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time most of the descendants of foreigners will be absorbed into the body politic.

The negro population of 9,000,000 includes nearly every person who has any discoverable admixture of negro blood, even to the thirty-second degree. That population has a large birth rate, but also a large death rate, and hence increases at a ratio a little less than that of the neighboring white population. The negro population is not altogether confined to the Southern states : there are about 400,000 in the states from Maine to Pennsylvania, and 500,000 in the states from Ohio to the Dakotas. In two of the states in the Union, Mississippi and South Carolina, the negroes are in excess of the white population ; and in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida they are nearly equal. In general the negro population tends to concentrate in the counties in which there is already the largest number of negroes, and the white population to move slowly into other parts of the same state.

32. Races in Austria-Hungary. In this state race elements are peculiarly diverse and cause grave problems in politics.1

This curiously shaped state (Austria) is divided into seventeen provinces all enjoying extended political powers, and almost all the theater of struggles between two or more of the different races. Some idea of the number of distinct races in the Empire can, indeed, be gathered from the fact that on the assembling of the Reichsrath, or parliament, it has been found necessary to administer the oath in eight different languages. Yet these include only a small part of the tongues and dialects that are spoken in the land. Among the many races that inhabit Austria there are, however, only five important enough to have a marked influence on politics. These are: first, the Germans, who comprise scarcely more than a third of the population, but possess a much larger share of the wealth and culture. They are scattered more or less thickly all through the country, and predominate along the Danube and in the provinces immediately to the south of it. Second, the Bohemians, or Czechs, who are the next most powerful race, and compose a majority of the people in Bohemia and Moravia. Third, the Poles, who form a compact mass in Galicia. Fourth, the Slowenians and other Slavs, living chiefly in the southern provinces in the direction of Trieste. And fifth, the Italians, who are to be found in the southern part of the Tyrol, and in the seaports along the Adriatic. ...

There are four leading races in Hungary, the Magyar, the Slav, the German, and the Roumanian. The oldest of these is the Roumanian,

1 By permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.

which claims to have sprung from the Roman colonists and the Romanized natives near the mouths of the Danube, and the members of the race certainly speak a language that has a close affinity with Latin. They live in the eastern part of the kingdom, and are especially numerous in Transylvania. ...

The Slavs are, no doubt, the next most ancient race in Hungary, although the precise time of their migration into the country is obscure. They are now broken up into two distinct branches, that of the Slowachians in the north; and that of the Croats and Serbs, who inhabit Croatia, in the southwest, and extend along the whole southern border of the kingdom. ...

The Teutonic hordes that swept over Hungary at the time of the downfall of the Roman Empire of the west have left no permanent traces, and the Germans who live there to-day are descended from the more peaceful immigrants of later times. They are found in considerable numbers in the cities throughout the center of the land from west to east, but nowhere do they form the bulk of the population, except in certain parts of Transylvania. Here at the end of the twelfth century a large colony of Saxons was established, who preserved their Teutonic culture, and were allowed to govern their cities after their own customs. ...

The Magyars, who live chiefly in the vast plains that cover the center and west of Hungary, although a decided minority of the whole people, are the most numerous and by far the most powerful of the races. They have ruled the country ever since their first invasion at the close of the ninth century, and in fact they regard it as peculiarly, and one may almost say exclusively, their own. This people is of Turanian origin, but with their conversion to Christianity under Stephen, their first king (997-1038), they acquired the civilization of the west, and lost their Asiatic traditions. The fact that the Magyars are not Aryans has probably been one of the chief causes of their failure to assimilate the other races, but in some ways it has been a source of strength. It has prevented them from looking for support and sympathy, like the Germans and the Slavs, to their kindred in neighboring countries, and thus by making them self-dependent has increased their cohesion and intensified their patriotism.

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33. The race problem in modern colonial empires. The question of racial difficulties that must be met by modern colonizing states is suggestively treated by Coolidge : 1

1 Copyright, 1908, by The Macmillan Company.

The treatment of alien races gives rise to complex questions, some of them of infinite difficulty. The simplest ones relate to the peoples lowest in the social scale. It is comparatively easy to rule over mere savages, especially if they are, like the natives of tropical Africa, far enough away; for in such cases firmness, honesty, patience, and common sense, qualities in which the English as colonial administrators have been preëminent, are the chief requisites. It is another matter to handle people with a higher grade of intelligence and with a history and civilization of their own, such as the Hindus, the Egyptians, or the Arabs of Algeria and Tunis; for the more that is done to educate them and to improve their condition, the more impatient they become at being kept in a state of political inferiority.

Every nation holding colonies will have to face such problems sooner or later. In this respect the Germans have least to trouble them; for their outlying possessions are not numerous, and the few they have are inhabited by peoples who are in such a low state of civilization that it will be long before they can claim self-government of any kind. Many Germans, to be sure, think of the Poles within their own boundaries as an inferior breed; but this inferiority would vanish at once if only the Poles would consent to be Germanized. Greater France contains more subjects than citizens, and the British Empire has some six inhabitants of the subject races to one of the ruling people. Both empires include — one in north, the other in south, Africa — possessions of the kind most difficult to manage ; namely, those where the native population is increasing rapidly, but where there are also not merely a few officials and merchants, but a large body of immigrant colonists. The same thing is true of Japan in Korea. It is in such cases, when conquerors and conquered meet in every walk of life, that it is hardest to establish good relations between them. The arrogance of the privileged poor white or the coolie is more galling than the domination of the official ; and the task of the home government in reconciling the support which it is obliged to give its colonists with its duty toward the natives under its rule is arduous in the extreme. France and Great Britain, however, enjoy, like Germany, the immense blessing of having no race questions in their home countries, no populations of different color: whatever may happen at a distance, house and home at least are secure from the horrors of race war. In this respect Russia is less favorably situated, for her various peoples all live in one unbroken block of territory, though most of them are within fairly definite separate areas. But they shade into one another to such an extent that it would be hard to say just where the inferior peoples begin. From top to bottom there is no such gap as there is between the American and the negro.

Of all countries, the United States is afflicted with the most complicated race problems. The Filipinos and the Hawaiians are indeed far away, and America could get along pretty well without them; but inside her own borders are populations whose presence brings with it difficulties that tax all the wisdom of her statesmen and make every demand on the self-control, not to say the generosity, of her citizens. Of these populations, only an insignificant fraction represents the original dispossessed inhabitants; the vast majority have inherited an even worse grievance, for they are the descendants of imported slaves. The proper treatment of these people is a matter of momentous importance for the future of the republic.

34. The destiny of races. Brinton discusses the indications that inferior races are disappearing, and comments on the rapid increase of the Eurafrican race.

Beginning at home; we may first inquire concerning the American race. The question, Are the Indians dying out? was investigated some years ago by learned authorities at Washington, who announced the cheerful result that, contrary to the universal opinion, the red man is not decreasing at all, but increasing in numbers ! ...

My own studies convince me that the American race is and has long been disappearing, both actually, tribe by tribe, and relatively, by admixture with the whites. ... Beginning at the north with the Eskimos we find their number steadily diminishing. ... The same is true all over the Continent. The American Indian as such is destined to disappear before European civilization. If he retains his habits he will be exterminated ; if he aims to preserve an unmixed descent, he will be crushed out by disease and competition ; his only resource is to blend his race with the whites, and this infallibly means his disappearance from the scene.

The Island World, extending from Easter Island to Madagascar, presents the same spectacle. . . . This extreme fatality has received the earnest attention of philanthropists and scientific physicians. Its causes are visible. They are the introduction of new epidemics, as measles, smallpox, syphilis and consumption, the last mentioned peculiarly fatal, and now recognized as eminently contagious under certain conditions ; an increased infant mortality; drunkenness and its consequences; and diminished fecundity in the women. ...

Add to the death-rate the considerable percentage of children who are born of unions with the White, the Asian or the African races, and are thus no longer representatives of the ancestral stock, and we must acknowledge that these insular peoples are in no better, even a worse case than the American Indians. They, too, are sitting beneath the Damocles sword of extinction.

We have been taught in this country to look with something like terror on the teeming millions of China, only awaiting the chance to overrun the whole earth, underbid all other laborers, profit by the fruits of our more liberal governments and nobler religions, and give nothing in return. A few centuries ago a still more dreadful fear haunted the nations of Europe that some other Timurlane or Genghis Khan would lead his countless hordes of merciless Mongolians from the steppes of Siberia across the cultivated fields of the Danube to wipe out, as with a sponge, the glorious picture of renascent European culture.

The latter fear no longer disturbs any mind. The mightiest of the Tartar powers is but a shadow, maintained by the mutual jealousy of Europeans themselves; the illimitable steppes of Tartary and Mongolia acknowledge the suzerainty of the Slavonian ; and the nomadic hordes of the steppes and tundras are steadily diminishing under the same baneful influences of civilization which are blighting the Australian and the American.

Whether this is true also of the Sinitic stocks, especially of the Chinese, we have no positive information. It has been rumored that of late years repeated periods of drought, resulting in disastrous famine, have materially reduced the population of the interior of China, many perishing and others removing nearer the coast. As it is only near the coast that foreigners have the opportunity to observe the people, it is likely that they bring away an exaggerated notion of the density of population in the country at large. It is at any rate doubtful if the Chinese are more than stationary.

Widely different is the vista which appears before us when we contemplate the Eurafrican race. It goes forth conquering and to conquer, extending its empire over all continents and to the remotest islands of the sea. Never has that progress been so rapid as to-day. Two centuries ago the whole of the white race which could lay claim to purity of blood numbered not over one hundred millions, or ten per cent. of the population of the world, and was confined to the limits of Europe and North Africa ; now the European branch of it alone counts nearly five hundred millions, or one third of the whole. In the year 1800, the nonresident whites of European descent were ten millions; now they are over eighty millions. Every navy and every army of any fighting capacity belong to the European whites and their descendants. No nation and no race of other lineage dare withstand an attack or disobey an order from a leading European power. Africa and Asia are dismembered and parceled

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