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The United Kingdom agreement provides simply that specific arrer rangements may be made under which "... special nuclear material required training for developmental purposes, including use in research and experimental re
actors, may be exchanged for other materials under such terms conditions as may be agreed." It is notable in its provisions for British processing
of U.S. supplied irradiated special nuclear materials, upon terms and con
ditions to be agreed upon.
The recovered materials may be converted in
chemical form or fabricated into nuclear fuel by the United Kingdom under terms and conditions to be agreed. Also in connection with conversion and
The Canadian agreement
ERDA to sell to Canada such
quantities of normal uranium, and to the extent practical in such form,
as may be required for the power reactor program in Canada, and under
such terms and conditions as may be agreed, subject to supply and the needs
Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd covering the sale of heavy water for use in
two experimental reactors and provides for specific future arrangements
for the lease or sale and purchase of non-research quantities of other ma
terials under such terms and conditions as may be mutually agreed.
as may be agreed upon, for sale and purchase, under agreed terms and con
ditions, of materials other than special nuclear materials.
latter, the parties may make specific arrangements for exchange of special
nuclear material for developmental purposes,
Amounts of materials and separative work
Neither agreement provides for or specifies limits for separative
work. This omission is not surprising in that both countries have focused
their civil nuclear power programs on use of natural uranium for fuel. The
Canadian agreement has no specified ceiling for U.S. supply of enriched uranium while that for the United Kingdom specifies a limit of 2, 400 kilo
grams of contained uranium-235.
Reprocessing, conversion and fabrication
Both agreements cover reprocessing of irradiated fuels and conver
sion and fabrication involving U.S. supplied materials.
The Canadian agreement implies reprocessing in its provision that
Canada will give ERDA a first refusal of any special nuclear materials
produced from the irradiation of U.S. supplied enriched uranium which the
Government of Canada may
desire to transfer outside of Canada. The
United Kingdom agreement provides that irradiated special nuclear ma
terials of U.S. origin may be transferred, under such terms and conditions
as may be agreed, to the United Kingdom for chemical reprocessing.
As for conversion and fabrication services, the Canadian agreement
permits ERDA to transfer to Canada * under such terms and conditions
of conversion or fabrication services, or both . .," and the subsequent return to the United States or transfer to another nation or group of nations
with which the United States has an agreement for cooperation. The agree
ment with the United Kingdom specifies that under such terms and conditions
as may be agreed, the United Kingdom also may convert or fabricate or both
In connection with such conversion and fabrication
services, the United States may agree,
(1) to transfer to the United Kingdom uranium including its com
pounds in such amounts and at such enrichment in the isotope
U-235 as when blended with the reprocessed uranium will permit the fabrication of replacement fuel;
*These materials may be transferred to the two Canadian crown corporations Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and Eldorado Mining and Refining Ltd.
(2) to transfer to the United Kingdom uranium including its com
pounds in such amounts and at such enrichment in the isotope
U-235 as may be required for replacement fuel and to accept
the reprocessed uranium as a credit against the transfer;
Kingdom material; and
re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium in
United Kingdom facilities.
Upon completion of any of these services, the material may be transferred
to another nation or group of nations, or be retained in the United Kingdom
for uses within the terms of the agreements. Also concerning conversion and fabrications services, the agreement provides for transfers, on terms and
conditions as may be agreed, of special nuclear material for performance
of these services in the recipient country.
Transfers of equipment and devices
Both agreements provide for transfer of equipment and devices, upon such terms and conditions as may be agreed, subject to a ban on transfers
for military purposes.
Each agreement recognizes that such transfers are
subject to limitations which may arise from shortages of supplies or other
Transfers and exports by private individuals and organizations
Both agreements establish a framework for private individuals and organizations to deal directly with their counterparts in the other country. The permitted transfers and exports include equipment and devices, and per
formance of services.
The Canadian agreement excludes such transactions
that in ERDA's opinion are primarily of military significance, makes the
transaction subject to laws, regulations and license requirements of both
countries, and make the transactions subject to approval of the government
to which the person is subject when the materials or service are clas
sified or when the furnishing of such materials and services requires the
communication of classified information."
The United Kingdom agreement includes fewer restrictions.
mits transfer and export arrangements between private individuals or or
ganizations which involve any classified information. Transactions are per
mitted only when any classified information falls into any of three fields*
and are subject to:
(1) a ban on transfers or exports "primarily of a military character."
(2) applicable laws, regulation and license requirements.
(3) "approval of the party to the jurisdiction of which the person
making the arrangement is subject if the materials or services are classified or if the furnishing of such materials or services
plied nuclear materials comparable to those of other agreements for re
*The three fields are:
(1) the subjects of information exchange specified in the agreement.
(2) the development, design, construction, operation and use of re
search, experimental power, demonstration power, and power reactors.
(3) the development, design, manufacture and use of equipment and
devices of use in connection with permissible fields for information exchange.