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fashioning its possessor into four several persons, can suffice to see all the various Exhibitions, every one of which insists on its right and title to be seen before any of its rivals. In this emergency, ever watchful for the welfare of that public on whose favours so much of our welfare depends, we have determined on offering ourselves up as victims to the voracious demon of divertisements. In a word, in virtue of that “ charmed life” which we alone bear —(and which consists, as the reader is no doubt aware, in our plural personal we) we engage from this time forth, to visit every Exhibition extant, or to be so, and report upon the merits and attractions of each, with as much consistency as can in candour be expected from so multifarious an identity as our undertaking requires : of course reserving to ourselves the absolute right of determining in what merit and attraction do or do not consist, and wholly passing over (except we see special reasons to the contrary) all claims which are not accompanied by these qualities, Be it expressly understood, too, that we disclaim all desire, much more all intention, of interfering with those “ingenious” coadjutors whose Essays on the Drama and the Fine Arts are the pride of this registerial department of our Miscellany; for criticism is what we neither affect, nor are affected by ; and even if it were otherwise, Fine Art is a flight above us, and the Drama is at present a troubled ocean in which we have no fancy to fish. It will therefore be our task merely to glean along the vast field of metropolitan amusement, after the chief monthly harvest has been reaped. And yet so prolific is the soil in question, and so perpetually renewed its produce, that we are greatly mistaken if even the scattered ears which we shall be able to pick up, may not, with moderate skill, be manufactured into as much of the true “staff of life” (e.g. amusement) as will satisfy any moderate appetite. Our readers, then, will be good enough to understand that what we propose to offer them in this new article is a register of those minor amusements (not properly included under the heads of Drama or Fine Arts) which are from time to time putting forward claims to public attention; and that it will be our business to * offer such a description of each as will indicate the nature of those claims. We shall, on account of the time of year, devote the remainder of this introductory paper to some of those Exhibitions which seem best adapted to afford mingled amusement and instruction to the youthful visitor. And first of
Miss Linwood's Gallery—The silly.complaint that we sometimes hear, about merit not meeting with its due share of public reward, cannot be better answered than by pointing to the success of this delightful Exhibition. There never was an instance before of any similar Exhibition so long retaining its hold on public patronage and attention ; and the reason is, that there never was an instance before of any set of objects, the work of one pair of hands, deserving that patronage so well. Ascending a flight of steps leading out of that Royal Exchange of busy idlers, the north side of Leicester Square, you reach a hall, peopled by two silent portresses, who point out the way to the Gallery up-stairs—at the door of which you pay what the fair proprietor of this place would probably find to be a much higher admission fee if she were to diminish it one half. Be this as it may, however, you enter, without any of the prestige of a public exhibition, and find yourself in a long gallery, the left side of which seems to be covered, from the floor to the ceiling, with some of the choicest specimens of modern art interspersed with here and there one of the ancient school. Here you are content to admire for a while the vigorous truth of Opie, the absolute reality of Morland, the elegant want of simplicity of Westall, the rich naturalness of Gainsborough, and the spirited portraiture of Hopner. Presently, however, you begin to enquire for the needle-work pictures of Miss Linwood ; for it is these that you are come to see. What, then, is your mingled surprise and delight, to find that you have no farther to go, for that the objects of your search are before you ! The deception is truly astonishing. Indeed it is almost too much so to be perfectly pleasing, or to admit of your properly enjoying and appreciating the objects before you, as works of imitative art. They are such singularly exact imitations of pictures, that you stand a chance of overlooking, or at best of not duly appreciating, their still greater merits as imitations of nature / In order that this may not be the case, and that the spectator may lose none of the pleasure this singular exhibition is capable of affording, we would advise him, after the first feeling of surprise caused by the illusion is a little gone off, to pass into the small anteroom to the right of the gallery, and examine the two or three pictures he will find there. As he is permitted to approach quite close to these, he will see at once that there is nothing about them in the slightest degree deceptive. He will perceive that every the minutest portion of the shading, colouring, &c. is done by
