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but the same were found in the atmosphere over try and oppressive, and that it is usually most
It does not follow, however, that be- violent when the weather is the hottest. Thus cause nothing has been discovered in the air, Vera Cruz expects it as regularly as the sum. that fluid is therefore incapable of transmitting mer itself; New Orleans suffers from it very frecholera poison. All that we can assert is, that quently; Charleston not so often; and Baltiour present means of observation have not ena- more, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, only bled us to detect any thing of the kind. occasionally, at long and irregular intervals.
The recent studies of Pettenkofer and Thiersch Still it must be observed that there is a limit to go to show that the emanations from the body this rule of progression. Until within a few of a cholera patient must undergo a certain de- years the Equator offered an invisible but an gree of fermentation before they can induce dis- insurmountable barrier to the advance of yellow ease. Thiersch experimented on mice by giving fever. It is only during the present epidemic them daily the two-thousandth part of a grain that this pestilence has succeeded in invading of matter discharged from cholera patients. He Peru. It has also been noticed that the very found that while this was recent it produced no hottest parts of the yellow-fever zone often eseffect upon the animals, but that after it became cape entirely, as if there was a particular point from six to nine days old it brought on symp- which could not be passed without, as it were, toms of cholera. Thirty, out of thirty-four mice burning up the germ of the epidemic. Furexperimented upon, sickened, and twelve died. thermore, it must be borne in mind, that the rule Pettenkofer, who was appointed by the Bavari- is by no means absolute, even for those regions an Government to investigate this subject, finds in which this fever prevails, and that it somethree factors necessary to produce cholera : first, times makes its assaults in an unusually cool a germ or ferment; second, a soil to receive it; summer. and, third, a miasma generated from the combi Next, humidity, which plays so important a nation, which is the active cause of the disease. part in the causation of cholera, shows itself as
Hence it follows that any thing which will an agent in the production of yellow fever. The prevent fermentation and putrefaction will, if history of the disease leads us to lay no little applied skillfully and sufficiently, arrest the pro- stress upon this cause. The dew-point is, as gress of cholera. Chloride of lime and sulphu- we have seen, generally high, yet the disease ric acid are efficient disinfectants. The expe- has occurred when this elevation was not rerience of two of the Bavarian jails corroborates markable. Dr. Barton, of New Orleans, conthe opinion of the two observers whose results siders it necessary that a high temperature have been quoted. An individual dying in the should coincide with this high dew-point. He prison of Kaisheira introduced cholera there. puts the dew-point of yellow fever at from 70° But one other case occurred, although the pris- to 80°, and says that should the thermometer on was in a very unfavorable situation. The fall below 70° and the dew-point descend to near escape of the remaining five or six hundred pris- | 60°, the fever must cease. Other observers, oners is attributed, by Liebig, to the early and however, have noticed but little difference beliberal use of disinfectants. At Ebrach, on the tween the dew-point in yellow-fever seasons and contrary, where this precaution was not imme- in periods of perfect freedom from that disease. diately adopted, fifteen per cent. of the inmates Some physicians attach no little importance to died of the pestilence.
the electrical condition of the atmosphere; but This method of propagation, it will be per- so little is known about that subject that it is ceived, is wholly different from what is common- idle to speculate upon it. ly understood by contagion ; and any arguments After the meteorological conditions come what leveled against the strict contagionists must fail Dr. Barton calls the terrene. Few facts are so to convict of error those who believe in this well established as the influence of filth and form of communication from man to man. So overcrowding upon the development of the disfar as our present experience goes, therefore, ease in question. It almost always breaks out We have reason to believe that cholera 'may be, in those parts of cities in which many people reand often is, generated by local causes, but that side in one house, and where little attention is its usual mode of transmission is human inter- paid to cleanliness. Sailors, and the hangers
on about sailors' boarding-houses, with the disWe come now to inquire into the propagation solute, filthy, and idle population that crowd the of yellow fever. Here again we find a wordy lanes and alleys in the neighborhood of the battle raging between two factions, one insist- wharves of a maritime city, are peculiarly liable ing that this pestilence is always imported; the to its attacks. other equally positive that this is never the case, The influence of animal and vegetable decomand that the disease is invariably the product position upon the spread of yellow fever is indisof local causes. We shall first examine the lo- putable. The putrid water of the Cove in Balcal causes, and then consider the question of timore, with its mantle of green slime broken by importation.
bubbles of fetid gas from the bottom, and its The first and most important of these is heat. floating islands of dead dogs, was a most poA glance at the map will show that yellow fever tent agent in the induction of yellow fever. is essentially a disease of hot climates; that it The men who were employed to clean it out prevails only where the summers are often sul- were almost stifled with its effluvia, and the in
+ habitants of its shores died in great numbers of in New Orleans, chiefly upon the great quantity the fever. The cellars that sent up such a of excavation which was going on in and around deadly gas from the pools of water which filled the city. As early as the 6th of June, he exhibthem as to kill the very flies hovering over them, ited to the New Orleans Academy of Science a were recognized by Dr. Drysdale as efficient chart of the mortality of that place from the causes of the disease. The putrid meats and year 1787, and stated that, “judging from the the offensive liquor which covered them, had no past, if the facts exhibited by the chart were not little influence in inducing yellow fever in New merely coincidences, he was compelled to appreYork.
hend that the present year would be marked by Vegetable decomposition has been even more a great augmentation of disease. The simulsuspected. The habit of filling up vacant lots taneous construction of new railroads in and with rice offal, has, it is believed, produced more around the city, the digging of a new basin of than one epidemic in Charleston. In Balti- vast extent in the rear of the city, the enlargemore, the epidemic of 1819 seems to have been ment of the Canal Carondolet, the open sewers, very inuch influenced by putrefying vegetable scarcity of water, insufficient drainage, and the matter. On the wharf where it first broke out, practice of spreading over the streets the horrithe infected warehouses opened back upon an ble filth of the gutters, to fester and reek in the alley filled with rotting shavings; and it is wor sun-if all these are continued during the hot thy of remark that the adjoining wharf, the months, with the proper meteorological condibuildings on which presented no windows, but tions, our exemption from a severe epidemic only a blind wall to the infectious alley, entirely should almost seem miraculous.” The subseescaped. On the Point, in one of the districts quent epidemic at Savannah was attributed to which suffered most, the earthen bed of the the excavation of about a mile of trenches for street was deeply covered with putrid shavings water-pipes, to the raising of a number of vesand chips, which became so offensive that the sels which had been sunk for years in the river, authorities ordered their removal. The poor and to the great amount of filth spread over the fellows who undertook this unpleasant duty were banks. among the early victims of the pestilence. The After giving full weight to all these facts, and wharves, also, which suffered most from yellow admitting the validity of the deductions made fever, were made up, in great part, of vegetable from them, may we not ask, Is this all? Is the matter.
