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Calvinism," and finally, in Mr. Smyth's present brochure, "a New Theology.” In all these flexible metamorphoses one curiosity is the absurd tenacity with which they stick to the term “Calvinism." If they are unhappily born heirs to a theology which the nineteenth century of Christendom will not stand, no man in history is more flagrantly responsible for this, their fate, than John Calvin. Nevertheless, they writhe to get out of his fetters and yet to retain his label. Great were the powers and energies of John Calvin ; great his services to the Protestant Reformation; yet his great and ghastly failure was as a constructive theologian; and yet, curiously enough, it is in just this sphere that they struggle to retain his name !
As to the heathen problem, to solve which the theory of postmortem probation is suggested, it has been fully considered and fairly solved in the Arminian theology. Curcellæus in his able treatise, De necessitate cognitionis Christi ad salutem, unfolded the true view, followed, or at least coincided with, by Wesley in his commentary, and Fletcher of Madeley in his polemic tractates. Of that solution we have given a tolerably full statement in our chapter on the Equation of Probational Advantages, pp. 343–360 of our volume on The Will. So satisfactory to our Methodism herself from the beginning has been that solution, that we have had no temptation to the post-mortem theory in the past, and none but a very few eccentric and local thinkers in the present have tended toward that notion—thinkers, especially about Boston, who have apparently absorbed it into their organisms from the surrounding Congregational atmosphere.
We are told that this is a revised translation of Dorner; and we are moved to inquire why did not this revision transform Dorner's uncouth Teutonic into pure and lucid English. As if they admired the very unshapeliness of their idol, the translators take good care that it should re-appear in the English wording. Take, as a fair specimen of the whole, the very first sentence that salutes the puzzled attention of the English reader in this purified version : “There is to be a consummation of individuals, [what is “a consummation of individuals”?] and of the whole, [“whole” what?] particularly of the Church, which, however, shall not be realized [“ shall” here used illegitimately for the simple future will ; whereas “shall” would properly express Dorner's purpose and determination that the thing shall be) through a purely immanent continuous process, but only through crises, and through the second coming of Christ.” And so on through
pages of lumbering clumsiness, requiring us to re-read the absurd misconstructions to elicit a meaning; a fault which is Dorner's nature, but the translator's folly.
Sermons and Speeches. By AttiCUS G. HAYGOOD, D.D., President of Emory Col.
leve, Oxford, Ga. 12mo, pp. 428. Suuthern Methodist Publishing House,
Nashville, Tenn. 1883. We are duly instructed, in printed note, by Dr. M'Ferrin, to call attention to the handsome execution of this Nashville volume, and to its low price of one dollar and twenty-five cents. We cheerfully obey instructions. And we add the wish that a million copies may be sold, and that, by publishing works of such excellence, the Southern Methodist Publishing House may grow rich and powerful for good. Times are beautifully changed.
We seem to remember the time when our good Dr. M'Ferrin considered the slightest unfavorable allusion to slavery, in any book, "a fly in the ointment," from whose pestilential odor the said House must be quarantined ; and probably Wesley's works were the only antislavery volumes tolerated about House. And this book, published in 1852, would have consigned the author to degradation and banishment, with Professor Hedrick, from slave land. Dr. Haygood, however, has a ready retort. He can point to the proslavery fanaticism that, at the same time, disgraced the North. So that our rejoicing is properly over the advance made by both South and North in the direction of righteousness and freedom.
Dr. Haygood is a mentor for “ the times.” He does not preach exteusively against the wickedness of the scribes and Pharisees of the olden time; but he aims his sharp-shootings against the shortcomings and misdoings of the Southerners before him. He does this so skillfully and pointedly that a Southerner might say: “ That's personal; it means me.” The response of the preacher might be : «
Precisely so, thou art the man.' In his sermon on “ The New South ” he reads to his audience a catalogue of “unpleasant things," “weaker points,” and “lacks” of his dear South. First is “our intense provincialism," isolation from the world, and consequent inordinate self-appreciation; and here he utters the memorable sentence: “Had we been less provincial, less shut in by and with our own ideas; had we known the world better, we would have known ourselves better, and there would have been no war in 1861.” That is, the war was the result of Southern ignorance and narrowness. What a eulogy on the leaders of that great assault on our national Union !
The second lack is “illiteracy.” The third, “our want of literature;” and this is to us a most unaccountable fact. There is plenty of ability in our South. In oratory and in politics the talent of Southern men seems to have vindicated, and alas ! exhausted itself. But where are the contributions to poetry, to history, to science, to biblical literature, to periodical essay, in our South? We have seen defenses of slavery based on its furnishing the means of literary leisure, and so of a higher civilization; but how much soever the leisure, the literature, or the civilization, has failed to appear. The miserable, Yankee, wooden-nutmeg State of Connecticut alone, the object of supreme Southern contempt, has had at one period, within our own memory, more superior poets, contemporaneously, than the entire broad-spread South through her whole history. The fourth point is the want of educational facilities, colleges, and universities. The fifth is "manufacturing interests." And the orator finally concludes with this home truth : “Our provincialism, our want of literature, our lack of educational facilities and of manufactures, like our lack of population, are all explained by one fact and one wordslavery. But for slavery Georgia would be as densely peopled as Rhode Island. Wherefore, among many other reasons, I say again, I thank God that it is no more among us!”
