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7. No man, though just,1 can merit either an increase of sanctity in this life, or eternal glory in the next, independently on the merits and passion of Christ Jesus: But the good works1 of a just man proceeding from grace and charity, are so far acceptable to God, through his goodness and sacred promises, as to be truly meritorious of eternal life.
8. It is an article of Catholic belief, that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist, there is truly and really contained the body3 of Christ, which was delivered for us; and his blood, which was shed for the remission of sins; the substance of bread and wine being, by the powerful words of Christ, changed into the substance of his blessed body and blood; the species or appearances of bread and wine, by the will of God, remaining as they were. But,
9. Christ is not present in this sacrament, according to his natural way of existence, or rather as bodies naturally exist, but in a manner proper to the character of his exalted and glorified body. His presence then is real and substantial, but sacramental; not exposed to the external senses, or obnoxious to corporal contingencies.
10. Neither is the body of Christ, in this holy sacrament, separated from his blood, or his blood from his body, or either of them disjoined from his soul and divinity; but all and whole living Jesus is entiiely contained under either species: so that whosoever receives under one kind is truly partaker of the whole sacrament; he is not deprived either of the body or the blood of Christ. True it is,
11. Our Saviour left unto us his body and blood, under two distinct species, or kinds; in doing of which he instituted not only a sacrament, but also a sacrifice ;5 a commemorative sacrifice ; distinctly shewing6 his death and bloody passion, until he come. For as the sacrifice of the cross was performed by a distinct effusion of blood; so is that sacrifice commemorated in that of the altar, by a distinction of the symbols. Jesus therefore is here given, not only to us, but for tis; and the church thereby is enriched with a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice, usually termed the mass:
1 John, xv. 5. 1 Malt. xvi. 37—1 Cor. v. 10.—2 Tim. iv. 8. 3 Malt. xxvi. 26, &c.—Mark,xiv.22, &c— Luke, xxii. 19,&c.—1 Cor. x.23, &c. ♦ Job11, vi. 48, &c. 5 Luke, xx:i. 19, &c. 6 1Cor.xi.26.
No. 8. It is an article of the Catholic faith—by the power of Christ, changed—or appearances of bread and wine still remaining. Dr. C.
No. 9. Way of existence, that is, with extension of parts &e- bdt in a supernatural manner; one and the same in many places: his presence therefore, though real and substantial, is sacramental. Dr. C.
No. 10. Or either of them disunited from—under each species—and no ways deprived. Dr C.
No. 11. Effusion of blood from the body. Dr.C.
12. Catholics renounce all divine worship and adoration of images and pictures; God alone we worship and adore;' nevertheless we place pictures in our churches,1 to reduce our wandering thoughts, and to enliven our memories towards heavenly things. Further, we show a certain respect to the images of Christ and his saints, beyond what is due to every profane figure; not that we can believe any divinity or virtue to reside in them, for which they ought to be honored, but because the honor given to pictures is referred to the prototype, or thing represented. In like manner,
13. There is a kind of honor and respect due to the Bible, to the cross, to the name of Jesus, to churches, to the sacraments, &c. as things peculiarly appertaining to God ;3 and to kings, magistrates, and superiors* on earth; to whom honor is due, honor may be given, without any derogation to the majesty of God, or that divine worship which is appropriate to him. Moreover,
14. Catholics believe, that the blessed saints in heaven, replenished with charity, pray* for us their fellow-members here on earth; that they rejoice at our conversion ;6 that seeing God,7 they see and know in him all things suitable to their happy state: but God may be inclinable to hear their requests made in our behalf, and for their sakes may grant us many favors;8 therefore we believe that it is good and profitable to desire their intercession. Can this manner of invocation be more injurious to Christ our mediator, than it is for one Christian to beg the prayers9 of another here on earth? However, Catholics are not taught so to rely on the prayers of others, as to neglect their own'° duty to God; in imploring his divine mercy and goodness; in mortifying the deed of theJlesh ;" in despising the world;11 in lovingund serving God,3and their neighbor; in following the footsteps of Christ our Lord, who is the way, the truth, and the life :to whom be honor, and glory for ever and ever. Amen.
