tribune stressed that the forum took no political positions. Participants issued statements as individuals or groups but not in the name of the Tribune.
Tribune participants published a daily newspaper as a vehicle for communication, but the distance between the Tribune and Conference meeting places, as well as the Tribune's format, made it difficult for Tribune participants to make an impact on the deliberations of Conference delegates. Frustrated by the lack of communication with the Conference, Tribune participants formed "speakout" sessions to communicate among themselves. These sessions were as varied as the interests of the 5,000 participants.
TRIBUNE AMENDMENT TO WORLD PLAN
A core of Tribune activists formed a steering committee of 15 women to consider revisions of the World Plan of Action. After several days of intensive work, the committee drafted changes for the World Plan. The fact that these suggested changes were discussed and endorsed by a meeting of 2,000 Tribune participants attests to the lerel of agreement at the Conference on matters of concern to women worldwide.
Many of the Tribune's amendments were concerned with strengthening the World Plan's review and appraisal mechanisms. The changes call for creation of a U.N. Office for Women's Concerns to be staffed by at least two-thirds women and headed by a woman Under Secretary General. The office would review and monitor the implementation of the World Plan, investigate complaints of civil rights violations against women, analyze and report on the impact of various U.N. programs on women and issue annual public reports.
Tribune amendments also condemned hiring and promotion policies at the U.N. where no woman heads an agency or serves as a deputy to the head of an agency, and where only 16 percent of the professional
staff are women. The revisions demand an equal proportion of men and women serving in policymaking positions in the U.N. system, and call for a woman Secretary General in 1977.
In addition, the revisions called for changes in every section of the World Plan including provisions for equal access for women to training and employment programs, freedom for women to join unions and the abolition of all forms of discrimination in union organizations availability of family services such as day care, freedom of women to control their own bodies, the right of women in developing countries to plan and decide on U.N. development programs in those countries. and the placing of greater value on women's work in the home.
Acting on these changes, a group which called itself the Voice of the United Women of the Tribune met with Helvi Sipila, the SecretartGeneral of the Conference, to present the revisions and to request 10 minutes of Plenary session time to present the revisions to the Conference delegates.
Ms. Sipila agreed to study the group's request and respond to the Tribune the following day. In her response, Ms. Sipila complimented Tribune participants for their efforts, especially the revisions to the World Plan. She declined the request for Plenary session time. explaining that the Conference Management Committee could not set a precedent by graniing floor time to a group not accredited to the Conference. Instead, she suggested that Tribune participants urge their own governments to implement the World Plan of Action as approved by the Conference.
U.S. DELEGATION ACTIVITIES
The U.S. delegation made three official appearances at the Tribune. The first, a forum on development assistance which I chaired, will be discussed in the next section. The second was a delegation briefing at which Pat Hutar, Jewel Lafontant, Joan Goodin and Arvonne Fraser discussed U.S. Delegation activities. The presentations were well received, particularly because Pat Hutar announced that the U.S. Embassy would print the Tribune revisions of the World Plan of Action in English and Spanish, and that the U.S. Delegation would support the Tribune's request to present its suggested changes in the World Plan to the Conference. The third activity was an appearance by Congresswoman Bella Abzug, a U.S. congressional adviser, who delivered a forceful and provocative statement on “Women Power in the Future".
OPEN FORUM ON DEVELOPMENTAL ASSISTANCE
During my stay in Mexico City, I chaired an open forum on Developmental Assistance at the Tribune. As author of two provisions of the Foreign Assistance Act which require U.S. agencies and U.S. representatives to international organization to integrate women into bilateral and multilateral development assistance programs, I was pleased that the IWY Conference offered an opportunity to hear first hand from Third World women on how best to implement this concept.
The forum was designed as an opportunity for Third World women to present their views and to foster an exchange of ideas bet ween Third World women, nongovernmental organizations and representatives from donor countries in the hope that future development assistance programs would integrate women into the economies of their countries.
Panelists and forum participants confirmed that women and their economic roles have been neglected in development planning. Too often, development has undermined the traditional economic roles of women in developing countries. Moreover, development assistance has not reached or benefited enough women who are usually the poorest citizens.
Panelists emphasized the urgent need to assist women who live and work in rural areas. U.V. sources indicate that over a billion women, or the majority of the world's female population, work long hours every day of the year. Their typical day.includes work in the fields, care of livestock, collection of firewood, carrying water, preparation of meals and care of children. These women need development assist ance programs to ease their daily burden and to provide appropriate technology and training to help them increase their productivity.
Panelists also agreed that illiteracy among women poses staggering obstacles to the integration of women into the development process. According to U.X. Statistics, about 500 million of the world's two billion women are illiterate. One out of every three women over 15 years of age cannot read or write. In 1970, women made up 60 percent of the world's illiterates, and as the world population increases, the gap between the number of illiterate women and illiterate men will become even wider. Because basic literacy skills are a key to training programs, developmental assistance must give literacy training for women high priority.
Forum participants, however, noted that literacy training alone would be an exercise in futility. Unless development assistance also helps rural women overcome their heavy workloads, poor health, malnutrition and constant pregnancies, physical exhaustion will rob these women of the interest and energy needed to improve themselves and acquire basic skills.
Although some Forum participants disagreed, citing the elitist nature of international nongovernmental organizations, the panelists