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The storm increased in fury, and, raging all | as a slave, and was compelled to perform all the night and the ensuing day, covered the ground menial service of a slave, still in other respects with such a depth of snow that the army was she was treated with kindness. It is a remarkunable to move for several weeks in any direc- able fact that during these wars the person of tion. But on that very morning, freezing and no woman was treated by the Indians with intempestuous, when despair had seized upon ev- decorum. Mrs. Rowlandson was purchased of ery heart, a vessel laden with provisions, strug- her captors as a slave, by Quinnipin, an illusgling against the storm, entered the bay. Rap- trious sachem of the Narragansets, who had marture succeeded despair, and hymns of thanks- ried, for one of his three wives, Wetamoo, the giving resounded through the dim aisles of the widow of Alexander, and sister of Wootonekforest.
anuske, the wife of Philip. Mrs. Rowlandson In the early spring the Indians resumed hos- thus became the dressing-maid of Wetamoo. tilities with accumulated fury. On the 10th of The haughty Indian princess, exulting in the February, 1676, they burst from the forest upon services of the wife of an English clergyman as the beautiful settlement of Lancaster. In a her slave, assumed many airs. few moments nearly the whole town was in “A severe and proud dame she was," writes fames. Rev. Mr. Rowlandson, pastor of the Mrs. Rowlandson ; “ bestowing every day in church, had gone to Boston to seek assistance. dressing herself near as much time as any of the He had taken the precaution before he left to gentry of the land, powdering her hair and convert his home into a bullet-proof fortress, and painting her face, going with her necklaces, had garrisoned it for the protection of his fam- with jewels in her ears, and bracelets upon her
hands. When she had dressed herself, her work The Indians, however, after many endeavors, was to make wampum and beads." succeeded in setting the building on fire, and Mrs. Rowlandson, during her captivity, often the inmates, forty-two in number, had before saw Pometacom. Her narrative represents him them only the cruel alternative of perishing in as a man of serious deportment, sagacious and the flames or of surrendering. The merciless humane. She was taken across the Connecticonflagration, enveloping the building in billows cut in a canoe, and was greatly terrified in seeof fire, drove them from their shelter. The ing such a vast throng of Indians upon the opmen fell speedily before the bullet and the tom-posite bank. The Indians witnessed her terror, ahawk of the savages. Twenty women and and assured her that she should not be harmed. children were taken prisoners and carried captive “When I was in the canoe,” she writes, “I into the wilderness. Mrs. Rowlandson, the wife could not but be amazed at the numerous crew of the pastor, and all her children were of the of pagans that were on the bank on the other number.
side. Then came one of them and gave me two This lady, who, with all her children, except spoonfuls of meal to comfort me, and another one who died of a wound, was subsequently ran- gave me half a pint of peas, which was worth somed, has written a very interesting account more than many bushels at another time. Then of her captivity. She was a prisoner in their I went to see King Philip. He bade me come hands for five months, and though she was held and sit down, and asked me whether I would
smoke—a usual compliment nowadays among | ered a band and hurried to their relief. A few the saints and sinners. But this no way suited Indians went out to meet them, affected a pan
ic, and fled. The English unwarily pursued, The Indians had a great dance to commem- and were thus led into ambush, where they found orate the signal victory at Lancaster. It was a themselves surrounded on all sides. The heroic barbarian cotillion, danced by eight persons in band, consisting of but eleven, fought with the the presence of admiring thousands. The per- utmost desperation, but a storm of bullets fell formers were four chiefs and four high-born In- upon them from hundreds of unseen foes, and dian beauties. In this dance, Quinnipin, who all but one were killed. The Indians then, deled the attack upon Lancaster, and Wetamoo, spairing of taking the garrison, with yells of who had become his bride, were conspicuous. triumph and defiance, retired. Like wolves Mrs. Rowlandson thus describes the dress which they had come rushing from the forest, and like her Indian mistress wore upon this occasion : wolves they again disappeared in their remote
“She had a kersey coat covered with girdles lairs. of wampum from the loins upward. Her arms, As a party of three hundred warriors were from her elbows to her hands, were covered with on their march toward Plymouth, a company bracelets. There were handfuls of necklaces of English soldiers from Marlborough, informed about her neck, and several sort of jewels in her of their place of encampment, fell upon them at ears. She had fine red stockings and white midnight and shot forty of the number. А shoes, and her hair powdered, and her face paint- few days after this the Indians drew a party of ed red."