'Luke, iv.8. 2 Exod.xxv. 18—Numb, xxi.8—Luke, iii.22—Acts v. 15. 3 Exod. xxv. 18—Josh. vii. 6—Phil. ii. 10—Acts, xix. 12. *1 Pet.ii. 17—Rom. xiii.7. sRev.v.8. 6Luke,xv.7. 7 1 Cor. xiii. 12. 8 Exod. xxxii. »3— 2 Chron. vi. 42. 9 Rom. xv. 30. "Jam. ii. 17,&c. "Rom. xiii. 14. 11 Rom. xii. 2. 13 Gal. v. 6. 14 John, xiv. 6.
No. 12. And excite our memory—we allow a certain honor to be shown to the images—beyond what is due to profane figures. Not that we believe.
No. 13. Also to the glorious saints in heaven,* as the friends of God; and to kings—without derogating from the majesty. Dr. C.
No. 14. That God may be inclined—and that this manner of invocation is no more injurious—the prayers of another in this world. Notwithstanding which, Catholics are not taught—in mortifying the flesh and its deeds.
PRESENT STATE OF MEDICINE.
THE MEDICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.
MEMBER OF THE LONDON COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, AND ONE OP THE
PUBLISHED AT THE REQUEST OF THE SOCIETY.
"Neque addicta alterutri opinioni, neque ab ubtraque nitnium abhorreiuia."—Celsus.
Jn committing the following remarks to the press, and presenting them to the public, the writer will not affect to say that he has been induced, strongly against his own inclination and judgment, to comply with the kind request of his respected associates.
On the subject of motives for appearing in print, it would be as well, indeed, for authors to be always silent, since the truth or falsehood of their assertions, in this particular, can never be brought to the test of absolute demonstration: and since, after all, the matter, and not the motive, is the thing which concerns the reader. It may, however, be permitted the writer to deprecate the idea of having been instigated in the following animadversions by any thing even approaching to personal considerations. He is, on the contrary, proud in being able to call that individual his friend, who is principally and particularly alluded to by name, in the course of the following strictures; and he embraces the present opportunity of saying, it portends well for the progress and improvement of medicine that we witness the multiplication of its professors in all its departments, who are, as in the present instance, endowed with deep penetration, and actuated by strict integrity.
One word on the style of the present pamphlet, which the writer fears may be chargeable with the faults of being at once too lofty, and too low, too florishing, and too familiar. If such be the feeling of his readers, he must request them to recollect, that those sins against a correct taste, which present themselves in oral communications, are at least more venial than the same crimes committed in regular dissertations. The following address, although originally written, was written for ex ore delivery ; and, the writer, publishing by the request of his hearers, is bound to a strict and literal compliance with their commands.
It may seem a singular mode of commencing an anniversary oration, to remark, that the appointment to deliver the present discourse has reminded me forcibly of the mixed nature of every earthly good. To state this, however, is merely to state my feelings without disguise or affectation. By calling me, Gentlemen, to this place on this day, you have conferred on me an unmerited honor, of which I shall ever be proud : but the satisfaction of mind with which I obey your summons, is a little clouded by apprehensive anticipations, the existence of which will be readily conceived when the difficulty is adverted to, of being conscientious and firm in the enunciation of opinions, without assuming such an air of decision as shall render me obnoxious to the charge of dogmatism. This difficulty is, moreover, much magnified, when I contemplate the possibility of there being a shade of difference in sentiment between myself and some of my fellow members of this Society, whom 1 have every wish and every reason to look up to as authority. If, however, in the course of the remarks which I am now about to submit to your candid attention, in compliance with your kind request, there should be perceived an approach to this diversity of sentiment, it may at least be allowed me to suggest, that the very difference itself may, in some sort, be regarded as a guarantee for the notions I maintain having been duly digested before they could have been permitted to become " parcel of my own mind;" since no doctrines, either on speculative or practical points, could be adopted in even the slightest opposition to several members of this Society, whom the sequel will render it unnecessary to name, without such doctrines having been first minutely investigated and proved, in order to ascertain their legitimacy and truth.
Gentlemen, the uncertainty of medical speculations is a matter of proverbial notoriety: the peculiar nature of medical evidence has indeed, induced in some minds the abandonment of all scientific principles, and a tendency to rest in a sort of empirical seep.