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comforted me, saying, “ Tom, Tom, have a good heart.” When I was holding a cup at his mouth, he fell into convulsions; and at this very time I hear my dear master's last groan. I was quickly turned out of the room, and left to sob and beat my head against the wall at my leisure. The grief I was in was inexpressible ; and every body thought it would have cost me my life. In a few days my old lady, who was one of the housewives of the world, thought of turning me out of doors, because I put her in mind of her son. Sir Stephen proposed putting me to prentice; but my lady being an excellent manager, would not let her husband throw away his money in acts of charity. I had sense enough to be under the utmost indignation, to see her discard with so little concern, one her son had loved so much ; and went out of the house to ramble wherever my feet would carry me.

“The third day after I left Sir Stephen's family, I was strolling up and down the walks in the Temple. A young gentleman of the house, who (as I heard him say afterwards) seeing me half-starved and welldressed, thought me an equipage ready to his hand, after very little inquiry more than “ Did I want a master ?" bid me follow him ; I did so, and in a very little while thought myself the happiest creature in the world. My time was taken up in carrying letters to wenches, or messages to young ladies of my master's acquaintance. We rambled from tavern to tavern, to the playhouse, the Mulberry-garden *, and all places of resort ; where my master engaged every uight in some new amour, in which and drinking he spent all his time when he had money. During these extravagancies, I had the pleasure of lying on the

* The Mulberry-garden was a place of elegant entertainment near Buckingham-house (now the Queen's palace); somewhat like the modern Vauxhall.


stairs of a tavern half a night, playing at dice with other servants, and the like idlenesses. When my master was moneyless, I was generally employed in transcribing amorous pieces of poetry, old songs, and new lampoons. This life held till my master married, and he had then the prudence to turn me off, because I was in the secret of his intrigues.

'I was utterly at a loss what course to take next; when at last I applied myself to a fellow-sufferer, one of his mistresses, a woman of the town. She happening at that time to be pretty full of money, clothed me from head to foot; and knowing me to be a sharp fellow, employed me accordingly. Sometimes I was to go abroad with her, and when she had pitched upon a young fellow, she thought for her turn, I was to be dropped as one she could not trust. She would often cheapen goods at the New Exchange * ; and when she had a mind to be attacked, she would send me away on an errand. When an humble servant and she were beginning a parley, I came immediately, and told her Sir John was come home; then she would order another coach to prevent being dogged. The lover makes signs to me as I get behind the coach, I shake my head, it was impossible : I leave my lady at the next turning, and follow the cully to know how to fall in his way on another occasion. Be. sides good offices of this nature, I writ all my mistress's love-letters; some from a lady that saw such a gentleman at such a place in such a coloured coat, some shewing the terror she was in of a jealous old husband, others explaining that the severity of her parents was such (though her fortune was settled) that she was willing to run away with such a one,

* The New Exchange was situated between Durham-yard and York-buildings in the Strand. It was the fashionable mart of millinery wares till 1737, when it was taken down, and dwelling-houses erected on the spot.

though she knew he was but a younger brother. In a word, my half education and love of idle books, made me outwrite all that made love to her by way of epistle ; and as she was extremely cunning, she did well enough in company by a skilful affectation of the greatest modesty. In the midst of all this I was surprised with a letter from her, and a ten pound vote.


“ You will never see me more, I am married to a very cunning country gentleman, who might possibly guess something if I kept you still; therefore farewell.”

When this place was lost also in marriage, I was resolved to go among quite another people, for the future, and got in butler to one of those families where there is a coach kept, three or four servants, a clean house, and a good general outside upon a small estate. Here I lived very comfortably for some time, until I unfortunately found my master, the very gravest man alive, in the garret with the chambermaid. I knew the world too well to think of staying there ; and the next day pretended to have received a letter out of the country that my father was dying, and got my discharge with a bounty for my discretion.

- The next I lived with was a peevish single man, whom I stayed with for a year and a half. Most part of the time I passed very easily; for when I began to know him, I minded no more, than he meant, what he said ; so that one day in a good humour he said, “ I was the best man he ever had, by my want of respect to him.”

· These, sir, are the chief occurrences of my life, and I will not dwell upon very many other places I

have been in, where I have been the strangest fellow
in the world, where nobody in the world had such ser-
vants as they, where sure they were the unluckiest
people in the world in servants, and so forth. All I
mean by this representation is, to shew you that we
poor servants are not (what you called us too generally)
all rogues; but that we are what we are, according to
the example of our superiors. In the family I am now
in, I am guilty of no one sin but lying ; which I do
with a grave face in my gown and staff every day I
live, and almost all day long, in denying my lord to
impertinent suitors, and my lady to unwelcome visi-
tants. But, sir, I am to let you know that I am,
when I can get abroad, a leader of the servants : I
am he that keeps time with beating my cudgel against
the boards in the gallery at an opera; I am he that
am touched so properly at a tragedy, when the peo-
ple of quality are staring at one another during the
most important incidents. When you hear in a
crowd a cry in the right place, a hum where the
point is touched in a speech, or a huzza set up where
it is the voice of the people ; you may conclude it is
begun or joined by,

Your more than humble servant,


N° 97. THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 1711,

Projecere animas

VIRG. Æn. vi. 436. They prodigally threw their lives away. AMONG the loose papers which I have frequently spoken of heretofore, I find a conversation between Pharamond and Eucrate upon the subject of duels, and the copy of an edict issued in consequence of that discourse.

Eucrate argued, that nothing but the most severe and vindictive punishment, such as placing the bodies of the offenders in chains, and putting them to death by the most exquisite torments, would be sufficient to extirpate a crime which had so long prevailed, and was so firmly fixed in the opinion of the world as great and laudable. The king answered, that indeed instances of ignominy were necessary in the cure of this evil; but, considering that it prevailed only among such as had a nicety in their sense of honour, and that it often happened that a duel was fought to save appearances to the world, when both parties were in their hearts in amity and reconciliation to each other, that it was evident that turning the mode another way would effectually put a stop to what had being only as a mode; that to such persons, poverty and shame were torments sufficient; that he would not go further in punishing in others, crimes which he was satisfied he himself was most guilty of, in that he might have prevented them by speaking his displeasure sooner. Besides wbich the king said, he was in general averse to tortures, which was putting human nature itself, rather than the criminal, to disa

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