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idea of the sameness of Americans.
“One other word, my Little Dorrit. A hard you was always honorable, and if you'll promise one to me, but it is a necessary one. The time me that you will take care of him, and never when you and this prison had any thing in let him want for help and comfort when I am common has long gone by. Do you under- not there, my mind will be at rest so far. I stand ?"
promised her. And I'll stand by you,” said “Oh, you will never say to me,” she cried, John Chivery, “forever!" weeping bitterly, and holding up her clasped Clennam, much affected, stretched out his hands in entreaty," that I am not to come back hand to this honest spirit. any more! You will surely not desert me so!" " Before I take it,” said John, looking at it,
“I would say it if I could; but I have not without coming from the door, “guess what the courage quite to shut out this dear face, and message Miss Dorrit gave me." abandon all hope of its return. But do not Clennam shook his head. come soon, do not come often! This is now a «• Tell him,'” repeated John, in a distinct, tainted place, and I well know the taint of it though quavering voice, “ “ that his Little Dorclings to me. You belong to much brighter and rit sent him her undying love.' Now it's debetter scenes. You are not to look back here, livered. Have I been honorable, Sir?” my Little Dorrit; you are to look away to very Very, very !" different and much happier paths. Again, God “Will you tell Miss Dorrit I've been honorbless you in them! God reward you !"
able, Sir?” Maggy, who had fallen into very low spirits, “I will, indeed.” here cried, “Oh, get him into a hospital; do “ There's my hand, Sir,” said John, “and get him into a hospital, Mother! He'll never I'll stand by you forever!" look like his self again if he an't got into a hos After a hearty squeeze, he disappeared with pital. And then the little woman as was always the same cautious creak upon the stair, crept a spinning at her wheel, she can go to the cup-shoeless over the pavement of the yard, and board with the Princess and say, What do you locking the gates behind him, passed out into keep the Chicking there for? and then they the front, where he had left his shoes. If the can take it out and give it to him, and then all same way had been paved with burning plowbe happy!"
shares, it is not at all improbable that John The interruption was seasonable, for the bell would have traversed it with the same devotion, had nearly rung itself out. Again tenderly for the same purpose. wrapping her mantle about her, and taking her on his arm (though but for her visit he was al
ALL ALIKE. most too weak to walk), Arthur led Little Dor
likeness of two peas gives but a faint rit down stairs. She was the last visitor to pass
They out at the Lodge, and the gate jarred heavily
are rather one homogeneous mass, into which all and hopelessly upon her.
the separate elements have been melted down, With the funeral clang that it sounded into forming a combination of uniform consistency Arthur's heart, his sense of weakness returned. and quality. The American mixture is fluid; It was a toilsome journey up stairs to his room, but though it may be poured here and there and he re-entered its dark, solitary precincts in with facility, it is of such coherent tenacity that unutterable misery. When it was almost midnight, and the prison United States live in mass, think in mass, and
it always flows together. The people of the had long been quiet, a cautious creak came up act in mass. This uniformity of conduct, which the stairs, and a cautious tap of a key was given is characteristic of the nation, is hardly disat his door. It was Young John. He glided in turbed by the ever-recurring addition of foreign in his stockings, and held the door closed, while material. he spoke in a whisper.
Such is the marvelous rapidity with which “It's against all rules, but I don't mind. I our equalizing institutions reduce, or elevate if was determined to come through, and come to we please, all varieties of race and character to you."
the same standard, that it matters not whence “What is the matter ?”
they come, they are no sooner landed than the “Nothing's the matter, Sir. I was waiting process of Americanization begins. Paddy, only in the court-yard for Miss Dorrit when she a few weeks absent from his potato-patch, has
I thought you'd like some one to already cast his ragged frieze, buttoned himself see that she was safe.”
in civilized broadcloth, and dropping his shilla“ Thank you, thank you! You took her lah, walks a passably decent and orderly citizen. home, John?”