the needle and worsted alone; and that the work is not touched by any thing in the shape of colouring, after the threads have taken their place. We are convinced by experience that when visitors are fully satisfied of this, by the means we are pointing out, they will return to the contemplation of the great pictures in the long , Gallery with redoubled pleasure. Viewing these objects, then, as imitations not so much of art as of nature, we cannot but consider them as most extraordinary productions; since the same effect is produced as by the pencil, but it is the result of means much more complicated in their nature and much less tractable in their application.—To descend into a few details, the figure of Jephtha's daughter, in the large picture after Opie, (2) has a purity, a simplicity, and a clearness of expression, which cannot have been better conveyed by the original. Again, in the large interior of a stable after Morland, (10) we have all that astonishing truth of character, particularly in the animals, which no other copies from this master possess. But there was a boldness and spirit in the touch of these two masters, with which the material used in these works does not seem incompatible. Let us see how the copyist succeeds in subjects of a more refined cast. The Gleaner, by Westall, is as elegant and refined a version of the character as ever graced a fancy ball in May-fair ; and yet Miss Linwood's copy from its 10) is not a whit less elegant and well-bred than its original. The same may be said of the copy (33) from Maria Cosway's elegant and passionless version of the Nymph Lodona melting away into a stream, to escape the embraces of the god Pan. In short, —not to detain the reader by details which are rendered unnecessary by the length of time this exiiibition has been before the public,-there is scarcely a department of the art of painting, the imitation of which in worsted, Miss Linwood has not attempted; and in all she has succeeded in a way that is nothing less than surprising. In this first long gallery there are more than fifty works, in every variety of style and subject, and all framed as pictures. In the Gothic Gallery, at the end of this on the left, are several admirable works, seen under peculiar circumstances of light, appropriate scenery, &c. Such as wild beasts seen in their dens—two historical scenes after Northcote—of Hubert and Arthur, and Lady Jane Grey, the night before her execution—both of them capitally managed. And last there is a small ante-room containing four pictures after old masters, which seem to be consi
dered as the gems of the collection, but which we admire not so much as we do many of those in the principal gallery. The copy indeed of the Salvator Mundi, by Carlo Dolce (62), is most beautifully executed, considering the means employed. But in many of the copies from modern masters there is no occasion whatever to keep in mind any consideration of this kind. We cannot conclude without again advising Miss Linwood to reduce the price of this exhibition to a level with that of others of a similar class, if it be only that all the world may be induced to visit so delightful an example of what human industry and ingenuity combined are capable of performing by the sole agency of one pair of hands. M. Gaudin's Model of Switzerland. —The next exhibition that we shall recommend to the attention of our readers, is one which is not very dissimilar to the foregoing in the degree of mingled perseverance and ingenuity required for the production of it. It is a model, just now opened to public inspection, of by far the greater part of Switzerland, representing, in a space of twenty-six feet by twentyone, no less than eighteen of the twentytwo cantons; and including every lake, mountain, town, village, road, stream, &c. throughout the space which it takes in; and the whole undoubtedly conveying the very best notion that was ever yet gained at one view of any similar set of objects. We shall of course not be understood to say that any distinct or satisfactory notion of Switzerland, as a country, or of its scenery as compared with other scenery, can be gained by the sight of this model. On the contrary, any original notions that are imbibed from witnessing a model of this kind, will inevitably lead us farther from the truth than if we remained in perfect ignorance, as