eleven soldiers into an ambush, and shot every The terrible war continued to rage with un one. A party of eighty soldiers were hurrying to abated fury, and through the whole summer the scene of these depredations. Five hundred blood and woe held high carnival. The fate of Indians, informed of their approach, hid themthese North American colonies trembled in the selves in ambush in the thicket behind the hills, balance.
but a short distance from Sudbury. They conA party of Indians, elated with success, cealed themselves so effectually with green marched stealthily through the forest, and rush- leaves and branches that the English did not ed, three hundred strong, upon the town of Marl- suspect the presence of a fue until they received borough. A few hours of terror and of blood into their bosoms a rolley well aimed from five ensued, and the town was in ashes.
hundred guns. Those who survived the first They then advanced to Sudbury. The in- discharge sprang to the covert of the trees, and habitants, warned of their approach, abandoned for four hours maintained a desperate fight. their homes and took refuge in their garrison. One hundred and fifty Indians had now fallen, They soon saw the savages dancing exultingly pierced by the bullets of their antagonists. around their blazing dwellings. But through The wind blew a gale, directly in the face of the loop-holes of their block-house they fought the English. The leaves and the underbrush fiercely, shooting many of their foes. Some of of the forest were dry and crackling. Shrewdls the people of the neighboring towns, hearing of the Indians, who were at the windward, set the the peril of friends in Sudbury, hastily gath- forest on fire. Billor's of Arme and smoke were
swept down upon the English. Blinded, smoth- ebb. Still, with indomitable energy, he proseered, and scorched, they were compelled to fleecuted the war, apparently resolved never to from their coverts, and were thus exposed to the yield, and to struggle to the last. A few warbullets of their foes. All perished but twenty. riors, still faithful to him, followed all his forThese few fortunately escaped to a mill, where tunes. His camp was at Matapoiset. The Enthey defended themselves until succor arrived. glish, with their Indian allies, attacked him, and
These successes wonderfully elated the In- drove him across the Taunton River into the dians.
woods of Pocasset. In the autumn, suddenly the tide of victory Early in August Captain Church, the Genseemed to turn in favor of the English. Those eral Putnam of those Indian wars, surprised who recognize an overruling Providence will Philip in his retreat, shot one hundred and gratefully acknowledge in these occurrences the thirty of his people, and took captive the wife interposition of a power superior to that of man. and the son of the chieftain. This last blow But for such interposition we see not how these broke the heart of Philip. We blush to record scattered settlements could have been rescued that these illustrious captives were sold into from total destruction.
slavery, and this is the last which is known of The Massachusetts tribes, for some unknown their doom. Dejected, disheartened, but unreason, became alienated from Philip, and bit- yielding, the bereaved husband and father reterly reproached him with involving them in tired to his ancestral court at Pokanoket, or wars which had brought upon them great dis- Mount. Hope. The English surrounded him so tress. The Mohawks, instead of yielding to that all retreat was cut off. The heroic Capthe solicitations of Pometacom, joined in fierce tain Church now arranged his men to hunt the battle against him. They believed, whether still indomitable chieftain like a wolf in his lair. correctly or incorrectly it is impossible now to One after another of the Indian warriors fell know, that Philip had caused several of the into the hands of the English, but still Pometawarriors of their tribe to be killed, intending to com eluded capture. It was much feared that convince the Mohawks that the murders were he would again escape, and by his diplomatic perpetrated by the English.