Hans, too, Alings away his low-browed cap at “I saw her to her hotel. The same that Mr. once, and, oblivious of the paternal bayonets of Dorrit was at. Miss Dorrit walked all the way, Faderland, so lately threatening his rear, lifts and was just the same. Talked to me so kind, his soul, and raises his newly acquired bearer it quite knocked me over. Why do you think to the shout of liberty. Though occasionally, she walked instead of riding?"
under the provocation of whisky, bad beer, and “I don't know, John.”
worse counsel, the unruly instincts of the newly“ To talk about you. She said to me, ‘John, I imported Celt or Saxon may be aroused, it is
not long before they fall into the American houses for ourselves or our neighbors ? Do ranks as tolerably well-disciplined regulars. we furnish them for our family or our visDickens, in his “ American Notes," confessed itors ? Do we spend our money in accordance his difficulty in recognizing the Irishman here with the dictates of prudence or of fashion ? -of whom he was only conscious at home in The very uniformity of our lives and habits setthe spectral shape of a famished skeleton hung tles the question against our independence. with rags-in consequence of his American dis- Mr. A. builds a four-story, brown stone-front guise of a whole coat, a full belly, and a happy house, because Mr. B. lives in one, and he is reface. It will be agreed, no doubt, that Celt, solved to appear as rich as his neighbor in the Saxon, or whatever stranger, honoring us with world's eye, notwithstanding his ledger under his presence, should be transformed, as soon as his arm tells a very different story. So Mrs. possible, into the American, though there may B. turns her house into something not very unbe differences of opinion in regard to the exact like a London saloon, or a French Valentino; method of metamorphosis.
and banishing her husband, who loves retireThere are political and national advantages ment, to the basement or club, lets in a throng which result unquestionably from the remarka- of miscellaneous strangers, who, however intible uniformity of character of the American mate friends of fashion, are not even speaking people. There are, however, evils, and serious acquaintances with the host in whose house they ones, too. The facility with which public opin- make themselves so much at home. Mrs. B. ion is formed is not the least dangerous of these. thus lets out to Fashion Mr. B.'s house, night No sooner does some audacious political or so- after night, to his and her own manifest discomcial bell-wether start for a race or a leap than fort, for no better reason than because the disthe whole flock is after him. There is many a tinguished Mrs. C. does so, and the B.'s are not fatal step taken which might have been avoided to be outshone by the C.'s; for “Pray," asks if our strength of wind had been measured and Mrs. B., “who are the C.'s?” the danger surveyed before running the head Nowhere has conventionalism such universal long course. It would require no great research sway as in these United States. Travel from east in history to find examples of American precip- to west, you find the same people with the same itancy from the facility of popular movement. houses, the same dress, the same social habits, What fluctuations in public policy! What and if with the same virtues, also with the same haste to-day, to be repented at leisure to-mor- vices. Go to the newest settlement in the most row!
remote distance, and you will find it but a piece, What we Americans want is more individ- as it were, cut out of New York or Boston. Formuality, and consequent personal independence. al brick houses stare at you from the opposite sides We combine too readily, forming a mixture in of a Broadway in the wilderness, with the prairie which the qualities of the separate constituents, grass hardly trodden under foot. Dress coats as in a chemical compound, are lost in the and fashionable skirts move stifly about under newly-acquired properties of the general com- the very shade of the primeval forest, and the position. The conduct of a people in mass is tingle of the ubiquitous piano heard long beseldom the same or as judicious as the average fore the howl of the savage has died away. individual action. Feeling often controls the These are, of course, harmless in themselves, one, while judgment guides the other. When and even satisfactory, if merely indications of the the connection between man and man, in a rapid advance of civilization. They, however, multitude, is joined, the electric force of emo- none the less prove the uniformity of American tional sympathy has free current, and each be- life—the excessive tendency to which, so far as comes only a passive medium, through which they may indicate a want of individual indesome powerful agent distributes its influence. pendence, should be deprecated. Man, however, is a power within himself, and, So universal and sensitive is the sympathy of when isolated from the general mass, will think the American people that the slightest caprice and act independently. The show of hands in of fashion, or the least fluctuation of opinion, a crowd will often indicate a very different vote diffuses itself from the centre to the remotest from a suffrage canvassed individually. A com- extremities with the rapidity of the electric fluid. bination is strong in feeling and action, but weak The nation is but one great nervous system, tho in thought; and, of course, proportionately dan- parts of which, however numerous, have no sepgerous, since it exercises power without the arate sensibility of their own, and receive no control of judgment. Personal independence impression which does not become a general is the great check which is required to diminish sensation. The country is thus at the mercy the risks of irrational popular movement. How of plausible schemers. Charlatans of all kinds, much of this personal independence can we whether political or social, moral or religious, Americans justly claim ?