it regards visual impressions. The merit and value of objects of this kind,-and particularly of the one before us—consist in their power of conveying distinct relative impressions, combined with, or rather combining into, one general local impression. In fact, this class of models may be regarded merely as improvements on the popular use to which maps are applied; and the present one, of Switzerland, may be conceived to represent that country, exactly as it would appear to an eye which should look down from a balloon hovering over it at a height which, by the natural effect of distance, should reduce the various objects to the size they are here represented,—the said eye still retaining its clearness and distinctness of vision. Those who have travelled in that beautiful country will find this model a better re
membrancer than their own note-book; and to them it will offer “a picture in little” of Switzerland itself. But those who have yet to see Switzerland, will gain no better notion of it than they would in looking down from the abovenamed balloon at the height there alluded to. Signor Cucchiani's Erhibition at Spring Gardens.—This is one of those nondescript exhibitions with which our rival “metropolis of the world” (for there are two) teems; but which have not yet become naturalised here, except at Bartholomew fair. It is, however, the more rather than the less worthy of attention on this account—especially as it addresses itself particularly to those indefatigable searchers after amusement whom the Christmas holidays have now let loose upon their astonished homes. Here those happy idlers, the school-boys—the only idlers that were ever yet happy even for a day—may see and hear all such things as they never saw or heard before, and such as will supply food to their daily and nightly wonderment, from the time they witness them until the Midsummer holidays next ensuing. Here “for the small charge of one shilling” (which entitles them to “back seats,” that are fifty per cent. better than the front) they will hear, by way of prelude, a gentleman in a Genoa velvet helmet coin himself into' a whole concert, consisting of six different instruments (or sixteen, we forget which ;) but whichever it be, a quarter of an hour of his lively music, heard while the company (such as they are) are arriving, is worth listening to. Next they will hear a pleasant-looking rotund little gentleman, address them “in very choice Italian” French—not one word of which they will be able to make out, unless their French master (which is most likely) happen to have been an Italian too; in which case they will not stand in need of the very pleasant paraphrase with which the Signora Cucchiani insists on furnishing them, whether they need it or not, and which is infinitely more amusing and better worth the admission-money, than all
the “ Diversions of Purley” put together. “Now lady and gentilmans, I am go to splain to you the preformance of Mr. Cookyany. First he sall shew you some play of cart. He sall make you draw a cart, and ven you have draw dis cart, he sal tell you vich cart you have draw, just de same as if he have not see vich cart you have draw:” and so of the rest. In short, here, every Monday, Thursday, and Saturday, at half-past seven, the Christmas public may meet with a multiplicity of incomprehensible conjurations, explained in English to the full as incomprehensible—accompanied by a very Kehama of musicians, and followed by the balancings of a certain M. Philipe—whose performances, seeing that we have unhappily passed our twelfth year, it would not become us to admire or wonder at in the way we could wish. Thus much, however, we will venture to assure our readers, that if they happen to have a spare hour and a half on their hands, and are not over-fastidious as to the company they sit beside, they can scarcely throw it away to better purpose than by paying a visit and a shilling to Signor Cucchiani and his most self-complacent of Signoras —who, to do her justice, sits in the midst of her visitors, with an air of nonchalance that would not disgrace the most accomplished at-home-ist in Hackney. Ancient and Modern Merico.—The only other exhibition we are able to notice this month, is Mr. Bullock's combined one, of Ancient and Modern Mexico; and this we must dismiss with great brevity, as it has already occupied our attention in its separate state. But it is one so extremely well adapted to its professed object, of conveying a distinct notion of the appearance, natural productions, costumes, &c. of the interesting country to which it relates, that we could not pass it over without a word of commendation, especially as it is one peculiarly calculated to afford that real instruction which is never so effective and permaneut as when allied to amusement.
Orford, Dec. 4.—On Wednesday the 17th ult, the Rev. John Gutch, M. A. having, on account of his advanced age and infirmities, expressed a wish to be relieved from the duties of the office of Registrar to the University, a proposal to the following effect was unanimously passed in Convocation:—“That, in consideration of his long and faithful services to the University, an annuity of 200l., to
commence on the 21st of December next,
be granted to him, on his resignation of
the said office in the course of the present Term.”—On the next day, after several degrees had been conferred, Mr. Gutch resigned the office of Registrar of the University into the hands of the ViceChancellor. The following subjects are proposed for the Chancellor's Prizes for the ensuing year, viz. For Latin Verses—“ Incendium Londinense anno 1666.” For an English Essay—“Language, in
its copiousness and structure, considered as a test of national civilization.” For a Latin Essay—“De Tribunicia apud Romanos potestate.” The first of the above subjects is intended for those gentlemen of the University who have not exceeded four years from the time of their matriculation ; and the other two for such as have exceeded four, but not completed seven years. Sir Roger Newdigate's Prize.—For the best composition in English verse, not containing either more or fewer than fifty lines, by any Undergraduate who has not exceeded four years from the time of his matriculation :-‘‘The Temple of Westa at Tivoli.” University of Glasgow.—In November came on the election of Lord Rector for the ensuing year, when two of the Nations, the Glottiana and Loudoniana, voted for Mr. Brougham, and the other two, the Rothseyana and Transforthana, for Sir Walter Scott. It being provided by the College Statutes that in the event of an equality in the Nations the casting vote should rest with the preceding Rector, it falls to Sir James Mackintosh to decide which of these distinguished characters is to be the next Lord Rector. Royal Societies.—On St. Andrew's Day, the Royal Society observed its Anniversary. The Copley medal has been adjudged to Dr. Brinckley, the able astronomer, of Dublin; being thus the second votary of the science of Astronomy who has received it in succession, for last year it was given to Mr. Pond. The President, Sir H. Davy's address, chiefly dwelt upon this subject. He alluded to the difference of opinion between the two individuals thus honoured by the Society, respecting the parallaxes of the fixed stars, and the southings of others; and complimented them on the temper and liberality with which they carried on their controversy. It is, nevertheless, very curious that the medals should not only have been voted in favour of a particular study, but to the persons who maintain diametrically opposite opinions on several of its most remarkable questions. After the business of the day was over, about ninety members dimed together at the Crown and Anchor Tavern. Royal Society of Literature.—This Society has resumed its meetings for the session 1824-5. A number of new members have been proposed; and several important works, presented by public bodies and individuals, been added to the Library. At the last ordinary meetings the papers read were—by Mr. Faber, on the religion, &c. of the ancient Mexicans; and by Mr. Frazer Tytler, on the intro
duction of Greek literature into England after the dark ages: the Rev. Archdeacon Nares, and Sir James Mackintosh, severally in the chair. Royal Society of Antiquaries. – Mr. Taylor Combe has resigned his office of Director of this Society, on account of indisposition ; and is succeeded by Mr. Herschell, the son of Doctor Herschell, and himself a gentleman of the highest scientific attainments. Improved Cowl.—An improvement on the common traversing cowl for the top of chimneys was copied from a French frigate, by Captain Warren, R. N., and found to answer on-board his ship beyond expectation. It is conceived that it might be applied with effect on shore, in situations where inconvenience is occasioned by eddies or high winds. The contrivance is simply inserting a tube, shaped like a speaking-trumpet, and open at both ends, into the back of the common cowl, so that its wide extremity should form, as it were, the back of the hood, and its narrow extremity terminate a few inches within the mouth. As the wind blows at the cowl, this tube causes a strong jet of air to pass through it, and is found materially to assist the draught of the chimney.—Mech. Mag. New Island.—The Kelso Mail newspaper mentions the discovery of an Island in the South Pacific, by Captain B. Wight, of the merchant vessel Medway. It is in lat. 210 36', long. 1590 40'W. of Greenwich. Its length from East to West about 20 miles; the land high. Captain W. named it Roxburgh Island, after his native country. Daughter of Lord Byron.—The Greek Government has sent over two letters, addressed to the daughter of Lord Byron, giving an account of her father's death, and of the services he had rendered Greece, and declaring that Greece will consider her as its own child. Preservation of Grain.—M. le Comte Dejean, concluding that an essential condition for the preservation of grain in quantities, was to prevent air and moisture from having access, has made some experiments, with this object in view, and with the best results. In 1819, he constructed wooden cases, lined with lead, and which, when filled with grain, properly dried, were closed hermetically. At the end of three years, the cases were opened, and the grain found in the most perfect state. M. Sainte Fare Bontemps, who directed the experiments, reported on them, in March 1824; and from his calculations it appears that the expense of a leaden lining to a case capable of holding 1,250 hectolitres, (about 33,000 wine gallons,) would be, at most, 4,500 francs, and that of a case to contain 10,000 hectolitres, (264,190 wine gallons,) about 18,000 francs. As the grain suffers no loss whilst in the case, and requires no laborious attention, the interest of the capital required would be amply compensated by the advantages of the process. We do not doubt but that, in many cireumstances, these cases lined with lead, will be found preferable to magazines constructed in the earth; the preservation of the grain will assuredly be more certain. M. Dejean's magazines appear, therefore, to be a very important acquisition to agriculture.—Ann. de Chim. xxvi. 109.
