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Table II. (cont.). List of Agreement Nations and their NPT Status
** Superseding, research and power agreement in abeyance; U.S. material by IAEA (NPT) safeguards and Greek "peaceful uses" guarantees.
*** In abeyance.
Atomic Energy Agency and two with EURATOM. *
Table II lists these
agreements by type and expiration date, and the adherence of agreement
nations to the Non Proliferation Treaty.
Note that France is not on the list of nations with agreements with the
The French were party to an agreement for research and
development which was terminated in 1966, the same year that France with
drew from NATO.
Comparative contents of agreements
The provisions of the agreements for cooperation can be divided into
(1) measures to permit the transfer and use of nuclear
information, materials, parts and facilities; and (2) measures to prevent the improper or illicit use of items supplied by the United States. In some
agreements the United States is also committed to similar measures to pre
vent misuse of items transferred from the agreement nation to the United
Concerning transfer of nuclear science and technology, the agreements
typically specify the intention of the parties to cooperate in civil use of nu
clear energy and include provisions for:
--exchange of information,
--transfer of materials,
--access to facilities,
--cooperation between commercial organizations and persons,
* EURATOM is a regional, multinational nuclear organization that is part of the European Economic Community.
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--supply of enriched uranium and other special nuclear materials,
-- reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel, and
--title to special nuclear materials produced from U. S. -supplied
As for limitations and controls, the agreements include guarantees not
to use transferred items for nuclear weapons or military purposes, to use
them for civil purposes, and provisions for safeguards by the United States
or the International Atomic Energy Agency. Table III lists the major pro
visions of three typical agreements, one with Portugal for research and
power, one with Indonesia for research only, and one with the United Kingdom for power only. A detailed identification of provisions of agreements
* Congress in writing the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and the revision in 1954 defined three categories of nuclear materials affected by the legislation. The categories are source materials, special nuclear materials and byproduct materials which are defined as follows in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended:
"The term 'source material' means (1) uranium, thorium, or any other material which is determined by the Commission to be source material; or(2) ores containing one or more of the foregoing materials, in such concentration as the Commission may by regulation determine from time to time.
"The term 'special nuclear material' means (1) plutonium, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material which the Commission determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or (2) any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing, but does not include source material.
"'The term 'byproduct material' means any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear material,
Note that under the first two definitions, the Commission (now the Energy Research and Development Administration) can add other items to these categories.
access to facilities Responsibility of
receiving party Cooperation between
persons Materials for civil
power applications Supply of SNM other than
enriched uranium Enrichment of uranium
supplied Limitations on quantity of
enriched uranium Reprocessing of fuel, alter
ation of fuel elements Produced SNM--title