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comparatively strong positions of both countries in nuclear technology in 1955, and a carryover of the wartime partnership of these nations with the

United States.

Definitions

Both agreements define atomic weapon by product material, classi

fied, equipment and devices, person, pilot plant, reactor, restructed data,

special nuclear materials. The Canadian agreement also includes definitions

of production facilities, utilization facilities and source materials from the

Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

An atomic weapon is defined in the U.K. agreement to mean any

device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or

propelling the device, the principal purpose of which is for use as or for

development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device, the

Canadian agreement refers to the definition in the Atomic Energy Act of

1954,

Both agreements define classified to mean a security designation of "Confidential" or higher applied under the laws and regulations of either party to any data, information, materials, services or any other matter, and

includes restricted data.

Scope of agreements

The Canadian agreement contains no statement of scope. However,

in its preamble the parties agree to assist each other in the achievement of

the objectives of their respective atomic energy programs to the extent such

assistance is relevant to current or projected programs and subject to ap

plicable laws of the respective governments and the availability of material

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

Page

Transfers and exports by private individuals and organizations
Safeguards.
IAEA safeguards .
Responsibility for information and materials
Responsibility for safe handling of materials
Guarantees.

28 29 30 30 30

30

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sign or fabrication of atomic weapons or to exchange restricted data primarily of military significance. As for restricted data relating to development of submarine, ship, aircraft or package power reactors, this is not to be exchanged. However the agreements specify that at such time as any

one of these military type reactors warrants application to civil uses, re

stricted data on that type shall be exchanged as may be agreed.

The agreements also bar the exchange of restricted data on specific

experimental power, demonstration power, or power reactors unless the

reactor was currently in operation in the receiving country or was being

considered seriously for construction by the receiving country.

However

there is to be exchanged such general information, including restricted data, on design and characteristics of various types of reactors as is required

to permit evaluation, and comparison of their potential use in a nuclear power

program.

Each agreement also exempts exchange of privately developed and pri

vately owned information and information received from other Governments

which the parties are not permitted to exchange.

Finally, it is mutually

understood and agreed that any limitations to cooperation imposed under the

agreement would be reciprocal.

APPENDIX I. ANALYSIS OF AGREEMENTS

Over the past

twenty years, the

United States Government has

entered into bilateral agreements for cooperation in civil uses of atomic

energy with twenty-nine nations and two international organizations. *

Of

these agreements, twenty are for cooperation in research and power, eight

for cooperation in nuclear power.

Another way of looking at these agreements is to sort them into categories and then see what are the similarities and differences between agree

ments in each category.

The agreements fall nicely into four convenient

categories:

bilateral agreements for research and power, for research

only, for power only, and agreements with international organizations. Providing this description and comparison is the purpose of what follows.

On the whole, within each category of agreements, the structure of

individual agreements is quite similar.

Each agreement consists of about

a dozen articles which set out in general terms the boundaries and con

ditions of the cooperation.

There are, however, differences among agree

ments which presumably represent the outcome of individual negotiations.

Agreements for Research and Power

The United States has entered into Agreements for Cooperation in

the Civil Uses of Atomic Energy for Research and Power with the twenty

nations listed in Table L. A brief comparative summary of principal pro

vision for research and power agreements appears in Table IV. Note that the agreements with Canada and with the United Kingdom are treated se

*Under authority and conditions of section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended.

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