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use of gypsum, in America, some years back. As much as twenty years ago, they imported this article from France, probably as ballast, and conveyed it by land carriage one hundred and fifty miles. The article had afterwards increased in use, and windmills were erected for crushing it with vertical stones, as we crush flax seed, and it was found to be so efficacious, that it became the most general resource for weak or exhausted land, and particularly for restoring the crops of clover. All this he knew and remembered, but he had no other information to give. Mr. Coke replied.—He would certainly order some experiments to be made with it in the ensuing spring, but he had heard that it did not answer within the reach of the sea, and this was the principal reason he had not before tried it.
The Hon. Mr. Erskine observed, that Mr. Coke was right in his opinion, that in America it did not answer in the vicinity of the sea.
Lord Albemarle stated, that as objections existed to the use of it near the sea, and he lived forty-five miles inland, he would divide the experiment with Mr. Coke; both experiments would thus go together; and he assured the meeting, whatever was the result, should be made known.
Mr.Coke took this opportunity of commending the cattle which had been exhibited, and of thanking their owners who had favored him by shewing them, concluding with "the Health of Mr. Styleman and the Gentlemen who exhibited the Stock."—Having exhibited several first-rate Merino sheep, Mr. Styleman spoke in their favor, and expressed his firm hope, notwithstanding all their faults and misfortunes, that they had made great progress towards becoming a good race of sheep, and that they would succeed at last.
Mr. Coke here called up Lord Erskine, who had declined the cause the day before, and begged that his Lordship would undertake it now ; observing, that the cause had need of an able advocate.
His Lordship replied, in a vein of humor and pleasantry, which greatly delighted the company, and he advocated the cause of these animals with the zeal and animation which always characterise his defence of the unfortunate.
Mr. Coke now produced several letters from Sir John Sinclair. Sir John had stated the advantage which might be derived from an accurate description of the agriculture of the Netherlands, and requested Mr. Coke would recommend the subject to his enlightened tenantry, who, from their superior practical knowledge, must be well qualified to make up such a report as he had in view. The Board of Agriculture had offered three premiums, amounting to 350/, to promote this object, and Sir John Sinclair conceived that the Norfolk farmers were not only well qualified for the imdertaking, but the voyage from that part of the kingdom was short, and the expense of going over would be small. He stated that Sir John had even strongly recommended, from the great reputation and practical knowledge, and the undoubted patriotism of the Earl of Albemarle, that his Lordship would undertake the voyage. He could not, Mr. Coke said, while he was speaking of Sir John Sinclair, for whose general talents, and in particular, his knowledge of agriculture, and exertions in its favor, he had great respect, omit to notice what he esteemed to be an error of great importance. He alluded to that useful work, the Code of Agriculture. For he could not pass over some comments on the drill husbandry, that might be highly injurious to the progress of that improvement. It was not merely because he had spent a considerable part of his life in promoting this system, that he felt anxious to defend it, but because he believed it to be important to mankind at large. The contrary had been asserted, but without a shadow of truth. Sir John had compared the drill and broad-cast systems, and had summed up the evidence in favor of the latter, in a manner which he considered as rather unfair; and he especially noted the counties of Hertford and Lincoln, where he said the system was declining. It is within my own knowledge, said Mr. Coke, that testimonies were handed to Sir John, in favor of the drill husbandry, and these are not referred to. On the contrary, Sir John concludes that there is some radical defect in the drill. There may be, and undoubtedly is, he said, a radical objection in some soils that are cold, poor, and wet, and in some seasons when the strong lands cannot easily be got fine; but by far the greater part of all good corn land, and all turnip land, without exception, may be thus cultivated to great advantage; and I would not have the contrary go forth to all Europe uncontradicted. Mr. Gregg, here present, who is a driller, cannot but feel anxious to exculpate the county of Hertford from the stigma, if it be one ; but if it be true, he ought to confirm it, and no doubt will do so.
Mr. Gregg said, he had followed the row-culture for thirty years, and had no intention of laying it aside ; he believed he had tried it long enough to discover its radical defects, if it had any. The system, he added, was extending, and not declining in Hertfordshire. He concluded by observing, that every one who had read the Code of Agriculture, and could appreciate the drill system, must deny the inference that had been drawn against the drill husbandry ; and for his own part, he knew the fact to be mis-stated, as it regarded Hertfordshire.
Mr. Coke then addressed himself to the company, expressing Lis great satisfaction at the numerous assemblage he witnessed, and exulted with sincere pleasure at the progressive increase of the meeting; but the time, he said, was wearing away, and there was some business appointed for the evening in the cattle yard ; he should, therefore, propose the health of a Noble Lord, whose character and merit it was impossible for him to speak of as he felt. The Noble Lord had his farm in as high a state of perfection as possible, and the love which his tenants and neighbors bear to him, is no more than what all must feel when they know him, —" The Earl of Albemarle."
His Lordship rose, under considerable emotion, and returned thanks to Mr. Coke with great sensibility, and addressed himself to the company with much warmth and energy of expression. His Lordship gave a short history of his pursuits in agriculture; the employment of his time; the comfort he enjoyed in domestic retirement; the happiness of his surrounding tenantry ; and the utility and satisfaction of a life spent in endeavoring to promote the good of mankind. His Lordship here made a most eloquent and impressive transition to the life and conduct of his honorable friend, Mr. Coke, and reciprocated his eulogium with a just and grateful tribute of applause. The company strongly felt the delicacy of his Lordship's address, who had introduced a most happy picture of his own neighborhood, and ascribed it all to Mr. Coke. He concluded by giving the health of Mr. Coke, which was received with those testimonies of attachment, which need not be repeated, and cannot be described. Mr. Coke then gave the health of Mr. Rishton.
