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demagogues, collected in a common ball-room adorned with red flags and cockades, and statues of the goddess of liberty adorned with the Phrygian cap. His account of his adventures in this turbid and boiling sea is highly interesting.

The assembly was in a stormy mood, but with rare exceptions the authority of the platform was respected. It was on the whole strangely susceptible, for it applauded the most opposite opinions. To-day it is in favor of extreme “free thought," although it is easy to perceive that atheistic materialism has not yet taken very deep roots, for it vibrates to every generous word of an opposite sense. After some heated accusations against the Sermon on the Mount, as recommending idleness, to which was given in reply the text of Saint Paul that "he who does not work should not eat,” Pressensé ascends the platform, and is welcomed by the crowd, who admire his courage in appearing among them on such a bootless errand. His discourse is not entirely free from interruptions, and some of his assertions call forth violent clamor, but he is permitted to go on until the end, and even receives applause for some passages of broad Christian doctrine. He reminds the assembly that the most illustrious representatives of independent science declare that matter is one of the most obscure mysteries, and as no natural force can explain the production of life, he insists on the moral proof furnished by the conscience of the existence of a divine God. A voice exclaims: “Have you ever seen God ?” No, because he is invisible; but I have felt him, and heard all the voice of my conscience reproach me in his name for any evil deed that I have done. I pity those who do not hear this voice; you will hear it some day.” These words were received in silence, and the speaker closed by showing them the destiny of the Republic and liberty if they did not obey the God of conscience, who is also the God of the Gospel ; and left to the meditation of the assembly the words of Mazzini to the Italian working-men: “Apart from God, whence will you derive the law of right? Without God, whatever may be the system on which you lean, you will be obliged to acknowledge that there is naught else than blind force.” Such words, to so wild and turbulent a crowd, were heroism; and the fact that they were quietly received was a genuine victory for a Christian hero.


THE BELGIAN CLERGY AND THE SCHOOLS. THE most bitter conflict now being waged in all Europe is that between the Belgian clergy and the state in the matter of the primary schools. A few years ago the state determined to make elementary instruction secular and universal, as far as possible, and especially to put the schools into an acceptable condition by means of new and practical modes of teaching that could only be obtained through secular and professional teachers. From the very first step in this direction the priests have opposed the movement with all their influence, even to the extent of establishing every-where schools of their own, and forcing with all the authority of the Church the parents to send their children to the parochial schools to the detriment of the state primary schools. In this they have succeeded so well that they claim now that they have many more children in their schools than are to be found in those supported by the state; and an article to that effect has been going the rounds of the general press.

A few months ago the Belgian Chambers felt it necessary to do something to stem the tide of this baneful and obnoxious opposition to the endeavors of the authorities for the public good, and finally appointed a Commission of Inquiry to make an exhaustive examination into the whole affair and report to the Chambers. Said commission commenced their labors with the Province of Brabant, and thus far they recently reported. And this report shows conclusively the pressing necessity of the work undertaken. The facts brought to light seem simply incredible, and have appalled and exasperated the liberal portion of the nation. The commission accuses the priests of the most downright falsehood in word and deed in relation to all their movements, and declares that they have gotten possession of the local press in all the rural districts, and by means of it and the authority of the Church have introduced a veritable reign of terror among their ignorant and superstitious flocks. And never since the Church and the State have been in conflict in this country has such an annihilating blow been dealt out to priestly power as in this Enquete Scolaire' presented by the commission,

The result, therefore, of this first inquiry proves its necessity and appropriateness. And the Ultramontanes in the Chambers saw so well their defeat beforehand that they absented themselves from the session, and made no effort to defend themselves from testimony that would certainly bring the blush to their cheeks. Their policy has been from the first to protest and deny; this they still continue. We will endeavor in a few words to give the substance of the proceedings, from which, even for us, many lessons are to be learned. The chairman of the commission reported the testimony of ear-and-eye witnesses from

about seventy cantons. About five thousand witnesses were examined under oath, and though the Ultramontanes made the universal plea of denial, they had no success in proving it, and indeed did not even try so to do. So bad were many of the cases brought up that the local priests would feel quite as uncomfortable in having the matter brought to Rome as to Brussels. And the chairman of the commission, in his eloquent speech, summoned the party of the Ultramontanes and the priests before the house and the nation to answer for the spirit of rebellion and discord which they had sown broadcast in the land. “You have broken family ties as well as long-standing friendships and business relations. And as we have traveled over the country, and closely observed the sorrow and sufferings brought upon the people by the priests, we here publicly declare that not only individuals, but the entire Belgian clergy, have violated all their patriotic, moral, and Christian duties, and we appeal to the Ultramontane party for a speedy end to this upholy effort. The facts that we present cannot be gaiosaid; will, therefore, the party of the Center identify itself with the clergy? Or will it not rather take upon itself the responsibility of making such representations to the Episcopacy that this body will put an end to these persecutions of the people ? This party must now take position for or against the state and the people.”

"METHODISM IN GERMANY." This is the heading of an article in one of the recent issues of the lead. ing organ of the Evangelical Alliance in Germany, and it will, doubtless, be of interest to our readers to know at least the substance of it in order to see the way in which this important question is treated by the more liberal Christians of the Fatherland-premising the remark that we cannot, of course, expect the "Lutheran Churchinen" of the land to notice the movement with any thing else than disgust.

