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I. Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. Charles Simeon,

M.A., late Senior Fellow of King's College, and

Minister of Trinity Church, Cambridge. With a

Selection from his Writings and Correspondence.

Edited by the Rev. William Carus, M.A., Fellow and

Senior Dean of Trinity College, and Minister of

Trinity College, Cambridge. London, 1847. . 305

II. Doubleday's Financial History of England. . . 337

III. A Critical and Historical Introduction to the Canonical

Scriptures of the Old Testament. From the German

of W. M. L. De Wette. Translated by Theodore

Parker. 2 Vols. 8vo. Boston, 1843. . . 355

IV. 1. Sibylle, Eine Selbstbiographie (Sibylle, an Autobio-

graphy.) Von Ida Gräfin Hahn Hahn. Berlin, 1846.

2. Gräfin Faustine. Von Ida Gräfin Hahn Hahn. Ber-

lin, 1845.

3. Zwei Frauen. (The Two Wives.) Von Ida Gräfin

Hahn Hahn. Berlin, 1845.

4. Cecil. Von Ida Gräfin Hahn Hahn. Berlin, 1844.

5. Sigismund Forster. Von Ida Gräfin Hahn Hahn.

Berlin, 1843.

6. Erinnerungen aus und an Frankreich. (Recollections

from and of France.) Von Ida Gräfin Hahn Hahn.

Berlin, 1842.

7. Orientalische Briefe. Berlin, 1840.

8. Reisebriefe. Berlin, 1841.

. . . 368

V. 1. A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to each of the

Consular Cities of China, in behalf of the Church Mis-

sionary Society, in the years 1844-5-6. By the Rev.

George Smith, M.A. of Magdalen Hall, Oxford. Lon-

don, 1847.

2. Desultory Notes on the Government and People of

China. By Thomas Taylor Meadows, Interpreter to

Her Britannic Majesty's Consulate at Canton. Lon-

don, 1847.

VIII. 1. Researches on Light; An Examination of all the Phe-

nomena connected with the Chemical and Molecular

Changes produced by the Influence of the Solar Rays,

embracing all the known Photographic Processes, and

new Discoveries in the Art By Robert Hunt, Secre-

tary to the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. Pp.

304. London, 1844.

2. A Treatise on the Forces which produce the Organic

zation of Plants; with an Appendix containing several

Memoirs of Capillary Attraction, Electricity, and the

Chemical Action of Light. By John William Draper,

M.D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of New

York. Royal 4to, pp. 324. New York, 1844.

3. Nouvelles Instructions sur l'usage du Daguerreotype.

Par Charles Chevalier. Paris, 1841.

4. Mélanges Photographiques. Complement des nouvelles

Instructions sur l'usage du Daguerreotype. Pp. 128.

Paris, 1844.

5. The Pencil of Nature. By Henry Fox Talbot, Esq.,

F.R.S., &c., &c. Nos. I., II., III., IV., V. London,

1844.

6. Traité de Photographie, contenant tous les perfection-

nements trouvées jusqu'à ce jour, appareil panoramique,

différences des foyers, gravure Fizeau, &c. Par Lere-

bours et Secretans, Opticiens de l'Observatoire, et de

la Marine. 5me Edit. Pp. 268. Paris, Octobre

1846.

7. Des Papiers Photographiques, Procédés de M. Blan-

quart-Evrard et autres, avec Notes de N. P. Lerebours.

Pp. 31. Paris, Mar. 1847.

8. Excursions Daguerriennes. Collection de 114 Planches,

representant les vues et les monumens les plus remar-

quables du Globe. 2 Vols.

. . 465

IX. Agrarian Outrages in Ireland-

1. Letters on the Condition of Ireland. By T. C. Foster,

Page

ART.

Esq., Barrister-at-Law. (" The Times'” Commis-

sioner, 1846.)

2. Returns respecting the Crown Estate in the Parish of

Kilglass, in the County of Roscommon. Ordered to

be Printed, 22d March, 1847. Parliamentary Papers,

(59.)

3. Letters on the State of Ireland. By the Earl of Rosse,
1847. .

. . 505

X. Life and Correspondence of David Hume. From the

Papers bequeathed by his Nephew to the Royal So-

ciety of Edinburgh; and other Original Sources. By

John Hill Burton, Esq., Advocate. 2 Vols. 8vo.

Edinburgh, 1846. .

: : 539

XI. 1. Man's best Eulogy after Death. A Sermon preached

in the Assembly Hall, Canonmills, June 6, 1847, being

the Sabbath immediately after the Funeral of Dr.

Chalmers, D.D., LL.D., &c. &c. By James Sieve-

right, D.D., Markinch, Moderator of the General As-

sembly of the Free Church of Scotland.

A Sermon preached in Morningside Free Church,

June 6, 1847, being the Sabbath immediately follow-

ing the Funeral of Thomas Chalmers, D.D., LL.D.

By the Rev. John Bruce, A.M., Free St. Andrew's

Church, Edinburgh.

3. “ He being dead yet speaketh.” A Sermon preached

in the Territorial Church, West Port, Edinburgh, June

6, 1847, being the Sabbath immediately following the

Funeral of Thomas Chalmers, D.D., LL.D. By the

Rev. W. K. Tweedie, Free Tolbooth Church, Edin-

burgh.

4. Elijah's Translation. A Sermon preached in Chal-

mers' Territorial Church, West Port, on June 6, 1847,

being the Sabbath immediately after the Funeral of

Thomas Chalmers, D.D., LL.D., &c. &c. By the

Rev. Wm. Tasker, Minister of that Church.

5. Dying in the Lord. Being the Substance of two Dis-

courses preached in the Free Church of Burntisland,

on the Sabbath after the Funeral of Thomas Chalmers,

D.D., LL.D., &c. &c. By the Rev. David Couper,

Burntisland.

6. The Chariot of Israel and the Horsemen thereof. A

Discourse delivered by the Rev. J. A. Wallace, in the

Free Church, Hawick, after the Funeral of Thomas

Chalmers, D.D., LL.D.

7. Sermon on the Death of Dr. Chalmers. By the Rev.

Wm. Gibson, Belfast.

8. The Righteous Man taken away from the Evil to

THE

NORTH BRITISH REVIEW.

MAY, 1847.

Art. I.- On the Whole Doctrine of Final Causes. A Disser

tation. By WILLIAM I. Irons, of Queen's College, Oxford.

Ever since the times of Bacon and Descartes, who may be regarded as the fathers of Modern Philosophy—the founders of the two rival schools which represent respectively the inductive and the idealistic tendencies of speculation—it has been the fashion with some men of science, and still more with a host of literary writers, to speak disparagingly of the doctrine of Final Causes, and to claim the sanction of these eminent names to opinions which virtually exclude the argument from design in favour of the being and perfections of God. Both Bacon and Descartes had given forth some oracular utterances on the subject, which were caught up and repeated by not a few of their respective followers; utterances which, understood in a certain sense and applied within certain limits, might have been both safe and salutary; but which, when divorced from their connexion which served both to explain and define them, and exhibited absolutely as axiomatic truths, have generated in many minds a vague but influential prejudice against the whole study of final causes, as being either impracticable or illicit. And thus some adherents of each of the two great rival schools, which may be said to divide among them the speculative minds of modern Europe, are found not only abjuring the argument from design, but appealing to the authority of Bacon, the father of inductive science, and to that of Descartes, the model of idealistic reasoning, in support of their pernicious views.

It was less wonderful that Epicurus, and his poetical commentator Lucretius, shoukl bave discarded from their philosophy the

VOL. VII, NO. XIII.

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