have only to get up a show, put in motion their Leaving others to settle the question polit- cunning jugglery, and give the signal to their ically, let us ask how far socially we have lost hired claqueurs, when the whole country joins our individuality in the general mass. How in the shout of applause. many persons, for example, in New York, have There are only two correctives of this danthe courage to live in accordance with their own gerous proclivity of our people to hasty opintastes or sense of comfort? Do we build our ion-independence of thought on the part of
themselves, or wisdom, combined with honesty, | vate the habit of individual thought, which, leadon the part of their leaders. The former, how- ing to independence of action, will prove the best ever, is the surest reliance; and it is the duty, security against tyranny, whether it be that of as it is the interest of every American, to culti-l a caprice or an opinion, a despot or a mob.
Fouthly Record of Current Euents.
ordered to be made to our naval force at Panama OTWITHSTANDING the urgent request of and Aspinwall.
the British Government, it is understood that Serious disturbances are threatened in Utah, our Government has decided to take no immediate where the disaffection to the Government has aspart in the Chinese war. The Administration, sumed a very marked character. Schools have however, has determined to adopt strong measures been organized for drilling the militia, and Morto protect American interests in that quarter, for mon preachers are urging the saints to gird of which purpose our squadron in the Chinese waters their arms. The Deseret News, which is in a manis to be largely augmented. Honorable William ner the organ of the hierarchy, denies the right of B. Reed, of Philadelphia, has been appointed Min- the Federal Government to appoint territorial offliister to China.--The United States have agreed to cers, and affirms that polygamy is a purely local pay the apportioned sum, amounting to $380,000, institution, concerning nobody out of Utah. Hon. to Denmark, in lieu of the Sound Duties.—The W. W. Drummond, late Chief Justice of the TerBritish Government decline agreeing to the amend- ritory, has resigned his post, and publishes a long ments made to the treaty respecting Central Amer- letter addressed to the Attorney-General, assigning ica. It is understood that this is not a definite re- his reasons. He says that the Mormons look to jection of the amended treaty, but merely a post- Brigham Young as the sole source of law, and ponement until matters have been adjusted with consider no enactments of Congress binding upon the Republic of Honduras. The propositions made them; that there is a secret organization among by our Government to New Granada were essen- them, embracing all the male members of the tially as stated in our last Record. The Granadan church, who are bound by oath to acknowledge no Plenipotentiaries replied that these propositions laws except those emanating from Young; that implied a gratuitous, unconstitutional, and dis- there is a body of men, whose names he can disgraceful cession of territory; that the measures close, set apart by the Church to destroy the lives proposed to insure the safety and equality to all and property of those who question the decrees of nations of the transit across the Isthmus were the hierarchy; that the records of the court have wholly inadequate for that purpose, since the over- been destroyed at the instigation of the rulers of whelming influence of the United States would the Mormons, and the Federal officers have been constitute a virtual privilege in favor of the Union, insulted for questioning the outrage; that the Govits citizens, and mercantile interests. But they ernment of the United States is openly abused, and say that they are empowered to enter into negoti- its officers in the Territory insulted and annoyed, ations having for their object to give to all nations without redress; that Young constantly interferes equal rights and facilities, while the sovereignty with the Grand Jurors, directing who shall and of New Granada shall not be impaired ; and add who shall not be indicted, and that his directions that the new Administration, which comes into are invariably complied with; that Mormons conpower on the 1st of April, will find ready prepared victed of aggravated crime, have been summarily the elements of a just and proper arrangement, one pardoned, while those not belonging to the Church, feature of which is the friendly interposition of all though guilty of no crime, have been wantonly imnations interested in the freedom of transit across prisoned. He also affirms that the murder by the the Isthmus. In respect to the massacre at Pana- Indians, in 1853, of Captain Gunnison and his parma, they deny that New Granada is justly respons-ty, was really committed at the instigation of the ible, and affirm that this outbreak is proved to have Mormon leaders ; that his own predecessor, Hon. originated in the brutal conduct of a citizen of the L. Shafer, was poisoned by them; and that Mr. United States toward a native of the country, who Babbitt, late Secretary of the Territory, was killed was supported by other citizens of the United by them, and not, as reported, by the Indians. He States. The United States Commissioners there- says that if a Governor were sent out, who is not a upon replied, that as all attempts even to settle Mormon, and if he were supported by a sufficient upon a basis for negotiation had failed, they were military force, something might be effected; but instructed