Skillfully, if not quite ingenuously, Dr Haygood prefaces these frank reproofs with an undiscriminating taunt against “our Northern censors." He hints no thought that these “ censors ever spoke, like himself, in honesty or sincerity, with desire to remove rather than produce reproach; or that they were the true destroyers of "slavery," and so the best friends of the South. Garrison, Greeley, and, we may add, our own humble Quarterly, spoke no words of hate of the South when they censured the wrong-doings in the South. Their censures enabled him to utter his. Had they never spoken, his lips would have been forever sealed ; or, if opened with such speech, lynch-law would have sentenced him to banishment. When these “Northern-censors were asked, Why oppose slavery here where no slavery is? they replied, Because no one there will speak. Dead silence reigned under the sway of the slave-power. It was the “Northern censors” who emancipated both the slave and Dr. Haygood. And he does, in fact, but implicitly repeat their censures; their censures for the same faults, and which they attributed to the same
And until this day it is the “Northern censors that pel Southern sentiment to onward progress. Such “censors” say,
with Jesus, Why do ye not of your own selves judge that which is right? And when Southern men, and the Southern religious press, and Southern churches, come to utter these truths in their full power, the “Northern censors” will rejoice to find their occupation gone. The vote of the last Southern General Conference, making Dr. Haywood Bishop-elect, announces, with cheering authority, that the bold speaker could no longer be ostracised, and the issue of this book from the Southern House declares that truth about slavery is in order with Southern Methodism. The logic of events, the logic of thought, and the logic of conscience will yet compel the utterance of still bolder conclusions in still firmer style.
Many of the discourses of this volume are pastoral sermons, treating not of the public status, but of the inner truths of the Gospel. And these are quite equal in ability and quality to the best in the series. The same insight into realities, the same independence in rebuke, and the same sharp analysis of popular fallacies, are displayed in the specially religious sphere. One of the best of the series was preached at Oxford " during the great revival.” There may be more
“eloquent” men; but we suspect that the South has no abler preacher and no truer statesman than the author of this volume.
Lectures and Addresses by Rev. Thomas Guard, D.D. With a Memorial Sermon by Rev. T. DeWitt TALMAGE, D.D. Conipiled by Will J. Guard. 12mo, pp. 370.
New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Walden & Stowe. 1883. $i 50. Dr. Thomas Guard was, like Summerfield and Maffit, a gift from Ireland to American Methodism. Of the peculiar style of eloquence of which they were eminent specimens Ireland is said to be the home; though it may be said to be Celtic, for France abounds with much the same style; and more broadly still it abundantly appears among the more fervid sons of our own South. “It comes not by much study,” says Goethe ; it is a gift, or a result of a combination of qualities done up in the nature of the man. Good imitations of it may be wrought up by elaborate efforts, but seldom so completely as to pass for truly natural. When combined with powerful logic, or based on a solid substrate of good sense, it becomes true, legitimate, and powerful oratory.
Mr. Guard was born in Galway, Ireland, in 1831, and died in Baltimore, 1882. A marked episode in his life was his mission in South Africa, the interest of which brought him on a visit to America. Here it became clear that the missionary field was not his true mission. As great and greater men are needed in that
field; but Mr. Guard's peculiar gifts marked him out for a metropolitan preacher. His career was brilliant and ever broadening, but, alas! too brief. He ascended to the empyrean before the meridian of his fame was reached.
There are in the volume fifteen public addresses, of somewhat varied excellence, but every one the product of an oratorical genius. They are preceded by a Memorial Sermon by Dr. Talmage, a man of kindred genius and greatness of soul. Perhaps the best of Guard's performances is that on the Sovereignty of Man, delivered in San Francisco at the opening of the Mechanics’ Institute Fair, in 1879. We give one strain from this address on man's appropriation of nature's forces to his use:
“ From the marching season and the timely rains; from the hidden wealth of mountains and from the wealth more real of the generous soil; from the products of the forest and of the ftock, of the field and of the far-resounding sea, man draws revenues and service. Lightning is his courier, and sunlight his artist. Trade-winds waft his white-winged argosies, and snows gather on Sierra crests to swell the floods wherewith his ample acres shall be irrigated. Flowers, by their weird alchemy, transmute dew and gases into aromatic odors for his delight; and change sunbeams and dull clays into hues emerald, purple, and roseate, wherewith to greet his kindling glance, as he moves out to gaze upon an inheritance, over which ‘far as the breeze can bear the billow's foam' it one day shall be true, man's nod is empire, and his footfall law. Silkworms spin for him ; oysters secrete pearls for him ; for him lime becomes marble, and carbon, diamonds; rocks are turned into silver, and plants become coal. Rivers leap to light from lofty fountains in the hearts of hoary hills that, utilizing the law of gravitation, man may make them turn his ponderous wheels and whirl his myriad spindles. The wild fowl 'nurses' the plume that shall wave upon his victor helmet; and the cotton and the flax plant offer the fibers of which to fashion the banners beneath whose folds he shall move forth to conquest, or repose unharmed amid the fruits of his free and honest industry. Force guards him—sows, reaps, threshes, and grinds for him, as in ages past it toiled in fashioning his dwelling-place. Art breathes inspiration. Music reveals her mystic laws to his modulating genius. The block becomes a thing of beauty. The canvas glows with the tints and flush of life. Arch and pillar, capital and dome, spring from earth and soar to heaven, obedient to his all but necromantic touch."-Pp. 296–297.