Mineral Tallow.—This rare substance, which was discovered in Finland in 1736, has lately been found in a bog on the borders of Loch-Fye, in Scotland. It has the colour and feel of tallow, and is tasteless. It melts at 118 degrees, and boils at 290 degrees; when melted, it is transparent and colourless; on cooling, becomes spongy and white, though not so much so as at first. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, oil of turpentine, olive oil, and naphtha, while these liquids are hot ; but it is precipitated again when they cool. Its specific gravity, in its natural state, is 0.6078, but the tallow is full of air bubbles; and after fusion, which disengages the air, the specific gravity is 0.983, which is rather higher than tallow. It does not combine with alkalies, nor form soap, Thus it differs from every class of bodies known —from the fixed oils in not forming soap, and from the volatile oils and bitumens in being tasteless and destitute of smell. Its volatility and combustibility are equal to those of any volatile oil or naphtha.
On the Direction of the Ares of double Refraction in Crystals.-It is well known that the optical axes of crystals improperly called crystals with two axes, do not coincide with the axes of crystallization ; but, until now, it has been regarded as a general rule that the lines which divide the angle, comprised between these optical axes, into two equal parts, should be equally inclined on the corresponding faces of the crystal. M. Mitscherlich has ascertained that these lines, symmetrical with respect to the double refraction, are not so relative to the faces of the crystal ; and that in some salts, as sulphate of magnesia, they incline more on one side than the other, when no want of symmetry in the crystalline forms could previously have raised a suspicion of such deviation (A. F.).-Annales de Chimie, xxvi. 223.
Hydrography—The English Lords of Admiralty have presented the King of France with a magnificent copy of the Hydrography of Sicily, Malta, and the adjacent Islands, being a collection of thirty-two engraved charts, of the largest size. By his Majesty's command, this work is deposited in the Royal Library.
Surgery.—Dr. Barnes, of Carlisle, has published in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal for October 1824, a detailed account of the case of William Dempster, the unfortunate man whose death was oecasioned by swallowing a table-knife, nine inches long, while performing some juggling tricks in that city. We find in this statement no material addition to what we have already published. Dr. Barnes describes several propositions made by the Carlisle surgeons for disengaging the knife ; but he himself thinks that an operation should have been performed. He says, “It is much to be regretted that Dempster could neither be prevailed upon to submit to an operation, nor to remain in Carlisle. As an operation succeeded nearly two centuries ago, when surgery was in a very imperfect state, it is highly probable that, under the present improved state of surgery, a similar operation would have been attended with success. The many valuable improvements that have been introduced into surgery, both in the operative part and in the subsequent mode of treatment, must give the moderns a decided advantage over the ancients in the success of their operations. Had he remained in Carlisle, even though no operation had been performed, it is very probable his life would have been spared much longer than it actually was. He became weak and emaciated ; but, as has been before stated, was able to walk about the town ; and the stomach had, in some degree, become accustomed to the presence of the knife. The handle, and perhaps the blade also, would be dissolving, so that the bulk would be diminished; and if the knife had not been altogether removed in this way, it would have produced less irritation, and he might have lived a considerable time. There is even some probability that the knife might, in the course of time, have made its way through the stomach and parietes of the abdomen, by inflammation, abscess, and ulceration, as extraneous bodies have been frequently brought from various internal parts to the external surface by these processes, or by what some surgeons have termed progressive absorption.”
Poltaic-Mechanic Agent.—Under this title, in a publication called the Chemist,