to demand the sum of $400,000 as in as matters now stand, it would be madness to atdemnity for property lost and stolen at the time tempt to administer the laws in the Territory, and of the massacre, adding that this was much less that no man who has once tried the experiment than the actual amount of damage. Señor Pombo, would be willing to risk life and property by acthe Granadan Secretary of State, replies, reitera- cepting an appointment there. ting that his Government is not responsible for this The new United States steamer Ningara, the damage; and makes a counter demand of $150,000! largest man-of-war afloat, has been ordered to as. from the United States, by way of indemnity for sist in laying the cable of the oceanic submarine losses sustained by natives of the country and telegraph. She sailed from New York, April 20, peaceable foreigners ; besides which, reparation is and will proceed to London, where she will take on claimed for other wrongs. The Congress of New board one-half of the cable. The other half will Granada has passed resolutions fully indorsing the be taken by the British steamer Agamemnon, lately action of its Plenipotentiaries in this matter. Mr. the flag ship in the Black Sea. Both vessels will Morse, our special Commissioner, has returned to proceed together to a point midway between the this country, and a considerable addition has been two continents, where the two portions of the cable
will be joined, and the Niagara will proceed to the be confined in the State Prison at hard labor for a American coast, while the Agamemnon returns to term not less than two, or more than ten years.Great Britain, each paying out the cable as she ad- The Legislature of Ohio has also passed a bill of
These steamers will be accompanied by similar character. It provides that any person other vessels to afford assistance if needed. The who attempts to hold another as a slave shall be distance between Valentia Bay, in Ireland, and St. fined and imprisoned ; that if any person shall Johns, Newfoundland, the termini of the telegraph, seize or arrest, or use force or fraud for the puris 1650 miles; but 2500 miles of cable are to be pose of detaining any other person, on pretense taken on board the vessels, to provide against any that he is a fugitive from service, he shall be pundeviations from a direct line occasioned by currents ished by fine or imprisonment; and that any ator other causes.
tempt to kidnap, with the intent of removing any The Legislature of New York adjourned on the person from the State for the purpose of enslaving, 18th of April, having passed during the session shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitenmore than eight hundred bills. Among those of tiary: Resolutions were also passed denouncing general interest are a new charter for the city of the decision of the Supreme Court; complaining New York, and a bill consolidating the cities of that the Slave States had an undue proportion of New York and Brooklyn, together with Staten Isl- the judges; and instructing the congressional deland and the County of Westchester, into one posegation to endeavor to obtain such a modification lice district, the police of which is to be under the of the laws as shall secure to the Free States their direction of a board of seven commissioners, of proper proportion of judges.—The Legislature of which the Mayors of New York and Brooklyn are Maine has passed a “ Personal Liberty Bill,” deto be members ex officio. The legality of this bill claring all slaves brought into that State to be has been contested by Mayor Wood and others, free, and making it the duty of county attorneys and the question is still before the courts.-A new to defend persons claimed as fugitive slaves. The Excise Law has been passed, repealing the Pro- Legislature of Massachusetts has adopted amendhibitory Act of 1855. It provides for the appoint- ments to the Constitution of that State, providing ment by the courts of three Commissioners of Ex- that no person shall be a voter who is not able to cize in each county; the fees for licenses are to be read the English language and to write his own from $30 to $100 in towns and villages, and from name. The House of Representatives is to be re$50 to $300 in cities; no license is to be granted duced to two hundred and forty members, elected except at the discretion of the Board, and to per- by districts; and the Senate, of forty members, is sons of good moral character, on the petition of to be chosen by districts, instead of by counties, as thirty respectable freeholders of the district, the at present. licensed party to give bonds to allow no gambling
SOUTIIERN AMERICA. on his premises; hotel-keepers, who must provide The reported victories gained by Walker on certain specitied accommodations for travelers, only the 16th of March appear to have been fabricato sell liquors to be drunk on the premises under a tions. We have now the allied accounts of these penalty of $50; giving liquor to apprentices or and subsequent transactions. According to these, minors without the consent of their guardians is Walker, on the day in question, sallied from Rivas punished by a fine of $10; giving to Indians by a with his whole disposable force, and taking a pofine of $25; selling to intoxicated persons by a fine sition near San Jorge, opened a brisk fire upon the of $10 to $25; a complaint by a wife that her hus- Allies, which was vigorously returned. At four band is a drunkard obliges magistrates to issue o'clock he commenced his retreat to Rivas, leavnotices to dealers not to sell