extension of yellow fever fully accounted for by The disturbance of the soil during the hot such accidents as these ? Dr. Barton has called months, is a cause of disease strongly insisted on the meteorological and the terrene conditions by Dr. Barton in his report on the yellow fever “ the two blades of the shears of fate,” but of 1853 in New Orleans. He traces many epi- where are we to seek for the rivet which holds demics to extensive grading of the streets, to them together? Is it not asking a little too laying gas-pipes, digging canals, and other ex- much, to require the public to believe that the posures of the soil. To such an extent is this two sets of causes set out on a tour from the opinion received at the South, that some of the tropics, and, starting at Rio in 1850, advanced cities have ordinances against digging during to Demerara in 1851, to the West India Islands the hot months. It must be acknowledged that and Vera Cruz in 1852, to New Orleans and Momany facts have been accumulated which show bile in 1853, to Savannah, Augusta and Charlesa connection between this disturbance of the ton in 1854, to Norfolk and Portsmouth in 1855, soil and the outbreak of fever. It is equally and to New York in 1856. Is not this, to say the certain, however, that numerous epidemics have least of it, a very remarkable series of coincioccurred, in which no unusual disturbance of dences ? Furthermore, how does it happen that the soil took place. The kind of soil disturb- this geographical progression was so regular, as ed, also, should be taken into consideration. well during the cold August of 1856, as during No one will be disposed to doubt that the rich the hot and humid summer of 1853? Was New alluvial mud of New Orleans, made up of the York so much cleaner in the last-named year? detritus of the Mississippi, or the made ground The meteorological conditions were certainly of Charleston, composed chiefly of a great mass not wanting, for deaths from exhaustion by heat of putrefying rice-chaff, might, if exposed to the were never more frequent, the humidity of the hot, moist air of a Southern summer, generate air was great, and the thermometer was higher fevers of the most malignant type. It would be than in New Orleans. Had yellow fever then difficult, however, to induce the same apprehen- occurred in the city, there is no doubt that the sion with regard to the clean sand and gravel of items of a very pretty catalogue of local causes Baltimore, or the rocky detritus of which the could have been picked up in the neighborhood soil of upper New York is composed. The made of the Washington Market. ground of the Battery, however, might, if dis There still remains an element in the chain turbed during a hot and sultry summer, be ca- of causation to be considered. Human interpable of inflicting no little mischief upon the course, whether known as contagion, communihealth of the American metropolis. A striking cability, or importation, is regarded by some as illustration of the importance of this cause is to the main agent in producing this disease, while be found in the fact that Dr. Barton based his by others it is utterly repudiated. The truth prediction of the impending pestilence of 1853, will probably be found to lie, as usual, between
these two extremes of opinion. Those who It is not, however, necessary to travel to the deny communicability, labor very hard to prove Cape de Verd Islands in order to find evidences the local origin of the pestilence. This is a of the importation of yellow fever. The last work of supererogation, for it is not and can year's epidemic on the shores of New York Bay not be denied. The important question, it must can not be interpreted in any other way. Early be remembered, is not, Does the disease always in the summer, yellow fever was found to exist, or spread from man to man? but, Can it ever ex- to have existed, on board of many of the vessels tend in that way? For, if it be proved that this from the West Indies. These were quarantined ferer has in any instance been communicated or at the usual spot, and soon a forest of masts imported, the practical rules of its prevention grew up around the anchorage. The sick were are the same as though it were always so trans- admitted to the hospital, and, as their numbers mitted.
increased, cases of the fever occurred among the There is no room here for the full discussion persons employed about the Quarantine buildof a question which has covered so many thou- ing. Uneasiness being experienced at the proxsand pages. We must be content with present- imity of the infected vessels to the city, they ing the matter in a striking light by the state were removed lower down the bay, where the ment of actual occurrences.