Thes company adjourned to the sheep pens, where several rams were lett, and lots of theaves sold. The exhibition of prize sheep was considerably augmented, and the shearers were employed in taking off the fleeces of those intended to be shewn out of, as well as in, their wool. The inverted hoes, made by Mr. Mann, and which had been at work in the morning, were again exhibited, as well as a Northumberland expanding plough, an oil-cake drill, and various other implements.
On Wednesday, the third and last morning, the company viewed a ploughing match in the park. The ploughs had each two oxen driven by the ploughman on the improved plan, and the work was executed with remarkable speed and accuracy. There were eight claimants for prizes, two of whom were obliged to give up from the excessive hardness of the ground. The plough which gained the prize was the same which won two years before, though then in different hands, and was invented by Mr. Cooke of Greenwich. The ploughs made by Mr. Coke's blacksmith were the next in merit as to construction, and of course in reward. Mr. Coke, and a large party, after viewing the carcases of'the prize wethers, rode to the admirable farms of some of his tenants, particularly those of Warham and Wighton, farms which probably cannot be excelled in management, care, and production by any in the kingdom. In the one, Mr. Blomfield has bred his cattle from Devon stock, and they are exquisitely beautiful, and bear the name of Norfolk Devons. In the other, Mr. Reeve has bred from Norfolk stock, with probably a cross from the Suffolk, and they are also very fine.
The carcases of the prize sheep were exhibited in the slaughterhouse; their weights were as follows:—
Mr. Wright's, of Stanhoe, two shear wether— Carcase 9st. 11 lb. Tallow 1st li lb.
Mr. Overman's two-shear wether—
Carcase 8 st. 84 lb. Tallow 1 st. 6ilb.
Mr. Reeves's, of Wighton, three-shear wether— •
Mr. Harvey's, of Alburgh, two-shear wether— Carcase 8 st. 2>\ lb. Tallow 1 st. 1 lb.
Pluck - 0 9 Skin - 0 8
Mr. Butcher's, of Burnham, two-shear wether-
(to Decide A Bet) Carcase 6 st. 5 lb. Tallow 1 st. 0 lb.
Pluck - 0 8 Skin - 0 7
The above were all of the Southdown breed. Mr. Styleman, in compliance with the wishes of a gentleman the preceding morning, had one of his full-mouthed Merino wethers slaughtered, the weight of which was as follows :—
Carcase 4 st. 71b. Tallow 0 st. 10 lb.
Pltick- 0 84 Skin - 0 8
At the usual hour the party assembled for dinner, and about four hundred sat down in different rooms. After dinner, the «« Constitution and King" having been drank—,Mr. Coke rose, and gave "the Bishop and Clergy of the Diocese." I am aware, gentlemen, he said, that pains have been taken by some individuals, either from improper motives, or from want of knowing me better, to misrepresent my sentiments, and calumniate my views towards the church; but this is no time for the repetition, or even the remembrance of wrongs; I shall therefore leave every thing of this kind to be settled with their own consciences, or refuted by my conduct through life.
The Rev. Mr. Glover then rose, and addressed Mr. Coke as follows :—Sir, when I see around me so many individuals of my own order, more fit to undertake, and more competent to perform the office of thanking you for the toast you have just given, I cannot but regret that the task of attempting to express our gratitude should have fallen upon me. There is one respect, however, in which I feel this regret not only greatly lessened, but almost replaced by satisfaction, and it is this,—that by my own personal knowledge of your sentiments on this subject, by the private, intercourse, and friendship, with which you have been so kind as to honor me, by the honest simplicity of your heart, a virtue which the breath of slander never dared deny you, I can stand here as a man, as a clergyman, and a Christian, solemnly to declare, the experience of life has never brought me acquainted with a man in whose hands I would sooner trust the interests of the church, or who, in my opinion, has done more to promote those interests than Mr. Coke. If we look, Sir, to your valuable services in agriculture; if we recollect the thousands and thousands of acres, which have either actually been brought into cultivation, or their produce doubled, and trebled, and quadrupled, by your exertions and example, who, let me ask, has contributed so largely to the wealth and power of the establishment as Mr. Coke ?—But, Sir, this is not the only light, in which I have ever felt inclined to contemplate the services you have rendered us. The interests of any religious establishments are of two kinds,— they are partly temporal and partly spiritual; and it is in this latter point of view, not less than in the former, that I have ever contemplated the scenes at Holkham, and that I now contemplate the scenes around me. I have seen your improved system of husbandry, not only converting a waste into a garden, and resulting in great worldly advantages to mankind; but, Sir, I have seen your tenants composed of an enlightened and manly and reasonable race of men. I have seen your poor, all of them, men, women, and children, even the weakness of infancy, and the decrepitude of age, provided with abundant employment; all well fed, well clothed, happy, cheerful, and contented. I have contemplated agriculture as a pursuit of peace and innocence, and industry and content, the best guardians of virtue and handmaids of religion. I have seen, by actual demonstration, these wonderful and important facts, that your population has been doubled, and your poor rates diminished one half; that your workhouse has been levelled in the dust, or left without a single tenant to pine within its walls. Sir, I have seen all this, and much more, which I will