him liquors for a space ing behind him 125 men killed. On his return of six months, under a penalty of $50 for each of- he was harassed by a detachment sent to cut off fense; a similar provision applies to complaints by his retreat; and at the cross-roads, about half a husbands and children ; railroad, steamboat, and mile from Rivas, the attack was so spirited that other incorporated companies engaged in the trans- the filibusters broke, and fled into the city in disportation of passengers, must refuse employment to order, having suffered great loss. The allied loss those known to be in the habit of the intemperate was 22 killed, and 60 wounded. General Mora use of intoxicating drinks. Resolutions were pass-thereupon advanced upon Rivas, which he closely ed respecting the decision of the Supreme Court invested. Under date of April 1, he reports that of the United States on the Dred Scott case, de- Walker's forces, greatly reduced, are hemmed in claring that “this State will not allow Slavery upon the Plaza, with no supplies except the flesh within her borders in any form, or under any pre- of mules and dogs, with sugar instead of salt; that tense, or for any time, however short," and that all attempts at foraging are unavailing; that de" the Supreme Court of the United States, by rea- sertions to his camp average five daily, while those son of the majority thereof having identified itself who take the road to Costa Rica are three times with a sectional and aggressive party, has impair- as many; and that he is making preparations for ed the confidence and respect of the people of this a final assault upon the position at Rivas, being State.” A bill was also passed entitled “An Act in daily expectation of large re-enforcements from to secure Freedom to all persons within this State.” Salvador. This account, like those from the other It provides that no descent from an African and side already given, may be exaggerated; but it no color of skin shall prevent any person from be- is certain that Walker has sustained an irreparacoming a citizen of this State, or deprive him of ble loss by the failure of the attempts made to rethe rights and privileges thereof; that every slave lieve him by way of the San Juan River. On the brought involuntarily into this State, or coming 25th of March, Colonel Lockridge, with 400 men, here with the consent of his master or mistress, set off from Greytown with the design of taking shall be free; and that any person who shall hold, Castillo, but found the Allies to be in such force or attempt to hold, in this State, in slavery or as that a council of war was held, at which it was a slave, any person so coming or brought, shall be i decided not to make the attempt. Ile then asked guilty of felony, and, on conviction thereof, shall for volunteers to join him in an attempt to cut his
way through by land. About 100 men answered | negotiate, he is to endeavor to obtain the following to this call. These were embarked upon the concessions : The old treaties to be renewed and exsteamer Scott, and descended the river with the tended to eight ports instead of five, besides that design of landing at Serapiqui, while the remain- English vessels may put into any port from stress der of the men were placed on board the Rescue, of weather or for repairs ; England, like Russia, is to return to Greytown. Just before reaching Ser- to have a college at Pekin, the head of which is to apiqui the boiler of the Scott exploded, destroying be charged with all official relations with the Chithe boat, and killing and wounding some 60 of nese Government; they are to have military posts those on board. This took place on the 1st of in all towns where they shall have consuls or April, and on the 6th the remnant of the force agents; and at Canton and Pekin they are to be reached the mouth of the river. Here, being al. allowed to maintain forts and military establishmost destitute of provisions, they seized what mu- ments.—Lady Franklin has determined to fit out nitions were there, including the steamer Restue, another Arctic Expedition, the command of which and applied for relief to the commander of the Brit- is proposed to be given to Dr. Rae. The Times ish force in the harbor of Greytown, who finally suggests that the Resolute should be presented for agreed to send them to Aspinwall, retaining all this purpose to Lady Franklin. Dr. Rae's qualifitheir arms and munitions as payment for the pas- cations for such a charge are not unlike those of our Bage. The men, to the number of 374, were then own Kane. Born in the Orkney Islands, he early received on board the British vessels and trans- learned the management of a boat; he studied med. ported to Aspinwall. The Allies, in the mean icine, passed as a surgeon when less than twenty while, came down the river and took possession of years old, and immediately entered the service of its mouth, so that they now hold the entire transit the Hudson's Bay Company, where he had abundline from ocean to ocean.-General Belloso, whą ant opportunity of learning the mysteries of Arccommanded the allied forces at Granada at the tic life; he could accomplish forty-five or fifty time when Walker and Henningsen made their miles a day on snow-shoes, and on several occaescape from that city, bas been tried by a court- sions performed more than sixty miles. During martial, condemned, and executed upon charges his first Arctic expedition, in 1846–’47, he wintered of dereliction of duty in failing to annihilate the with twelve men at Repulse Bay, killing their own enemy upon that occasion.