channel is narrower, and anchored in the neighThe most important of the histories of the rise borhood of Fort Hamilton. After a time, yeland progress of this fever, and that which has low fever broke out on the shore in the immedibeen most hotly discussed, is the account of the ate vicinity of the ships, and slowly spread over yellow fever at Bona Vista, one of the Cape de a narrow strip of land from New Utrecht to Verd Islands. In November, 1844, the Eclair Gowanus, and so into Brooklyn. A few cases steamer, belonging to the British navy, sailed occurred in New York, which are said to be to the western coast of Africa, off which she clearly traceable to the shipping. cruised until the middle of August. During It is quite probable that some doughty adthis time, undoubted yellow fever made its ap- vocate of non-importation will discover some pearance on board of her, and she made for the frightful “local causes” about the infected disCape de Verd Islands. She arrived at Bona tricts, which have hitherto strangely escaped Vista on the 21st of August. It has been as- every one's notice. Mud-puddles, flats, seaserted that this island was subject to yellow fe- weed, and dead fish, will duly shock his nerves. ver; but we have the most positive testimony It will be difficult, however, to persuade any one that for thirty-seven years, at least, this pesti- who is acquainted with the shores of that beaulence had never been known on the island. The tiful bay that these spots were any more unfahealth of the place before the arrival of the in- vorably situated than many parts of the Jersey fected ship was good. It is asserted by some, shore which entirely escaped. The differenee who wish to avoid the force of the facts of this between the two was simply the presence of epidemic, that it was about the time when an the infected shipping-a fatal difference for outbreak might be expected. On the contrary, the Long Islanders. It will be well for any it was unusually late for a latitude so near the who would account for this upon purely equator. About the middle of September the teorological and terrene” principles, to bear in first cases of black vomit occurred among the mind the character of the last summer. There military guard, who came in contact with the was at no time any great continuance of heat. sick landed from the steamer. The next case The month of August was decidedly and unwas a soldier, the comrade of the two first vic- comfortably cool. It would be difficult to imtims, the next his nurse, the next the fellow-agine a season more unpropitious to the devellodger of the nurse. From these cases the dis- opment of yellow fever. ease spread through the village, and gradually From what has been said, we think it clear extended itself over the island. Never was that yellow fever is greatly dependent upon there a disease traced so minutely, from man to local causes for its development; that filth,
So strong a case of communica- dampness, heat, and overcrowding always agbility is it, that the opponents of this notion have gravate it, always favor its invasion, and often no other resource but to impugn the facts. They produce it. But we believe it to be equally therefore cite Dr. King, a decided non-conta- clear that yellow fever may be and has been gionist, who was afterward sent out by Sir Will- imported; may be and has been transmitted iam Burnett to investigate the matter. He dis- from man to man. We see nothing unphilocovered several local causes, and criticised some sophical in such a conclusion. If putrefying of the testimony upon which his predecessor, animal and vegetable matter, spoiled meat, rotDr. M.Williams, based his report; but it is re- ten shavings, foul water, can induce the dismarkable that his facts, though he draws a dif- case, why may it not be reproduced by the ferent conclusion from them, do not materially emanations from bodies affected with it-emandiffer from those collected in the first report. ations which are putrefying more rapidly than It is certainly necessary to abandon all our no- the meat, the shavings, or the water? tions of cause and effect before we can believe that it is not always transmitted in this way, is that a fever thus originating, and thus spread only to say that the circumstances of its develing, in an unfrequented island, is wholly inde- opment are not always present. We know, for pendent of human intercourse.
example, that many patients left Norfolk for
man, as this.
Baltimore during the epidemic of 1855, and hend the spontaneous outburst of a pestilence. that no instance of the propagation of the dis- Its importation is easily guarded against by a ease in the latter city occurred; but we also proper system of Quarantine-a method of proknow that no sooner had the inhabitants of an tection which should not be set aside without infected district in Portsmouth crossed over to grave reasons. a filthy, crowded row in Norfolk than yellow Dr. Dugas, of Augusta, has pointed out the fever broke out in that row. The germ of the necessity of extending quarantine regulations disease, the ferment, the infection-call it what to other transports besides ships. After showyou will—found a suitable soil in one place, ing that steam-boats conveyed it up navigable but not in the other. So the spores of a fungus rivers, and railroad cars transported it to inland may be wafted by the wind, and deposited on towns, he recommends a sealing of the hatchthe hard rock, or the plowed field, or the way of steam-boats, or a prohibition of their dusty road, without germinating and reproduc- approach within certain fixed limits. As for ing the species; but let them reach the rich railway cars, apprehending justly the possibility black mould of a decaying log lying in the of the transportation of infected air in close shade of a forest, which shuts out the sun by its vehicles, he advises the authorities “to prevent multitudinous leaves, and preserves a perpetual from entering the city any box-car or closed dampness beneath its sheltering boughs, and car of any kind, whether containing merchanimmediately hosts of little caps, mounted on dise, baggage, or the mails, which may come their fleshy stalks, overtop the green mosses from an infected district. It will be with the that hide the crumbling wood. This fever- railroad companies to determine whether they germ, whatever it may be, requires conditions will put their freight upon open trucks in for its full development; but who is sufficient Charleston, or do so at a point nearer Augusly acquainted with the arcana of pestilence ta - but this should not be less than three to be able to say, at any given time of any miles." given place, that those conditions are not pres After an epidemic has broken out, there is ent?
but one public measure of any avail. The inIt is always absurd to argue in favor of any fected district should be immediately evacuated, particular theory which requires facts, not opin- a cordon thrown around it, all intercourse with ions, for its support, by citing the number of it prohibited, and its inhabitants removed to a illustrious names which are found among its purer air. The beneficial effects of this course advocates; for a single hostile fact will out- have been more than once clearly proved. We weigh any amount of friendly authorities. Yet need only refer our readers to the accounts we this line is often adopted by those who deny have given of the energetic action of the authe possibility of importation, and we are favor- thorities of New York, and recall to their memed by a formidable catalogue of illustrious phy-ories the success of the encampment system sicians who have been converted to the doc- adopted at Baltimore, to convince them of the trines of non-contagion. It is remarkable that propriety of this measure. they have not seen how easily this argument The belief in the power of man to control could be turned against them. If there is a these deadly plagues—the wholesale slaughtercity on the continent which is unwilling to tol- ers of our race—is daily gaining ground among erate the slightest interference with its trade, those who have investigated the phenomena of that city is New York. Yet, in that great epidemics. The importance of the subject cercommercial metropolis, with every mercantile tainly demands for it the careful attention of inducement to disbelieve the doctrine of im- the public. It was in order to secure such atportation, we find that the majority of the tention that these articles were commenced. leading physicians are fully convinced of its If they should prove successful in inducing truth.
their readers to think seriously of these scourges, The sanitary measures to be adopted in view and the means of arresting their devastations, of an approaching pestilence are involved in the author will consider that his time has been what has been already said of the causes of profitably employed. Just now something is epidemics. Of course, man is powerless over needed to arouse the public to a sense of the the mutations of the seasons. The bonfires, vast importance of proper sanitary regulations, the fumigations, the combustion of tar, are for there can be no doubt that we are at present worse than useless. All experience has shown in a vortex of yellow fever, which, if it follow that they are of no value whatever; and atten- the laws of previous epidemics, must be expecttion bestowed on them only diverts the public ed to hover around our seaboard cities for five mind from those sanitary measures which have or six years to come. We can not close this real efficacy. We have no reason to believe last paper without raising a warning voice that the meteorological conditions alone can against that false security which may prove produce any particular form of pestilence. fatal. It can not be too strongly impressed They must be conjoined with those impurities upon the public mind that all the cities from of soil and of water, that crowding and that Charleston to Portland are in danger of the inbad ventilation so common in all cities. These vasions of this disease. It has prevailed in certainly are under the control of man; and if past years, as we have already shown, along they are removed, we have no reason to appre- the whole coast; and there is no perceptible
reason why it may not do so hereafter. The of eight or ten thousand dollars to foot up. That yellow-fever zone is constantly changing its makes fourteen.” limits, and those cities which have once found “Fourteen," said 1, with good courage thus themselves within that terrible girdle should far. remember the fact, and act accordingly.
“Then your wife has seen hedges, and that
sort of thing." MR. QUIGLEY'S EXPERIENCE. “Of course," said I. "Mary Jane, your
name is not much known to the public mother has seen hedges?" journals; but I am not ashamed of it, and * Pshaw, papa, of course she has; we mean
It is Quigley, Joseph Quigley- to have hedges.” named for my uncle on the maternal side, whose “Oh, of course!” said Mr. Blossom ; name was Joseph Growzer. I have dropped the then the old walls must come down, and be cartGrowzer, in obedience to my wife's wishes, she ed away somewhere, and the ground dug, and not fancying Growzer; though the Growzers a paling put up; in fact, Quigley, I should put were very worthy people, and comfortably off. you down, on the score of digging, and trench
I am looking out just now for a place in the ing, and fence-making, to the tune of about six country. I believe every body looks out, some thousand more." day or other, for a place in the country. I don't "That makes twenty," said I. know why-I never did; but they do.
“Twenty," said he. “ Then you must have Mr. Blossom has a place where he goes in the your English or Scotch gardener, with his four summer-leastwise, every Sunday-and enjoys or five hundred a year, and a cottage, and a cow, himself. His vegetables cost him middling and his impudence if you undertake to give any dear; dearer, I should say, than town vegeta- directions; and your coachman, who, you know, bles, by the accounts he gives me of gardeners' are getting to be confoundedly dangerous felpay, poudrette, clearing up of stones, and so on. lows."
“But then," says Mrs. Blossom, “consider, I glanced at Mary Jane, as much as to say, Mr. Quigley, the great satisfaction of raising Mr. Blossom, my daughter knows her duty. your own; of being relicved from dependence “In short,” said Blossom, “it's a doosed exupon those abominable cheating market-people; pensive luxury. I kept an account, Quigley, of living, as it were, under your own fig-tree, and I think my tomatoes stood me in one shilMr. Quigley!"
ling each. I could have bought them cheaper." "Oh, it's charming !" said Miss Blossom, “I think you could,” said I. “It does seem turning to Miss Quigley (my daughter Mary to me that my tomatoes will not cost me so Jane); “it's quite a little Paradise we have, dearly. However, my wife” (there is a Mrs. Miss Quigley."
Quigley)" is opinionated to a degree that there “But the fig-leaves are rather expensive,” is no resisting. I have heard of men who have said Blossom. Blossom has some smartness. held out against their wives in a matter of this
"Oh, there it is !” said Mrs. Blossom. kind. I must confess I do not see how they do “Those odious dollars and cents—dollars and it. I only wish they had Mrs. Quigley to deal cents;" and Mrs. Blossom adjusted her hoop, with.” which I suspect was cramping her.
"One consults his friends about such an affair Miss Blossom talked earnestly to Miss Quig- as going into the country; and I consult mine. ley about chrysanthemums and jonquils, while Mrs. Quigley consults hers, Miss Quigley conMr. Blossom drew his chair nearer to me, and sults hers, my son (there is a Master Quigley) said, “I will tell you how it is, Quigley. You consults his. I think we are in a fair way of will buy a place some thirty miles out of town, learning something about country places. for, say, two hundred dollars an acre; perhaps Ripes, my old partner in the jobbing busiyou'll buy twenty acres—"
ness, said, “Quigley, I hear you're going into “Hardly enough,” said I.
the country.” “ Egad,” said Blossom, “you'll see! Well, “ Yes," said I, “Ripes, I am." that's four thousand dollars. There's a cottage "Well, for God's sake, Quigley,” said he, on the place; but do you think, Mr. Quigley, “don't get the shakes." that your wife is going to live in that cottage?" If I like Ripes, if I ever did like him, it is in
"Mary Jane,” said I, interrupting the con- spite of his profanity. versation of the young ladies, “don't you think " Shakes?" said I. your mother would live in a cottage ?"
“Ay," said he, “fever-nager, the det Oh, charming !" said Mary Jane ; "the thing a man ever had. Mind now, Quigley, do very thing!”
you never buy till you find there's no feverI turned to Blossom with an air of triumph, nager in the district. Give it ten miles maras much as to say, You see my daughter's tastes, gin.' Mr. Blossom.
“I will,” said I. “Egad," said Blossom, "you'll see. You'll Bleetzer, who lives over opposite to me, and have a wing to put on, and an ell, and then a who sometimes happens in to tea, and is in busiboadwor, and two or three gables, and not being ness still (fur-trade in Maiden Lane), said, there to see how the work goes on, and your “Quigley, I hear you're going into the counwife putting in the extras, you'll find a matter try.”