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comparatively strong positions of both countries in nuclear technology in 1955, and a carryover of the wartime partnership of these nations with the
Both agreements define atomic weapon by product material, classi
fied, equipment and devices, person, pilot plant, reactor, restructed data,
special nuclear materials. The Canadian agreement also includes definitions
of production facilities, utilization facilities and source materials from the
Atomic Energy Act of 1954.
An atomic weapon is defined in the U.K. agreement to mean any
device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or
propelling the device, the principal purpose of which is for use as or for
development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device, the
Canadian agreement refers to the definition in the Atomic Energy Act of
Both agreements define classified to mean a security designation of "Confidential" or higher applied under the laws and regulations of either party to any data, information, materials, services or any other matter, and
includes restricted data.
Scope of agreements
The Canadian agreement contains no statement of scope. However,
in its preamble the parties agree to assist each other in the achievement of
the objectives of their respective atomic energy programs to the extent such
assistance is relevant to current or projected programs and subject to ap
plicable laws of the respective governments and the availability of material
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Transfers and exports by private individuals and organizations
28 29 30 30 30
sign or fabrication of atomic weapons or to exchange restricted data primarily of military significance. As for restricted data relating to development of submarine, ship, aircraft or package power reactors, this is not to be exchanged. However the agreements specify that at such time as any
one of these military type reactors warrants application to civil uses, re
stricted data on that type shall be exchanged as may be agreed.
The agreements also bar the exchange of restricted data on specific
experimental power, demonstration power, or power reactors unless the
reactor was currently in operation in the receiving country or was being
considered seriously for construction by the receiving country.
there is to be exchanged such general information, including restricted data, on design and characteristics of various types of reactors as is required
to permit evaluation, and comparison of their potential use in a nuclear power
Each agreement also exempts exchange of privately developed and pri
vately owned information and information received from other Governments
which the parties are not permitted to exchange.
Finally, it is mutually
understood and agreed that any limitations to cooperation imposed under the
agreement would be reciprocal.
APPENDIX I. ANALYSIS OF AGREEMENTS
Over the past
twenty years, the
United States Government has
entered into bilateral agreements for cooperation in civil uses of atomic
energy with twenty-nine nations and two international organizations. *
these agreements, twenty are for cooperation in research and power, eight
for cooperation in nuclear power.
Another way of looking at these agreements is to sort them into categories and then see what are the similarities and differences between agree
ments in each category.
The agreements fall nicely into four convenient
bilateral agreements for research and power, for research
only, for power only, and agreements with international organizations. Providing this description and comparison is the purpose of what follows.
On the whole, within each category of agreements, the structure of
individual agreements is quite similar.
Each agreement consists of about
a dozen articles which set out in general terms the boundaries and con
ditions of the cooperation.
There are, however, differences among agree
ments which presumably represent the outcome of individual negotiations.
Agreements for Research and Power
The United States has entered into Agreements for Cooperation in
the Civil Uses of Atomic Energy for Research and Power with the twenty
nations listed in Table L. A brief comparative summary of principal pro
vision for research and power agreements appears in Table IV. Note that the agreements with Canada and with the United Kingdom are treated se
*Under authority and conditions of section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended.