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enforcement agencies. Because of it, they can and must-protect the identity and often the life of their informant. But, because there is little accountability, they have the unique capability, when convenient, to cover up their own failures, their own shortcomings, their own enmities and their own arrogance.

By the nature of dealing with undercover informants, the Government must usually do business with persons of questionable moral fiber. Law abiding citizens, for instance, rarely come upon informațion that might result in Government agents seizing 100 kilograms of heroin. Information of this type more frequently comes from individuals who, either directly or indirectly, are themselves engaged in drug or other illegal ventures.

Informants, even those in crime, may be motivated by the desire to help society or to cleanse a guilty conscience. They may be motivated by a desire to avenge past wrongs. But most of the time they are motiPated by the prospect of a reward. For a price some are willing to betray friends and associates.

By the same token, however, sometimes the informant's motivation is not altogether internal. Sometimes—at least from the point of view of the informant—he may have been coaxed into his undercover assignment. He may have given authorities a small tip about a small crime and then the authorities want a bigger tip from him about a bigger crime. Agents may offer rewards that never materialize, or that, when given, are not as large as were promised. Conversely, the informant may insist no payment is large enough for the risk he encountered and will demand more and more money. Thus, the relationship between the Federal agency and the informant is tenuous at best. Ironically, it is a relationship built on trust. Yet many informants are untrustworthy. They are selling out trusting associates for a price. Agents know this and must act accordingly. Government operatives who buy information from informants are engaged in dangerous and sensitive work. They perform an important service for their Government. Yet informants also work for the Government. They also perform a service but they have no practical avenue of appeal if they feel they have been wronged. Informants have no recourse but to accept whatever payment for their services Federal agencies decide to give them, for fear of being exposed.

When a law enforcement agency engages an informant, that agency functions in an environment in which there is almost total lack of accountability. For there is little control over the way the agency. its executives and its agents in the field use undercover informants. And. under ordinary circumstances, they do not answer to anyone about the way informants use them.

If, due to an informant's information, an arrest is made or a major heroin seizure is executed, the informant's role must be concealed. For the informant's protection and possibly future use, it must be

But if an arrest is bungled, if the heroin seizure is foiled due to an error of the agency, that agency is not always held accountable because of the clandestine nature of its work. It is conceivable that in a given unsuccessful police effort, only the informant and the agency with which he has worked know whether professional incompetence caused the failure. The lack of accountability is a double-edged sword for Federal law

that

way.

XIX. APPENDIX

CHRONOLOGY

January 16, 1972.-Canadian racketeer Conrad Bouchard was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on heroin smuggling charges. Prior to this time Peroff was criminally involved with Bouchard in stolen securities and comterfeit money transactions. Peroff had known Bouchard since 1970.

March 1.), 1972.-Frank Peroll went to the New York office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation with information about a counterfeit money plot in England. The FBI referred Peroff to the Secret Service office in New York where Peroti

' showed agents a bogus $50 bill and said it was part of a large collection of counterfeit currency being maintained in London by John Sidney Barnes. It was on this occasion that Peroff offered to help the Secret Service locate the plant where the counterfeit money was being printed.

March 24, 1972.-Harris J. Martin, at this time head of the counterfeit section of the Secret Service, and Frank Leyva, Chief of European operations for the Secret Service, met in London with Frank Peroff at which time Peroff provided information regarding the alleged counterfeiter, John Sidney Barnes. It was also at this meeting that Peroff was put in contact with Scotland Yard.

March 27, 1972.-Frank Peroff called Frank Leyva of the Secret Service to say that he no longer wished to cooperate with Scotland Yard in the Barnes counterfeit inquiry.

Ipril 30, 1972.Peroff came to Leyva's office in Paris and displayed a counterfeit $100 bill. Peroff identified the note as being part of a collection of counterfeit currency held by John Sidney Barnes and a Barnes'associate named Keith Jeffries.

May 11, 1972.–Peroff met in a Paris hotel with Leyva at which time the Barnes counterfeit case was discussed.

Jay 18, 1972.- Peroff, now in Sweden, called Frank Leyva in Paris to say that he was spending considerable amounts of his own money in connection with the Barnes counterfeit case. Peroff told Leyvaihe would visit him in Paris to work out "financial arrangements" with the Secret Service. Leyva said there would be no such talks since the Secret Service policy was that payments were made on a l'award basis.

Summer of 1972.- The Peroff family took up residence in Rome in a large house at 16 Via Barballo.

Early January 1973.-Peroff had a chance meeting with a man in front of the Excelsior Hotel in Rome. The man, known to Perot as Louis

, was an employee of Conrad Bouchard. Louis arranged for Bouchard and Peroff to cliseuss business in a series of long distance telephone calls between Peroff in Rome and Bouchard in Montreal.

43-085--75-14

During these conversations Bouchard introduced Peroff to a man Bouchard identified as Tom Solarik.

Midl-January 1973.-Peroff met in Rome with the man identified by Bouchard as Tom Solarik and another man Solarik identified as being named Mike Silverman. Solarik and Silverman agreed to enter into an arrangement with Peroff in which Peroff would sell for them a half-million dollars in counterfeit $100 and $50 bills.

January 21, 1973.—Peroff, calling from Rome, telephoned the Secret Service office in Paris to say he had $500,000 in counterfeit money and he was trying to obtain $2 million more. The call was taken by Frank Levva.

