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SEAMANSHIP

BY

WILLIAM CULLEY BERGEN,

MASTER IN THE MERCANTILE MARINE.

AUTHOR OF BERGEN'S “NAVIGATION,” BERGEN'S “MARINE

ENGINEER,” ETC.

PRICE TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE.

FIFTH

EDITION.

BODI

(Entered at Stationers' Hall.)

NORTH SHIELDS: PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY W. J. POTTS & CO., ATLAS WORKS.

LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & CO., Stationers' Hall Court. GLASGOW : D. MCGREGOR & Co., CLYDE PLACE, ALSO South CASTLE

STREET, LIVERPOOL.
LIVERPOOL : PHILIP, SON & NEPHEW, South Castle Street.

SUNDERLAND ; WM. C. BERGEN, LAWRENCE STREET.

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PREFACE.

The following work is derived principally from the author's treatise on Navigation. It is here put in the form of question and answer. There are some additional subjects treated, which it is hoped will increase the utility of the work.

It is difficult, without repetition, to keep the Seamanship for the several grades distinct. The author has therefore thought it best to treat every subject completely, and the following Rules will enable the candidate to select the part he wants. Or his teacher will point it out to him.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY

FOR A “FOREIGN-GOING SHIP.”

The qualifications in Seamanship required for the several ranks undermentioned are as follow :

A SECOND MATE must be seventeen years of age, and must have been four

years

at sea. IN SEAMANSHIP.—He must give satisfactory answers as to the rigging and unrigging of ships, stowing of holds, &c.; must understand the measurement of the log line, glass, and lead-line; be conversant with the rule of the road, as regards both steamers and sailing vessels, and the lights and fog signals carried by them, and will also be examined as to his acquaintance with "the Commercial Code of Signals for the use of all Nations.'

An ONLY MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have been five years at sea.

IN SEAMANSHIP.-In addition to what is required for a Second Mate, he must know how to moor and unmoor, and to keep a clear anchor ; to carry out an anchor; to stow a hold ; and to make the requisite entries in the ship's log. He will also be questioned as to his knowledge of the use and management of the mortar and rocket lines in the case of the stranding of a vessel, as explained in the official log book.

A FIRST MATE must be nineteen years of age, and have served five years at sea, of which one year must have been as either Second or Only Mate, or as both.

In SEAMANSHIP.—In addition to the qualifications required for an Only Mate, a more extensive knowledge of seamanship will be required, as to shifting large spars and sails, managing a ship in stormy weather, taking in and making sail, shifting yards and masts, &c., and getting heavy weights, anchor, &c., in and out; casting a ship on a lee shore; and securing the masts in the event of accident to the bowsprit.

A MASTER must be twenty-one years of age, and have been either six years at sea, of which one year must have been First or Only Mate, and one year as Second Mate, or he must have been six-and-a-half years at sea, of which two-and-a-half years must have been as second Mate, during the last twelve months of which he must be in possession of a First Mate's Certificate.

He will be examined as to his competency to construct jury rudders and rafts ; and as to his resources for the preservation of the ship's crew in the event of wreck. He must possess a sufficient knowledge of what he is required to do by law, as to entry and discharge, and the management of his crew, and as to penalties and entries to be made in the official log; and a knowledge of the measures for preventing and checking the outbreak of scurvy on board ship. He will be questioned as to his knowledge of invoices, charter party, Lloyd's agent, and as to the nature of bottomry, and he must be acquainted with the leading lights of the channel he has been accustomed to navigate, or which he is going to use.

In cases where an applicant for a certificate as Master Ordinary has only served in a fore-and-aft-rigged vessel, and is ignorant of the management of a square-rigged vessel, he may obtain a certificate on which the words "fore-and-aft-rigged vessel" will be written. This certificate does not entitle him to command a square-rigged ship. This is not, however, to apply to Mates, who, being younger men, are expected for the future to learn their business completely.

An EXTRA MASTER'S EXAMINATION is voluntary, and intended for such persons as wish to prove their superior qualifications, and are desirous of having certificates for the highest grade granted by the Board of Trade.

IN SEAMANSHIP.—The extra examination will consist of an inquiry into the competency of the applicant to heave a ship down, in case of accident befalling her abroad ; to get lower masts in and out; and to perform such operations of a like nature as the Examiner may consider it proper to examine him upon.

NOTES.—The certificates of character given by masters of ships must testify to the sobriety of the candidate, and he must have one from his last master.

All candidates must produce proof of at least one year's servitude in a square rigged ship in any capacity. The ships and their official numbers must be shewn in the form in the column of Remarks.

The candidates must sign their names at the foot of every page of their Examination Papers. They must also put down their Rotation Number in its place.

Time of servitude in the coasting trade must be verified by the Register General of Seamen.

SEA CARPENTERS, COOKS, and STEWARDS, who have not been on the articles as seamen, must produce good references from Captains whom they have served, certifying that they are competent seamen.

Men who have only served on board of steamers are eligible to pass for fore-and-aft certificato.

In all such cases, all documents must be sent to the Assistant Secretary, Marine Department, Board of Trade, Whitehall, London, and the permission of the Board of Trade asked.

SEAMANSHIP.

FOR SECOND MATE.

CUTTING RIGGING. Question or Command. How do you cut rigging correctly? Answer. Draw a plan, and cut by the plan.

FITTING RIGGING.

LOWER RIGGING.

Q. What is done with the Shroud rope before cutting it ?

A. Stretch the Shroud rope about an inch to the foot, that is about one-twelfth, before cutting it. It is better to let it remain on the stretch for a day or two before cutting it.

Q. What is done with the standing Rigging ?

A. Standing Rigging is wormed, parcelled and served, wherever there will be any chafe on it ; but no more service should be put on than will prevent chafe, as it is better for it to be exposed to the air.

The rigging should be wormed before it is stretched.

Q. Which shrouds are most liable to chafe ?

A. The foremost shrouds of the lower rigging are liable to chafe from the tacks, sheets, and other gear of the courses, and from the lower yards. when braced up, and they are therefore served the whole way, and in addition, chafe battens and mats are put on where there is much chafe.

Q. How many parts are the other shrouds divided into ?

A. The other pairs of shrouds are divided into three parts, and the middle part is served, and, in addition, mats and rounding are put on where the lower yards would chafe the rigging when the yards are braced up.

Q. How is rope parcelled ?

A. In parcelling, tar the rope well, begin at the bottom, and parcel with the lay of the rope upwards to the middle mark of each pair of shrouds.

The edges of the parcelling thus overlap each other in such a manner,

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