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“Mr. Broadacre and all of them pretend to be delighted with the country and all they see. Mr. Broadacre always did bear other people's troubles with the most provoking philosophy ; but in attempting to make up the fire this evening he found his match in an obstinate chunk. He persevered with it until he smutted the carpet all over, burned his boot, and pinched his thumb, and when I took advantage of the opportunity of advising him to keep cool, he threw the tongs out of the window and left the room.

“Please write without delay, and direct to Knoxville. Give me all the news about the weddings, and how they were dressed, and whether that match

we spoke of when I last saw dees? Then he habitually pours his coffee into you is likely to come off. Love to all. his saucer, blows it furiously to cool it, and makes

* Very affectionately yours, rings on the table-cloth with his cup, and has a

“Betty BROADACRE." most peculiar and abominably unfashionable way of blowing his nose. But, after all, it is better to support our trials with fortitude, and I humbly trust I shall have strength to do so. I am consoled here with the idea that the people won't observe these peculiarities, for they dine without napkins or finger-bowls, and use twopronged forks with one prong broken off.

As we were coming from Bristol to this place in the stage Leonore accidentally broke her camphor-bottle, when the man who sat in front of her hastily raised the curtain and thrust his head out into the rain. The odor was rather excessive, but not unpleasant; however, we opened the windows, and, wishing to say something apologetic, Leonore asked her vis-à-vis if he liked the smell of camphor. "No, ma'am, I don't,' replied he, with a polite bow— I'd as lief smell a skunk-hit's flung me into a darned sweat-but hit's no matter, ma'am.'

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From Blountville our travelers started in the that covered the coach, and who looked, for all stage-coach for Jonesborough, twenty-one miles the world, like a great West India turtle listdistant. Through torrents of rain and unfath- lessly peering from his shell at a dull wishyomable mud the smoking horses slowly toiled washy world in which he felt no sort of interalong, while the crowded, cramped, half-suffo- est. cated inmates of the vehicle were as merry as The country through which they passed conif they really enjoyed themselves. Bob Larkin, tained nothing particularly worthy of remark, who, despite the rain, still kept his sent with except the light wooden bridge across the Holthe driver, managed to make a little dry fun ston and its picturesque surroundings. Our trarout of a dripping negro who occasionally poked elers were, therefore, well pleased to hear the his head from beneath the water-proof canvas (coachman and his horn as they descended into

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the venerable and famous town of Jonesbor The higher clergy and the nobility, with a ough.

few exceptions, clung firmly together during The first impressions of Jonesborough were these conflicts. Finding themselves, however, generally satisfactory. It had an old-fashioned, defeated, first in their endeavor to prevent the substantial air, as if the people who built it in- meeting of the States-General, and then in the tended to live there for the rest of their days. effort to secure its division into three chambers, The town is snugly and modestly nestled in a they now resolved, as their last and desperate deep hollow, while the adjacent hills are crowned measure, to gather the standing army of France with neat private residences, and several acad- around Paris and Versailles, and thus, overawemies of some architectural pretension. It con- ing the people, to disperse the Assembly by miltains about fifteen hundred inhabitants, and is itary force. Rumors of approaching violence the oldest town in East Tennessee.

filled the air, and the public mind was every But we must not forget our newly-arrived day becoming more deeply excited. Squadtravelers. Passing by the stage-office, because rons of cavalry and regiments of infantry and the Squire observed the windows were all bro- artillery were on the march from the frontiers ken, they found quarters at the Eutaw House, toward the menaced city; troops were continuand in due time were comfortably bestowed in ally accumulating in the streets of Paris and their rooms.

They then partook of a hearty Versailles, and early in July an army of fifty old-fashioned supper of steaks, sausages, pre- thousand men had been assembled in the vicinserves, batter-cakes, and biscuits, and very soon ity of the Court awaiting its orders. · This army after went to sleep.

was placed under the command of Marshal When they awake the world may, probably, Broglie, one of the most haughty of the nobles, hear more of them.

and a very determined opponent of popular re


In Paris all business was at a stand. The BY JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.

poorer classes, entirely out of employment and QUIS XVI., in his endeavor to appease the literally starving, had nothing to do but to gath

universal discontent which pervaded France, er in groups to hear the news from Versailles. had convened the States-General, to be com- ten miles distant from the metropolis. Their posed of the three recognized orders the

only hope of any change which might rescue realm, the Clergy, the Nobility, and the Third them from poverty and misery was in the action Estate. The two privileged classes were greatly of the Assembly; and they trembled in view of alarmed at this movement, and did every thing that violent dissolution of the Assembly, which in their power to prevent the meeting. They would hopelessly rivet their chains. The spawere, however, unsuccessful, and the States- cious garden of the Palais Royal, surrounded General was convened at Versailles on the 5th by the most brilliant shops in Europe, was the of May, 1789. It was composed, in round num- general rendezvous of the multitude. Often bers, of three hundred of the Clergy, three hun- ten thousand men were assembled in the gardred of the Nobility, and six hundred of the den, where impassioned orators harangued them Third Estate. As all the pastors of the churches,

upon their rights and their wrongs. and several of the most illustrious of the nobles,