sagacity again rouse and combine the distant Whether this representation be true or false, tribes. Some Indian prisoners who were taken it is certain that the Mohawks in the vicinity on the 2d of August, with their accustomed of Albany attacked Philip, killed several of his readiness to betray their brethren, informed warriors, and took others captive. And then Captain Church that Pometacom, with a small many of these northern Indians went to Ply- but determined band, was encamped at but a mouth and entered into an alliance with the short distance in the forest. It was now dark English. The Indians in the vicinity of the night. There were no paths through the miry colonies, driven from their cornfields and fish- and tangled wilderness. Captain Church, aping grounds, were in a state of famine. At the prehensive of an ambush, did not venture to kinsame time a fearful pestilence broke out among dle a fire or to speak in a loud voice. All his them, which swept throngh all their wigwams. men sat as quiet and immovable as the stumps
The affairs of Philip were now at a very low | around them until the dawn of the morning.
As soon as the first ray of light appeared in One of the Indian warriors now ventured to the east, he sent two scouts to creep cautiously urge Pometacom to make peace with the Enalong and endeavor to spy out the position of glish. The haughty monarch immediately put the foe. Pometacom, no less wary, had at the the man to death, as a punishment for his tesame moment dispatched two Indians to report merity, and as a warning to others. The the movements of his formidable adversaries. brother of this man, indignant at such severity, The respective spies reported almost at the and apprehensive of a similar fate, immediately same moment to the two parties. Philip had deserted to the English, and offered to guide not been aware that his enemies were so near Captain Church through the swamp to the reto him. His warriors had kindled their fires treat of Pometacom. Guided by this Indian, for their morning meal. Their kettles were whose name was Alderman, early on Saturday boiling, and their meat was roasting on their morning, August 12th, Captain Church came wooden spits. Their scouts had but just re- to the encampment of the chieftain, and secretly ported the appalling vicinity of the foe when stationed men at all of its outlets. It was in Church and his men, discharging a shower of the early gray of the morning; and the despairbullets upon the surprised Indians, burst upon ing fugitive, exhausted by days and nights of them from the forest with infuriate cries. Sev- the most harassing flight and fighting, was eral of the Indians fell before the murderous soundly asleep. The few warriors still faithful discharge. The rest, thus taken by surprise, to him, equally exhausted, were dozing at his seized their guns and plunged into the recesses side. Captain Church, when his men were of the swamp.
stationed so as to cut off all retreat, sent a The extraordinary sagacity and caution of small party, under Captain Goulden, to creep Pometacom is evinced by the fact that he was cautiously within musket-shot of their sleeping prepared even for such a surprise as this. He foes, discharge a volley of bullets upon them, had stationed a portion of his warriors in am- and then rush into the camp. The dreams of bush in the immediate vicinity, that he might Philip were disturbed by the crash of musketry, in his flight draw the pursuing English into a the whistling of bullets, and the shout and the fatal snare. But Pometacom had a foe to en- rush of his foes. He leaped from his couch of counter who was as wary as himself. When dry leaves, and, like a deer, bounded from humthe Indian chieftain and the English captain mock to hummock in the swamp. An Englishmet it was Greek meeting Greek. Captain man and the Indian deserter, Alderman, were Church avoided the ambush, and a long and placed behind a large tree, with their guns random fight ensued, the Indians retreating cocked and primed, directly in the line of his from tree to tree, while the swamp resounded flight. The Englishman took deliberate aim with the incessant musketry. Cunning as the at the chief, who was but a few yards distant, Indians were, the English were still more wary and sprung his lock. The night dews of the and skillful. In three days Pometacom had swamp had moistened his powder, and the gun now lost one hundred and seventy-three war- missed fire. The life of Pometacom was thus riors, either slain or taken captive.
prolonged for half a minute. Alderman then
cagerly directed his gun against the chief to world was composed. He followed in this, whom but a few hours before he had been in faithful to the prevailing usage, the great thesubjection. A sharp report rang through the ory of Democritus about atoms, and the more forest, and two bullets from the gun passed recent views of Leibnitz on monads. This idea almost directly through the heart of the heroic has, of course, been long since abandoned. warrior. For an instant the majestic frame of Soon after, he observed new varieties in other the Indian chieftain trembled from the shock, waters, even in the salt water of the ocean; and then he fell heavy and stone dead in the and his joy was great, and his triumph commud and water of the swamp.
