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sentence, that a virtuous man shall as a blessing meet with a friend who is as virtuous as himself. There is another saying in the same author, which' would have been very much admired in an heathen writer : Forsake not an old friend, for the new is not comparable to hinı : a new friend is as new wine; when it is old thou shalt drink it with pleasure*.' With what strength of allusion, and force of thought, has he described the breaches and violations of friendship? Whoso casteth a stone at the birds frayeth them away; and he that upbraideth his friend, breaketh friendship. Though thou drawest a sword at a friend, yet despair not, for there may be a returning to favour. If thou hast opened thy mouth against thy friend, fear not, for there may be a reconciliation ; except for upbraiding, or pride, or disclosing of secrets, or a treacherous wound; for, for these things every friend will departti' We may observe in this and several other precepts in this author, those little familiar instances and illustrations which are so much admired in the moral writings of Horace and Epictetus. There are very beautiful instances of this nature in the following passages, which are likewise written upon the same subject : 'Whoso discovereth secrets, loseth his credit, and shall never find a friend to his mind. Love thy friend, and be faithful unto him ; but if thou bewrayeth his secrets, follow no more after him: for as a man hath destroyed his enemy, so hast thou lost the love of thy friend; as one that letteth a bird go out of his hand, so hast thou let thy friend go, and shall not get him again : follow after him no more, for he is too far off; he is as a roe escaped out of the snare. As for a wound it may be bound up, and after reviling there may be a

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* Ecclus. ix. 10.

+ Ibid. xxii. 20, 21, 22,

reconciliation; but he that bewrayeth secrets, is without hope*.'

Among the several qualifications of a good friend, this wise man has very justly singled out constancy and faithfulness as the principal: to these, others have added virtue, knowledge, discretion, equality in age and fortune, and as Cicero calls it, Morum comitas, "a pleasantness of temper. If I were to give my opi. nion upon such an exhausted subject, I should join to these other qualifications, a certain equability or evenness of behaviour. A man often contracts a friendship with one whom perhaps he does not find out till after a year's conversation; when on a sudden some latent ill humour breaks out upon him, which he never discovered or suspected at his first entering into an intimacy with him. There are several persons who in some certain periods of their lives are inexpressibly agreeable, and in others as odious and detestable. Martial has given us a very pretty picture of one of this species, in the following epigram : .

Difficilis, fucilis, jucundus, acerbus es idem,
Nec tecum possum vivere, nec sine te.'

EPIG. xii. 47.
In all thy humours, whether grave or mellow,
Thou’rt such a touchy, testy, pleasant fellow;
Hast so much wit, and unirth, and spleen about thee,
There is no living with thee, nor without thee.

It is very unlucky for a man to be entangled in a friendship with one, who, by these changes and vicissitudes of humour, is sometimes amiable, and sometimes odious: and as most men are at some times in admirable frame and disposition of mind, it should be one of the greatest tasks of wisdom to keep ourselves well

* Ecclus. xxvii. 16, et seqq.


when we are so, and never to go out of that which is the agreeable part of our character.


y and

bare n age


No 69. SATURDAY, MAY 19, 1711.

*opi: min to Evel




Hic segetes, illic veniunt feliciùs uvæ : *
Arborei fætus alibi, atque injussa virescunt ,
Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tiolus odoras,
India mittit ebur, molles sua thura Sabæi?
At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaquc Pontus
Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epirus equarum?
Continuo has leges, æternaque fædera certis
Imposuit nutura locis

VIRG. Georg. i. 54.
This ground with Bacchus, that with Cerės suits ;
That other loads the trees with happy fruits ;
A fourth with grass, unbidden, decks the ground:
Thus Tmolus is with yellow saffron crown'd;
India black ebon and white iv'ry bears ;
And soft Idume weeps her od'rous tears ;
Thus Pontus sends her beaver stones from far:
And naked Spaniards temper steel for war:
Epirus for th’ Elean chariot breeds
(In lopes of palms) a race of running steeds.
This is th’ original contract; thèse the laws
Impos'd by nature, and by nature's cause.


THERE is no place in the town which I so much love to frequent as the Royal Exchange. It gives me a secret satisfaction, and in some measure grațifies my vanity, as I am an Englishman, to see so rich an assembly of countrymen and foreigners, consulting together upon the private business of mankind, and making


this metropolis a kind of emporium for the whole carth. I must confess I look upon high-change to be a great council, in which all considerable nations have their representatives. Factors in the trading world are what, ambassadors are in the politic world; they negociate affairs, conclude treaties, and maintain a good correspondence between those wealthy societies of men that are divided from one another by seas and oceans, or live on the different extremities of a continent. I have often been pleased to hear disputes adjusted between an inhabitant of Japan and an alderman of London, or to see a subject of the Great Mogul entering into a league with one of the Czar of Muscovy. I am infinitely delighted in mixing with these several ministers of commerce, as they are distinguished by their different walks and different languages. Sometimes I am jostled among a body of Armenians; sometimes I am lost in a crowd of Jews; and sometimes make one in a group of Dutchmen. I am a Dane, Swede, or Frenchman at different times ; or rather fancy myself like the old philosopher, who upon being asked what countryman he was, replied, that he was a citizen of the world.

Though I very frequently visit this busy multitude of people, I am known to nobody there but my friend Sir Andrew, who often smiles upon me as he sees me bustling, in the crowd, but at the same time connives at my presence without taking further notice of me. There is indeed a merchant of Egypt, who just

knows me by sight, having formerly remitted me some : money to Grand Cairo; but as I am not versed in the

modern Coptic, our conferences go no farther than a bow and a grimace. : This grand scene of business gives me an infinite va- riety of solid and substantial entertainments. As I am a great lover of mankind, my heart naturally overflows with pleasute at the sight of a prosperous and happy


to be


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multitude, insomuch that at many public solemnities I cannot forbear expressing my joy with tears that have stolen down my cheeks. For this reason I am worderfully delighted to see such a body of men thriving in their own private fortunes, and at the same time promoting the public stock; or in other words, raising estates for their own families, by bringing into their country whatever is wanting, and carrying out of it whatever is superfluous.

Nature seems to have taken a particular care to disseminate her blessings among the different regions of the world, with an eye to this mutual intercourse and traffic among mankind, that the natives of the several parts of the globe might have a kind of dependence upon one another, and be united together by their common interest. Almost every degree produces something peculiar to it. The food often grows in one country, and the sauce in another. The fruits of Portugal are corrected by the products of Barbadoes, and the infusion of a China plant is sweetened by the pith of an Indian cane. The Philippic islands give a flavour to our European bowls. The single dress of a woman of quality is often the product of an hundred climates. The muff and the fan come together from the different ends of the earth. The scarf is sent from the torrid zone, and the tippet from heneath the pole. The brocade petticoat rises out of the nines of Peru, and the diamond necklace out of the bowels of Indostan.

If we consider our own country in its natural prospect, without any of the benefits and advantages of commerce, what a barren uncomfortable spot of earth falls to our share! Natural historians tell us, that no fruit grows originally among us, besides hips and laws, acorns and pig-nuts, with other delicacies of the like

nature; that our climate of itself, and without the as• sistance of art, can make no farther advances towards a

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