The Duke of Orleans, with his enormous like Lafayette, were earnest advocates of re- wealth, encouraged every insurrectionary moveform, and would vote with the representatives

He was willing so far to renounce arisof the people, it was manifest that if the States tocratic privilege as to adopt a constitution like met in one chamber the people would have the that of England, if he, as the head of the popumajority. It was equally evident that, if the lar party, could be placed upon the throne, from States met in three chambers, each chamber which he hoped to eject his cousin, Louis XVI. having a vote, the people would be ever in a mi- The Palais Royal became the sleepless eye of nority, having both of the privileged chambers Paris, ever vigilant to note the march of events. against them. Thus there would be no hope

It soon became evident that there was a third of reform. The first great question to be de- estate in the army as well as in the state. The cided, of course, was whether the States should officers were nobles, but the common soldiers meet in three chambers or in one.

For more

were from the people, and were with the people than a month this conflict was prolonged. All in all their sympathies. The French Guards, France, fully recognizing the issues at stake, consisting of three thousand six hundred picked looked on with intense interest.

men in the highest state of discipline and equipAt last the people, mainly aided by the work- ment, were stationed at Paris. They began to ing clergy, who have ever been in the front echo the murmurs of the populace. The Deranks in the battles for freedom, gained the victory. The National Assembly was organ- lic clergy at the tinie the Revolution broke out. Thes ized, where all the deputies of the three orders were enlightened; they were national; their private vir.

tues were not more striking than their public qualities : met in one chamber, and where the majority of and yet they were largely endowed with faith, sufficient votes, of course, carried the decision.*

to bear them up against persecution. I began to study

the Old Régime full of prejudice against the clergy. I "I doubt whether on the whole, even taking into ac have ended my task, and feel nothing but respect for count the startling vices of some of its members, the them."- The Old Régime and the Revolution, by ALEXIS world ever saw a more remarkable body than the Catho DE TOCQUEVILLE, P. 144.



claration of the King had informed them that no The colonel of the regiment arrested eleven reform whatever was to be tolerated in the army, of the most prominent in this movement, and that the common soldier was to be forever ex- sent them to the prison of the Abbaye, where eluded from all promotion. The privates and they were to await a court-martial, and such subalterns were doomed to endure all the toil punishment as might be their doom. This was of the army and its most imminent perils, but on the 30th of June. On the evening of that were to share none of its honors or emoluments. day, as a vast and agitated multitude was asThe young nobles who usurped all the offices sembled at the Palais Royal listening to the were generally dissolute and ignorant men, ivho speakers who there, notwithstanding reiterated merely exhibited themselves upon the field on municipal prohibitions, gave intelligence of all parade days, and who never condescended to that was passing at Versailles, tidings were show themselves even in the barracks.

brought to them of the arrest of the soldiers. The discontent of the soldiers reached the A young man, M. Lourtalot, editor of a Paears of their officers. Apprehensive that, by risian paper, mounted a chair, and cried out: association with the people, the soldiers might “ These are the brave soldiers who have rebecome more strongly allied to them by a com- fused to shed the blood of their fellow-citizens. mon sympathy, the officers commanded the Let us go and deliver them. To the rescue !" Guards no longer to go into the streets, and There was an instantaneous cry rising from consigned them to imprisonment in their bar- a thousand voices in the garden, and reverberracks. This, of course, increased their exas- ating through the streets, “To the Abbaye !" peration, and, being left to themselves, with no- The throng poured out of the gates, and seizing thing to do, they held meetings very similar to axes and crow-bars as they rushed along, every those which they had been in the habit of at- moment increasing in numbers, soon arrived at tending in the Palais Royal. Among them- the prison six thousand strong. There was no selves they talked over their grievances and the force there which could for a moment resist state of the monarchy. Patriotic enthusiasm rap-them. The doors were speedily battered down, idly gained strength, and they took an oath that the soldiers liberated, and conducted in triumph they would not fire upon their friends the people.* to the Palais Royal. Here they were provided + “The French Guards," writes M. Rabaut de St.

with food and lodging, and placed under the Etienne, one of the clergy who most heroically espoused protection of a citizen’s guard. the cause of the people, “these generous citizens, rebels

While the populace were conducting the solto their masters in the language of despotism, but faithful diers whom they had rescued to the Palais Royto the nation, are the first to swear never to turn their al, a squadron of cavalry came clattering over arms against her."Hist. of the Revolution of France, the pavements, and were ordered by their offii. 62.

Sir Archibald Alison designates this act of the soldiers cers to charge upon the multitude. They apas the revolt and treason of the French Guards." The proached at full gallop until within a few paces, same occurrence assumes different aspects as seen from and then, regardless of their officers, reined in different stand-points. Through all these stormy scenes their horses, and lifting their caps with true precisely the same deeds will appear to one as infamous, to another as virtuous, according as he is in favor of aris. French politeness, saluted their citizen friends. tocratic privilege or democratic rights.