“At the meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in Basel the Methodist missionary work in Germany was discussed, mainly by members from Wurtemberg, Baden, the Rhine, and North Germany. In view of the complaints made by the state clergy, which were contested by the Methodists present, a request was presented to the Anglo-American Committee that the Methodists active in Germany might regard the parochial arrangements, and refrain from establishing congregations in Evangelical Church territory. The same subject has been discussed in several publications, mainly by Dr. Christlieb, in his monogram on the “The Methodist Question in Germany,' and the reply to it by Professor J. P. Lange, of Bonn. Dr. Lange denies the right of Methodists to prosecute their work within the limits of the State Church parishes, and complains that modern Methodism contains much that is unsound and foreign to the German style of Church order and Christian life. Dr. Christlieb, for his part, exposes the defects of our Church life, the weakness of our large parishes, and the shady side of our ecclesiastical processes in the State Churches, on the one hand, and on the other presents the light

Fourth SERIES, VOL. XXXV.-37


side of Methodism, and its influence and successful activity in England and America and the foreign missions; while he at the same time defends the Methodist missionaries against the complaints raised concerning them with testimonies of their peaceful and ecumenical disposition from the mouths of the Methodists themselves. Dr. J. G. Pfleiderer speaks in the same sense in his · Pictures of American Travel.'

"The Evangelist,' the organ of the Episcopal Methodists in Bremen, discourses in regard to the two last-named publications as follows : *We are glad to perceive that the opinion of our activity in Germany within the parish territory of the State Churches is growing more calm, and assuming a less passionate form. And in the same paragraph the assertion is made that the Methodists come among us with no special message as to baptism, etc.,' to the members of other congregations, but preach only the central truths of Christianity, and make no effort to proselytize the members of other Churches. A full defense of Methodist methods may be found in a little work from the pen of the Methodist Episcopal pastor, Mr. C. Weiss; and here we emphasize the fact that the missionaries iu Germany are not Americans, but native Germans. Now it is doubtful whether the actual practice may always be in accord with these announced principles. For it seems to us impossible for Methodists to work in our midst without in some measure loosening the bonds of our own members. But we are not, therefore, inclined to think that their presence is prejudicial, though we would prefer that they should work merely as evangelists, and not endeavor to found new and independent Methodist churches among us."

A NEW EGYPTIAN “FIND." The indefatigable Professor Maspero, Director of the famous Museum for Egyptian Antiquities near Cairo, is again before the scientific world with some new treasures of great importance to the Christian scholar. He has just made a new “find” near Thebes. He has unearthed one of those so-called grotto or cave temples, mentioned sometimes in the annals of the older Coptic Church history, as being built into the old mummy graves. While digging out a sarcophagus in the interior of Baid cave, a few Coptic inscriptions drew his attention to the remnants of a buried church, the center of which he reached after three days of hard work. Some very interesting inscriptions were now found; among them evidently the closing passage of a sermon directed against the Monophysitic heresy, written in Theban dialect with red ink on a white limestone ground. Also on fragments of tablets of similar material certain sentences from Cyrillus, of Alexandria, concerning the two natures of Christ, together with passages of sermons on the Trivity. The walls of the church were also covered with all kinds of devotional phrases in the Greek, Coptic, and Syriac tongues.

The well-known French scholar, Naville, is now leading the excavations for the Egyptian Exploration Fund with great success in Tel-elMashuta, on the Suez Canal; and he has just made several “finds" of

considerable importance to the study of biblical antiquities. Among these are two statuettes containing inscriptions, from which it appears that the biblical Pithom, mentioned in Exodus i, 11, is identical with the first statio of the Israelites on leaving Egypt, given as Succoth in Exodus xiii, 20. The full name of this place seems to have been Pithom-Succoth, the former being its religious, and the latter its civil, appellation. And going still further, Naville declares this same spot to be identical with the Heroopolis of the Greeks, meaning a magazine or store-house. One of the statues seems to prove this in bearing the title of a priest as the protector of the store-house of the Temple of Tum. Naville also thinks that he has found the ruins of one of these store-houses in a brick wall surrounding chambers closely walled in. He is firmly convinced of the identity of these uncovered remains with the treasurecities of Pharaoh mentioned in Exodus i, 11, and he has, therefore, sent several specimens of these excavated bricks to parties in France and Switzerland as venerable relics of the days of the period of oppression of the children of Israel.

ART. X.-FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE, The famous Berlin Assyriologist, Professor Eberhard Schrader, has again gratified all the friends and students of Old Testament history with a new and much enlarged edition of his well-known work, “The Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament;” with a supplement by Professor Paul Haupt, now making himself favorably known in this country in the line of Oriental Philology. The present issue is about twice the size of the first edition, and the enlargement is largely in the line of Semitic Philology, which has so greatly grown within the last ten years. The extensive glossary makes it a species of Assyriological Commentary to the historical and prophetical books of the Old Testament. This arrangement makes the work a convenient one of reference for theologians even out of the line of special Assyriological study, and will insure to it a large circulation among biblical scholars.

The latest work of the French savant, De Pressensé, “The Origins: the Problem of Knowledge, the Cosmological Problem, the Anthropological Problem, and the Origin of Morality and Religion," is receiving a good deal of attention in France and Germany. The previous labors of Pres. sensé belonged especially to theological controversy and political discussion. In applying now to pure philosophy his eminent talents as thinker and author, he does not open to them a field entirely new; he only acknowledges the newly-revealed wants on the double arena where he has hitherto exerted his efforts. The questions of origin, which positivism pretended to interdict to the human mind, have now taken the first place in the researches and polemics and passions of our own epoch among the Positivists themselves. The theologian, Protestant or Cath

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