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power. The U.S. agreements for cooperation have obtained for the United
States unique concessions from other sovereign nations, particularly the
right to send our inspectors or those of the International Atomic Energy
Agency into an agreement country to inspect use of U.S. -supplied materials
The agreements have provided a framework for growing exports by the
U.S. nuclear industry, and a channel for U.S. influence through our supply
of enriched uranium by lease, sale, or contracts for enrichment services.
On the other hand, the agreements have not been a sure way of influencing
nations that would wish to make muclear weapons or that would permit their
nuclear industries to export products or technology that the United States
considers to be undesirable.
The times and conditions have changed substantially from 1955 when
the agreements were authorized until today when many nations have nuclear
powerplants, some have factories that can produce nuclear materials suit
able for weapons, and others have industries capable of exporting nuclear
powerplants and the technology and equipment for nuclear fuel material pro
The times seem likely to change as much during the coming two
Therefore, at issue for Congress is how the agreements function today,
how well they are likely to function for the years ahead, and what is to be
expected of them in support of national policy to limit proliferation.
Effects of the agreements upon proliferation
Judging the effects of U.S. agreements for cooperation upon prolifer
ation is uncertain at best and disagreement by other analysts is as likely
and conditions, subject to limitations arising from shortages or other limi
The agreements with Australia, Italy, and South Africa do not, how
ever, provide for the transfer of equipment and devices,
U. S. supply of enriched uranium and other special nuclear material
The research and power agreements all commit the United States to provide enriched uranium or enrichment services and, in some cases, other special nuclear materials. Some agreements commit the United States to supply normal uranium if this is not available to the other nation for
Transfers of enriched uranium are to be under agreed upon terms
and conditions and the transferred materials are limited to research and
power use. Suitable research uses mentioned in agreements include reactor
experiments, and reactors for research, materials testing, experimental,
scientific and industrial uses.
The uranium supplied may be enriched up
to twenty percent. However part of the uranium may be enriched to more than 20 percent if ERDA determines there is a technical or economic justifi
The amount of enriched uranium transferred may not exceed that
necessary to fuel the reactors or reactor experiments involved plus an addi
tional quatity that
determined by the parties to be necessary for the
efficient and continuous operation.
Upon the request of a recipient nation,
ERDA may sell enriched uranium to a recipient nation under agreed terms
When the recipient nation is ready to contract for enrich
ment services, the United States assures it of equitable access with other
purchasers to available U.S. capacity which has not already been allocated.
The preceding provisions appear in the agreements with Austria,
Portugal, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland and
Thailand. The agreements with Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Finland, Italy,
Norway and the Philippines in addition commit the United States to supply
normal uranium for enrichment upon terms and conditions to be agreed,
including fuel for maritime appreciations in Argentina.
The agreement with Norway additionally provides for ERDA to trans
fer up to 10 kilograms of enriched uranium-233 under terms and conditions
to be agreed to in advance. For Italy, the United States, through ERDA,
may make available up to 8 kilograms of 90 percent enriched uranium for
use in research reactors, materials testing reactors, and reactor experi
ments. Also the Italian agreement permits that government to allow its au
thorized users to acquire title to uranium that it has purchased from the
The agreements with Brazil and Argentina provide that plutonium
may be transferred to either government or its agents for use as fuel in reactors and reactor experiments under terms and conditions to be agreed
upon in advance of each transfer. In addition, the Brazilian agreement allows the United States to transfer responsibility for supplying special nuclear material or enrichment services to private enterprise under U. S. jurisdic
Under the agreement with Venezuela, ERDA will transfer, as may be agreed, enriched uranium for use in defined applications, including research, experimental power, demonstration and power reactors which the Govern
ment of Venezuela decides to construct or operate, or authorizes private
persons to do so.
Terms and conditions and delivery schedules for each
transfer are to be agreed upon in advance.
Amounts of materials and separative work
The agreements with Austria, China, Japan, Korea, Portugal, South
Africa, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland limit the amount of separative work
to be performed by the United States to the amount needed to support the
fuel cycle of a specific installed reactor capacity, (designated in each Agree
The six agreements with Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Finland, Nor
way, and the Philippines contain a formula that limits the amount of enriched
uranium to be transferred under the agreements. The aggregate of the net
quantity of U-235 enriched uranium transferable under the agreements may
not exceed on amount designated in each agreement.
Within that ceiling,
transfers may be made using the following method of calculation.
From the quantity of U-235 contained in enriched
The Italian agreement provides that the net amount of enriched ura
nium sold or leased may not exceed 7,000 kg. of contained U-235.
The agreement with Venezuela states that the net amount of U-235
in enriched uranium transferred during the period of the agreement shall
not at any time exceed 25 kilograms.
This net amount shall be the gross
quantity of contained U-235 in uranium transferred less the quantity of con
tained U-235 in recoverable uranium which has been resold or otherwise
Table VII. Provisions of Agreements for Cooperation that Require
Additional Negotiations and Decisions
The following provisions in a typical agreement for cooperation for research and power indicate the many negotiations of subordinate arrangements and contracts and exercises of judgment and decisions required by the Energy Research and Development Administration.
Supply of materials
Certain listed materials may be transferred for defined applications in such quantities and under such terms and conditions as may be agreed when such materials are not commercially available.
Specialized research facilities and reactor materials testing facilities may be made available under such terms and conditions as may be agreed.
Equipment and devices may be transferred under such terms and conditions as may be agreed.
Supply of enriched uranium
ERDA at its option and under terms and conditions to be agreed may sell enriched uranium for transfer for use as fuel in power applications.
Under such terms and conditions as may be agreed, ERDA may transfer enriched uranium (including inter alia supply through enrichment services contracts) to the agreement or authorized persons under its jurisdiction.
Enrichment of transferred uranium
Some uranium transferred may be enriched to more than 20 percent when ERDA finds there is a technical or economic justification for such a transfer.
Limitations on quantities of enriched uranium transferred
The quantity of enriched uranium transferred for the fueling of reactors or reactor experiments shall not at any time be in excess of the quantity thereof necessary for the loading of such reactors or reactor experiments plus such additional quantity as, in the opinion of the Parties, is necessary for the efficient and continuous operation of such reactors or reactor experiments.