There was then a scene of fraternization such

as the French metropolis alone can exhibit. The courtiers could not conceal their exultaMen and women ran out from the houses and tion, and began openly to boast that their hour the shops, presenting to the dragoons goblets of triumph was at hand. Fifteen regiments of of wine, and shouting, “Vive le Roi! Vive Swiss and German troops were now between la Nation!"

Paris and Versailles. It was supposed that The people were still disposed to love their they, without any reluctance, would fire upon King. They instinctively felt that his sympa- French citizens. thies were with them. Thus far they desired It was very evident that the Court was enonly reform, not the overthrow of the monarchy. deavoring to foment disturbances in Paris, that The Court, however, was instructed by these an appeal to the military might be necessary. scenes that it could not rely upon the French The leaders of the Revolution, on the other Guards to execute the bloody mandates which hand, were doing every thing in their power to it was about to issue. Hence vigorous meas- keep the people calm. A very able pamphlet ures were immediately adopted to concentrate was circulated through the city containing the in the metropolis an efficient force of foreign following sentiments : mercenaries, Swiss and German troops, who “Citizens ! the Ministers, the aristocrats, are would be less scrupulous in shooting down and endeavoring to excite sedition. Be peaceful, trampling under iron hoofs the French people. tranquil, submissive to good order. If you do

The Parisians distinctly understood this move- not disturb the precious harmony now reigning ment, and one can hardly conceive of a meas- in the National Assembly, a Revolution the ure more exasperating. It is worthy of record most salutary and the most important will be that the citizens, ascertaining that they had lib- irrevocably consummated, without causing the crated one soldier who was accused of what nation' blood or humanity tears." they deemed a crime, immediately sent that One is bewildered on learning that these huone back to his prison cell. The next day, mane sentiments came from the pen of Jean July 1, the populace at the Palais Royal, who Paul Marat.* were thus far under the guidance of the most The next day after the King had received the intelligent, virtuous, and influential citizens, deputation from the Assembly, he sent, an ansent a deputation to the National Assembly at swer (July 2) that the soldiers should be parVersailles, urging them to interpose with the doned as soon as order was re-established in the King for a pardon for the soldiers.* This was capital. Upon the receipt of this message at a movement quite unexampled. The citizens, the Palais Royal the Guards were taken back heretofore deprived of all political rights, had to prison, from whence they were speedily renever before ventured to make their wishes leased by a pardon from the King. known. Even then, for the people to send in a On the 3d of July, M. Bailly having resigned petition, was esteemed by the privileged classes the Presidency of the Assembly, the Archbishop the height of impudence.f

of Vienne, one of the high clergy who had warmThe National Assembly very prudently sent ly espoused the popular cause, was chosen Presback word to the Parisians exhorting them to ident, and the Marquis de Lafayette, equally refrain from all acts of violence, and assuring devoted to popular rights, was elected Vicethem that the maintenance of good order was President. Thus the two most important ofessential to the prosperity of their cause. At fices of the Assembly were conferred upon men the same time the Assembly sent a deputation selected from the highest rank of the privileged to the King imploring his clemency for the sol- class. But this act of conciliation did not in diers.

the slightest degree propitiate those who were Troops were, however, still rapidly approach- determined to perpetuate despotism. ing the city from different parts of the kingdom. The aspect of affairs was every hour becomThe higher clergy and the nobles were throwing ing more threatening. New regiments of forevery obstacle in the way of either deliberation eigners were continually marching into the meor action by the Assembly. It was manifest to tropolis, and occupying all the avenues which all that a conspiracy was fast ripening for its conducted to Paris and Versailles. Squadrons violent dissolution. I

of horse were galloping though the streets, and

heavy artillery rumbling over the pavements. * "I have studied history extensively, and I venture The Elysian Fields, the Place Louis XV., the to affirm that I know of no other revolution at whose Field of Mars, presented the aspect of an enoutset so many men were imbued with a patriotism as sincere, as disinterested, as truly great."The Old Régime campment. Sentinels were placed around the and the Revolution, by ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE, p. 190. French Guards, who were confined in their bar† Histoire Parliamentaire, ii. 32. MICHELET, i. 127.

racks to prevent them from holding any inter* The Marquis de Ferrières, himself one of the nobles, and voting with the majority of his order, in his very sembly and of the people who attended the sittings. Incandid Memoires, writes:

stead of listening, they laughed and talked aloud, thus “While on this subject, I can not refrain from remark. confirming the people in the unfavorable opinion which ing on the impolitic conduct of the nobles and the bish it had conceived of them; and, instead of striving to reops. As they aimed only to dissolve the Assembly, to cover the confidence and the esteein of the people, they throw discredit on its operation, when the President strove only to gain their hatred and contempt."-FEE stated a question they left the hall, the deputies BIÈREB, tom. ii. p. 122. of their party to follow them. With this senseless con * Histoire des Montagnards, par ALPHONBE ESQTIBOS, duet they combined an insulting disdain, both of the As.

p. 15.

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