food, and for twelve months never warming themGREAT BRITAIN.
selves at a fire. After having headed several ArcThe elections for members of Parliament have tic expeditions, with the most brilliant results, in resulted very decidedly in favor of the Palmerston 1853 he obtained the first undoubted traces of the administration. The contest was conducted main- fate of Sir John Franklin, for which he and his ly with regard to the conduct of the Chinese affair. party of seven men have received the reward of Lord Palmerston, in his address to the electors of $50,000 offered by the British Government. On Tiverton, thus states the issue: An insolent bar- this expedition they lived all winter without fire, barian wielding authority at Canton had violated in snow-houses; made their own clothing from the the British flag, broken the engagements of treat- skins of the reindeers which they killed for food; ies, offered rewards for the heads of British sub- traveled more than 1100 miles, without dogs, and jects, and planned their destruction by murder, without encumbering themselves with tents. He assassination, and poison. The British officers had has sailed more than 6000 miles along the Arctic taken measures to obtain satisfaction and redress; i coasts; has walked on snow-shoes nearly the same which measures had been approved by her Majesty's distance; and has surveyed nearly 2000 miles of Government. A combination of political parties unexplored coast. In all these expeditions he has had carried a resolution declaring these measures , usually been the sole officer in command, and has unjustifiable, and consequent censuring the Gov- himself shot nearly two-fifths of the food consumed ernment for approving them. If those measures by his party. were unjustitiable, the British Government, instead
THE CONTINENT. of demanding an apology, ought to make one; and Letter-writers affirm that the devotion of the instead of expecting satisfaction, ought to offer French Emperor has been transferred from Eucompensation to the Chinese Commissioner. And génie to the Countess Castiglione.-Renewed plots if the combined Opposition should succeed in gain- to assassinate Napoleon are said to have been deing office, this was the course which, in consistency, tected.—The King of Naples has rewarded with they ought to be prepared to pursue. Mr. Cobden, a cross of honor a police agent named Baiona, who in a speech in London, made the same issue. The has invented a new implement of torture. It is question, he said, was whether the country would called the “Cap of Silence," and consists of a band indorse the violent acts committed in China. En- of steel passing around the head, just above the eye, gland was at war with a feeble nation. Would with a semicircular band passing over the top of the British people, with America, France, Ger- the head. This last is attached to a flexible strap many, and Austria looking on, show a less sense going under the chin; by tightening this the lower of justice than the majority of the House of Com- jaw is closely confined, and the victim is rendered mons? for just in proportion as they showed them incapable of uttering a cry. A fearful famine is selves unjust toward the weak, would be their dif- raging in Finland, Lapland, and portions of Northficulties in dealing with the strong. Among the ern Sweden. Opposition members who have lost their seats
TIIE EAST. are Messrs. Bright, Gibson, Cobden, and Layard. There is nothing new of special importance from - The Queen gave birth to a princess--her ninth China. Allum, the Chinese baker charged with child-on the 14th of April.--Extensive prepara- poisoning the foreign residents at Hong Kong, has tions are making for the warin China. Lord Elgin, been tried and acquitted, it having been found imit is said, is to be clothed with unusual powers. He possible to show that the arsenic which was unis to decide upon the time and fitness of all warlike doubtedly inixed with his bread was placed there operations, and in case the Chinese should wish to with his knowledge.