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691 Miles

24 gr.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 1. MEASURE OF LENGTH. 4 Quarters= 1 Hundredweight (cwt.) 12 Inches 1 Foot

20 Cwt. -- 1 Ton 3 Feet 1 Yard

This weight is used in almost all com. 5) Yards 1 Rod or Pole

mercial transactions, and in the common 40 Poles 1 Furlong

dealings of life 8 Furlongs = 1 Mile

The particular weights belonging to this 1 Degree of a Great

Division are as follow:-cwt. qr. Ib.
Circle of the 14 Pounds = 1 Stone 0

0 14
Earth.

Used

2 Stone =1 Tod - 0 1 0 An inch is the smallest lineal measure

in the 64 Tod

= 1 Wey 1 2 14 to which a name is given, but subdivisions

Wool

2 Weys = | Sack = 3 1 0 are used for many purposes. Among me.

12 Sacks =1 Last — 39

Trade.

0 0 chanics, the inch is commonly divided into eighths. By the officers of the revenue, and

DIVISION II.-TROY WEIGHT. by scientific persons, it is divided into

24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight tenths, hundredths, &c.

20 Pennywis. = 1 Ounce

= 480 12 Ounces - 1 Pound

=5760 Particular Measures of Length.

These are the denominations of Troy A Nail 2 Inches used for

Weight when used for weighing gold, silver, Quarter = 4 Nails measuring

and precious stones (except diamonds). Yard 4 Quarters cloth of all

But Troy Weight is also used by Apothe. Ell 5 Quarters kinds. used for height

caries in compounding medicines, and by Hand 4 Inches of horses.

them the ounce is divided into 8 drams, and used in measur

the dram into 3 scruples, so that the scruple Fathom = 6

Feet

ing depths. is equal to 20 grains. used in Land

For scientific purposes the grain only is

Measure to faci.
Link

7 In. 92
litate computa-

used; and sets of weights are constructed hdths.

tion of the con in decimal progression, from 10,000 grains Chain =-100 Links

tent, 10 square downwards to do of a grain.

chains being equal to an acre.

The carat, used for weighing diamonds, 2. MEASURE OF SURFACE. is 37 grains. The term, however, when 144 Sq. Inches 1 Sq. Foot

used to express the fineness of gold, has a 9 Sq. Feet 1 Sq. Yard

relative meaning only. Every mass of 304 Sq. Yards 1 Perch or Rod alloyed gold is supposed to be divided into 40 Perches 1 Rood

24 equal parts; thus the standard for coin 4 Roods 1 Acre

is 22 carats fine, that is, it consists of 22 640 Acres 1 Sq. Mile

parts of pure gold, and 2 parts of alloy. 3. MEASURES OF SOLIDITY AND

5. ANGULAR MEASURE; CAPACITY.

OR, DIVISIONS OF THE CIRCLE,

60 Seconds DIVISION I.-SOLIDITY.

= 1 Minute 60 Minutes

= l Degree 1728 Cubic Inches = 1 Cubic Foot

330 Degrees

= 1 Sign 27 Cubic Feet - 1 Cubic Yard

90 Degrees

= 1 Quadrant Division II.-CAPACITY.

60 Degrees, or 12 Signs = 1 Circumference.

cub. ins., 4 Gills =1 Pint

6. MEASURE OF TIME.

nearly. 2 Pints = 1 Quart

60 Seconds 69}

1 Minute 4 Qts.

2774 = 1 Gallon

1 Hour

60 Minutes 2 Gall. = 1 Peck

5545
24 Hours

=l Day
7 Days

-1 Week 8 Gall. 1 Bushel 2218

5
(cub. feet
28 Days

=1 Lunar Month 8 Bush. = 1 Quarter = 104

nearly.

28, 29, 30, or 31 Days = 1 Calendar Month 5 Qrs. -1 Load 515

12 Calendar Months = 1 Year The four last denominations are used for

365 Days

- 1 Common Year dry goods only. For liquids several deno.

366 Days

= 1 Leap Year minations have been heretofore adopted,

In 400 Years, 97 are leap years, and 303 viz. :--For Beer, the Firkin of 9 Gallons,

common, the Kilderkin of 18, the Barrel of 36, the

WEIGHT OF ENGLISH COINS.
Gold.

dwt. gr. Hogshead of 54, and the Butt of 108 Galls.

5

Sovereign Flour is sold nominally by measure, but

37

2 Half Sovereign

13 actually by weight, reckoned at 7 lbs. avoir

Double Sovereign

10 dupois to a gallon,

Silver 4. MEASURE OF WEIGHT.

Crown

18 4 4.11 DIVISION I.--AVOIRDUPOIS Weigit. Half Crown

9 2 2-11 2733 Grains = 1 Dram

273) gr
Florin

7 6 6-1) 16 Drams =1 Ounce

437
Shilling

3 15 3-11 16 Ounces = 1 Pound (lb.) =7000 Sixpence

1 19 7-11 28 Pounds = 1 Quarter (gr.)

Fourpence

1 51-11

341

LONDON : PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET,

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MATHEMATICS, NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, NATURAL HISTORY, CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, FINE

ARTS, PUBLIC ECONOMY, &c.

II.

THE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1858.

LONDON:
KNIGHT AND CO., 90 FLEET STREET.

PRICE TWO SAILLINGS AND SIXPENCE; OR, FOUR SHILLINGS

BOUND WITH THE BRITISH ALMANAC.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

.

GENERAL INFORMATON ON SUBJECTS OF MATHEMATICS, NATURAL Philo

SOPHY, NATURAL HISTORY, CHRONOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, FINE ARTS, PUBLIC ECONOMY, &c.

Page I. History of Comets. By JOHN RUSSELL HIND, F.R.A.S. 5 II. Museum of Practical Geology ; its Educational Objects 28 III. Practical Results of Sanitary Legislation in England 40 Iy. The National Collections of Pictures .

70 V. The Mutiny of the Native Army in British India ; and Dispute between Great Britain and China

93 VI. The Thames and the London Drainage

111 VII. Fluctuations of the Funds and Rate of Interest at the Bank of England .

130 VIII. Average Prices of Corn

130

PART II.

THE LEGISLATION, STATISTICS, ARCHITECTURE, AND PUBLIC IMPROVE.

MENTS, AND CHRONICLE OF 1857-8. IX. Abstracts of Important Public Acts passed in the Second Session of the Seventeenth Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland :Page

Page Commons Inclosure

131 Sale and Transfer of Land Cambridge University. 131 (Ireland)

136 Customs Duties

131 Stipendiary Magistrates 136 Excise Duties 132 County Court Districts

137 Customs Duties, No. 2. 132 Railway Cheap Trains 137 Stamp Duties on Drafts 132 Witnesses before Committees 137 Stamp Duty on Passports 132 | Drafts on Bankers .

137 Property Qualification 132 Universities (Scotland) 138 Municipal Franchise

133 Corrupt Practices PrevenFalse Pretences. 133 tion

138 Oaths

133 | Lunatics (Scotland) AmendJews' Relief 134 ment Act

139 Joint Stock Companies Act Medical Act

139 Amendment

134 Joint Stock Banking ComInclosure of Lands. 135 panies

142

143 Copyright of Designs Act, Legitimacy Declaration 1858.

135 | Copyhold Acts Amendment

143

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