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The United Kingdom agreement provides simply that specific arrer rangements may be made under which "... special nuclear material required training for developmental purposes, including use in research and experimental re

actors, may be exchanged for other materials under such terms conditions as may be agreed." It is notable in its provisions for British processing

of U.S. supplied irradiated special nuclear materials, upon terms and con

ditions to be agreed upon.

The recovered materials may be converted in

chemical form or fabricated into nuclear fuel by the United Kingdom under terms and conditions to be agreed. Also in connection with conversion and

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The Canadian agreement

commits

ERDA to sell to Canada such

quantities of normal uranium, and to the extent practical in such form,

as may be required for the power reactor program in Canada, and under

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such terms and conditions as may be agreed, subject to supply and the needs

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Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd covering the sale of heavy water for use in

two experimental reactors and provides for specific future arrangements

for the lease or sale and purchase of non-research quantities of other ma

terials under such terms and conditions as may be mutually agreed.

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as may be agreed upon, for sale and purchase, under agreed terms and con

ditions, of materials other than special nuclear materials.

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latter, the parties may make specific arrangements for exchange of special

nuclear material for developmental purposes,

Amounts of materials and separative work

Neither agreement provides for or specifies limits for separative

work. This omission is not surprising in that both countries have focused

their civil nuclear power programs on use of natural uranium for fuel. The

Canadian agreement has no specified ceiling for U.S. supply of enriched uranium while that for the United Kingdom specifies a limit of 2, 400 kilo

grams of contained uranium-235.

Reprocessing, conversion and fabrication

Both agreements cover reprocessing of irradiated fuels and conver

sion and fabrication involving U.S. supplied materials.

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The Canadian agreement implies reprocessing in its provision that

Canada will give ERDA a first refusal of any special nuclear materials

produced from the irradiation of U.S. supplied enriched uranium which the

Government of Canada may

desire to transfer outside of Canada. The

United Kingdom agreement provides that irradiated special nuclear ma

terials of U.S. origin may be transferred, under such terms and conditions

as may be agreed, to the United Kingdom for chemical reprocessing.

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As for conversion and fabrication services, the Canadian agreement

permits ERDA to transfer to Canada * under such terms and conditions

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of conversion or fabrication services, or both . .," and the subsequent return to the United States or transfer to another nation or group of nations

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with which the United States has an agreement for cooperation. The agree

ment with the United Kingdom specifies that under such terms and conditions

as may be agreed, the United Kingdom also may convert or fabricate or both

transferred materials.

In connection with such conversion and fabrication

services, the United States may agree,

1

(1) to transfer to the United Kingdom uranium including its com

pounds in such amounts and at such enrichment in the isotope

U-235 as when blended with the reprocessed uranium will permit the fabrication of replacement fuel;

*These materials may be transferred to the two Canadian crown corporations Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and Eldorado Mining and Refining Ltd.

(2) to transfer to the United Kingdom uranium including its com

pounds in such amounts and at such enrichment in the isotope

U-235 as may be required for replacement fuel and to accept

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the reprocessed uranium as a credit against the transfer;
(3) to permit the blending of the reprocessed uranium with United

Kingdom material; and

(4) to

permit the

re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium in

United Kingdom facilities.

Upon completion of any of these services, the material may be transferred

to another nation or group of nations, or be retained in the United Kingdom

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for uses within the terms of the agreements. Also concerning conversion and fabrications services, the agreement provides for transfers, on terms and

conditions as may be agreed, of special nuclear material for performance

of these services in the recipient country.

Transfers of equipment and devices

Both agreements provide for transfer of equipment and devices, upon such terms and conditions as may be agreed, subject to a ban on transfers

for military purposes.

Each agreement recognizes that such transfers are

subject to limitations which may arise from shortages of supplies or other

circumstances.

Transfers and exports by private individuals and organizations

Both agreements establish a framework for private individuals and organizations to deal directly with their counterparts in the other country. The permitted transfers and exports include equipment and devices, and per

formance of services.

The Canadian agreement excludes such transactions

that in ERDA's opinion are primarily of military significance, makes the

transaction subject to laws, regulations and license requirements of both

countries, and make the transactions subject to approval of the government

to which the person is subject when the materials or service are clas

sified or when the furnishing of such materials and services requires the

communication of classified information."

The United Kingdom agreement includes fewer restrictions.

It li

mits transfer and export arrangements between private individuals or or

ganizations which involve any classified information. Transactions are per

mitted only when any classified information falls into any of three fields*

and are subject to:

(1) a ban on transfers or exports "primarily of a military character."

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(2) applicable laws, regulation and license requirements.

(3) "approval of the party to the jurisdiction of which the person

making the arrangement is subject if the materials or services are classified or if the furnishing of such materials or services

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plied nuclear materials comparable to those of other agreements for re

*The three fields are:

(1) the subjects of information exchange specified in the agreement.

(2) the development, design, construction, operation and use of re

search, experimental power, demonstration power, and power reactors.

(3) the development, design, manufacture and use of equipment and

devices of use in connection with permissible fields for information exchange.

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