plete, when, at last, he actually succeeded in Thus fell Pometacom, one of the most illus- creating them, as it were, in an infusion upon trious of the native inhabitants of the North pepper. He had hoped to discover, with the American continent. We must remember that aid of the microscope, the pungent power of the Indians have no chroniclers of their wrongs; pepper; and, for the purpose, kept rain-water and yet the colonial historians furnish us with standing upon it for some time. And, lo and abundant incidental evidence that outrages behold! new tiny beings had suddenly made were perpetrated by individuals of the colonists their appearance. which were sufficient to drive any people mad. Nearly a hundred years later, a German nat
No one can now contemplate the doom of uralist repeated these experiments more mePometacom, the last of an illustrious line, but thodically, and first named the result of his with emotions of sadness.
labors Infusoria, from the principal mode of "* Even that he lived is for his conqueror's tongue,
production. He and others fancied, it seems, By foes alone his death-song must be rung:
that there was a kind of primary creation takNo chronicles but theirs shall tell
ing place every time that water was poured Ilis mournful doom to future times ; May these upon his virtues dwell,
upon some vegetable or animal matter, and exAnd in his fate forget his crimes!"
posed for some time to the influence of air and
light. For an infusion is, even now, the most MONADS.
usual way to obtain whole hosts of these little HE
line of some mighty empire without feeling est stagnant water, we need only have a few his heart beat and his mind swell with vast drops of water, into which some organic matter expectation. We feel the same in Nature, has been thrown, for a day or two exposed to when we leave behind us the fair realm of Flora the air. It is utterly immaterial whether the and enter into the gay, graceful life of the an- water be fresh or foul, boiled, or just fallen imal kingdom, especially as the first province from the clouds: in a few days it will be filled that greets us is a land where all is mystery with living beings. yet, and every form we behold new and pecu This new world of smallest animals was so liar. All around us 'we are met by wonders marvelously full of fantastic forms, surprising and secrets, known to the mass only by hear-changes, and incredibly delicate organizations, say, and by some regarded with aversion, by that for years and years the microscope was others despised as unworthy their notice. Still, looked upon in the light of a kaleidoscope-an there are few parts of the created world of instrument rich in amusement, but presenting which man is master that are decked with little more than accidental combinations and greater beauty, and abound more with surpris- fanciful shapes. The illusion, it was granted, ing evidences of an all-wise Creator.
was extremely pleasing—the new world there faithful followers of Swedenborg fancy that the displayed full of wonders; but it was, after all, spirits of the beloved they have lost hover around only an illusion. Quacks and charlatans profitthem, though the eye does not see nor the eared by the public curiosity thus excited, and hear them, so this boundless world, with its un- learned works were written on “The Making counted millions, created anew every day, every of Strange Little Bodies." May-dew or twiceminute, had for thousands of years lived, and distilled waters-liquids of rare or revolting namoved, and enjoyed existence at our feet, right ture—were poured upon all possible substances, before our eyes, and yet blind man had ignored and wonders not only expected with confidence, them, in dull ignorance or haughty contempt. but, if we may trust the accounts of these writers,
It was not until the month of April, in 1675, actually witnessed. As late as 1825, a French that the far-famed naturalist of Holland, Leeu- savant solemnly assured bis audience that the wenhoek, discovered first tiny animals in a drop bluebottle flies they observed had been created of rain-water which he had kept for some time by an infusion of water upon raw beef; and in his study. The philosophers of Europe were much more recently still, grave proposals were amazed; but a short time before the micro- made to revive infusoria found in meteoric scope itself had been discovered, and now a stones, and thus to transplant the microscopic whole new world, full of wonders, was added denizens of our kind neighbor, the moon, into to the great kingdoms of Nature ! Leeuwen- our own lakes and rivers ! hoek called the diminutive creatures, not in Even Linnæus still called the unknown world appropriately, animalcules ; and so far he was thus revealed to the amazed eye a "chaos inright; but he also fancied them to be the living fusorium," well knowing that the same order atoms, the original elements of which the whole which he had so successfully introduced into