January 22, 1973.Peroff, still in Rome, called Leyva again. Leyva told Peroff to contact Customs Attache Mario Cozzi at the American Embassy in Rome. Peroff told Cozzi about the counterfeit money and about other illicit activities including procedures followed by persons who were able to obtain fraudulent Panamanian and Canadian passports. Cozzi had Peroff fly to London to gather more information on the passport question. Then Peroff was directed to fly to Paris where he checked into a hotel near the American Embassy Annex, D Building

January 25, 1973.-Peroff turned over to Cozzi $438,750 in bogus $100 and $50 bills. Peroff indicated that the counterfeit money had been given to him on a "consignment basis" by Solarik and Silverman.

Februry 1, 197.3.-Customs Attache Mario Cozzi sent a wire to the Paris offices of the Secret Service and the BXDD in which he reported the existence of two waurants on Frank Peroff issued in Florida on bail check charges. Copies of the wire were also sent to the Washington offices of Customs, BÝDD) and the Secret Service. Cozzi also notified Antonio Delfino, Assistant Chief of the Rome office of Interpol, of the two Warrants on Peroff.

February of 1973.—Peroff met with Leyva and Vernon Pitsker and George Corcoran of the Customs Service and with agents of the Burean of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. The talks went on for the next two days. The agents informed Peroff that Solarik and Silverman had come to Europe primarily to buy narcotics and that passing counterfeit currency was a secondary goal. The agents enlisted Peroff as an informant and asked him to try and penetrate the alleged drug conspiruer. Peroff became actively involved in the drug conspiracy, reporting regularly to federal drug agents.

February 6, 1973.-Frank Leyra of the Secret Service learned of the existence of the outstanding warrants on Peroff from Florida in . connection with two bad checks. Leyva raised the subject of warrants withi Peroff but he did not tell Peroff that he knew of the two Florida Warrants. Peroff denied any warrants were outstanding on him but later acknowledged that if such warrants were outstanding they were based on a "misunderstanding" and that Peroff had already "Straightened that out."

February 8, 1973.-French police, working with U.S. Customs and BXDD agents and using information supplied by Frank Peroff, seized 10 kilograms of heroin and arrested Thomas Solarik, Nikolaye (Mike) Silbermann and Werner (the Kraut) Patek in a raid on Solarik's room in the Hotel Rome at 18 Rue de Constantinople, Paris. Also ar

rested in connection with the heroin seizure was a Hungarian woman, Julia Kovacz Szige, who was identified by officials as being Silbermann's girlfriend. Another man, Kalev Amon, a Turk traveling under a Canadian passport, was also suspected of being part of the heroin plot and was believed to have returned to Montreal.

February 9, 1973.- A cable was sent from the American Embassy in Paris to the Washington headquarters of BNDD and U.S. Customs in which a summary of the previous day's heroin arrest was given and in which it was stated that Peroff, under the code name SXA-30004, would receive a reward for his role in the heroin seizures of $3,000 from BNDD and $3,000 from Customs. A Secret Service check for $1,623 was sent to Frank Leyva to be given to Frank Peroff as a reward for working on the Solarik-Silverman counterfeit case. This sum, together with the $3,000 each given to Peroff by Customs and BNDD, brought his total reward money for this case to $7,623.

February 14, 1973.—Richard A. Falanga, a Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs agent, wrote an account of the Solarik-Silverman heroin case in which he attributed considerable credit for the narcotics arrest to the undercover informant work of Frank Peroff. BNDD agent Falanga identified Peroff in his report as "SX1-3-0001."

February 1973.-Peroff met with Cozzi, John J. Molittieri and Vernon Pitsker, all of Customs, and Richard Falanga of BNDD in Rome. The agents enlisted Peroff in another drug inquiry. This inquiry would require Peroff to travel to Montreal, meet with the Canadian racketeer, Conrad Bouchard, and seek to find out from him if the Solarik-Silverman narcotics seizure in Paris had wiped out the entire shipment. If there was more heroin than that which was seized, the agents wanted Peroff to find out about it. The agents also coordinated Peroff's activities in Montreal with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

February 15, 1973.—Peroff, under orders from federal drug agents, flew from Rome to Montreal.

February 15-27. 1973,-Peroff was in Montreal meeting with Conrad Bouchard and others concerning a plan to have Peroff in his private jet. Hy into Marseilles, France, visit a secret heroin laboratory, pick up a shipment of the drug and smuggle it into the United States or Canada.

February 27, 1973.—Peroff returned to Rome. Peroff testified that federal agents were enthusiastic about the opportunity to find the secret heroin facility in Marseilles. In return for serving as an undercover agent in this proposed heroin plot, federal drug agents told Peroff he would receive a substantial reward. Peroff testified that the amount of the reward offered him was $250,000. Peroff testified that on the basis of that offer and because the agents threatened to expose him as the informant on the Solarik-Silverman counterfeit case, he was persuaded to enter into this new inquiry as an undercover agent.

March 16, 1973.—The Peroff family, following the directions of federal drug agents, flew from Rome to New York. Unknown to American officials were $10,000 in unpaid bills the Peroffs left behind in

March 16, 1973.The Peroff family arrived in New York at the John F. Kennedy Airport where they were met by Customs agent

Rome.

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