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urban development planning process. This will be among the important questions examined by the Secretaries in this study.

Other programs provide overall planning assistance, both for transportation and for general urban planning. The Federal-Aid Highway Act provides that a State may use 12 percent of its interstate and 2 percent of other funds for research and planning. Extensive metropolitan highway planning studies have been financed with these funds. Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954 as amended provides for planning grants to urban areas for general planning purposes. A formal agreement between the Secretary of Commerce and the Administrator of HFA (now HUD) provides for the coordinated use of these funds in metropolitan areas.

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH IN RELATION TO MASS TRANSPORTATION

The High-Speed Ground Transportation Research and Development Act of 1965 authorized extensive research, development, and demonstration activities in the Department of Commerce with respect to high-speed transportation. Much of this research, particularly with respect to the performance and design of equipment will have relevance to mass transportation in cities. Any research and development in mass transportation conversely will have a bearing on highspeed ground transportation for intercity service. For this reason, care must be taken to avoid the development of two rival research and development programs with consequent duplication of effort and waste of resources, or complex problems of administrative coordination and risk of neglected opportunities.

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1 Includes both full time and full-time equivalent of part time.
2 Includes 3,054 seamen on contract ships, who are not MARAD employees.

19. ACTUAL FEDERAL CIVILIAN EMPLOYMENT AS OF DEC. 31, 1965

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NOTE-In civilian employment DOT would rank seventh among the Departments. In total civilian and military employment it would rank fourth.

20. PROVISIONS OF THE BILL WHICH DIRECTLY AFFECT CURRENT EMPLOYEES

Personnel transferred to the Department as a result of provisions of the bill will not be reduced in classification or compensation because of the transfer. This savings clause operates for 1 year following the transfers. (Sec. 9(i).)

Offices established by law, all the functions, powers, and duties of which are transferred to the Secretary, are abolished. (Does not apply to Coast Guard.) (Sec. 9(j).)

Persons holding a Federal Executive Salary Act position who are appointed, without a break in service, to a position in the Department with duties comparable to those formerly performed will, for the duration of service in such position, be compensated at not less than the rate for the executive pay level formerly held. (Sec. 9(j).)

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$8, 489, 649, 000
669, 440, 000
63, 276, 320, 000
30, 248, 396, 000
2,257, 875,000
1, 516, 354, 000
387, 646, 000
4, 614, 043, 000
929, 670, 000
413, 433,000
13,092,813, 000

$6,677, 042.000 726,701.000 60, 340,079,000 38, 771, 837,000 1,569,988,000 1,518,428,000 404.687.000 4,596.922,000 836, 128,000

412,347.000 13,832, 930,000

State.

Treasury.

Total for elements to be included in Department of Transportation (parent Department reduced accordingly).

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NOTE. On this basis, the proposed Department of Transportation would rank 5th in size. (Source: The budget of the U.S. Government for fiscal year 1967.)

23. ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUND TO THE DEPARTMENT

OF TRANSPORTATION

The attached chart traces an abridged organizational history of the Department of Transportation. Highlights of the principal organizational arrangements since 1930 are developed in four parallel patterns: those affecting air, land, and sea transportation as well as those affecting transportation policy development.

Of the 11 organization elements forming the Department of Transportation, 5 essentially achieved their present organizational status before 1930. The Alaska Railroad, the Corps of Engineers, and the ICC have not been subjected to any major transfer from other agencies although their functions have been broadened by additional legislation. The Coast Guard has added some functions from the Commerce Department since 1930; it was shifted from Treasury to the Navy Department for the World War II years. The Bureau of Public Roads started in Agriculture, switched to the Federal Works Agency in 1939, transferred in 1949 to GSA and a few months later to Commerce, where it has been ever since.

The Under Secretary of Commerce for Transportation, established in 1950, the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, chartered in 1954, and the Great Lakes Pilotage Administration, organized in 1960, will experience their first external reorganization with the formation of the Department.

Aviation organization, however, has undergone a number of changes. In 1936, the Civil Aeronautics Authority was established as an independent agency successor to the Bureau of Air Commerce in the Department of Commerce. In 1940, the Authority split in two: a Civil Aeronautics Administration was established in Commerce, and a Civil Aeronautics Board, as an independent regulatory agency with safety responsibilities, was formed. Both the Administration and the Board were part of what was called the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The Authority, beginning in 1940, however, had no functions. In 1958, the Federal Aviation Agency was created as an independent entity, assuming the functions of Commerce's Civil Aeronautics Administration. The FAA was, in addition, vested with the CAB's safety rulemaking function and the Airways Modernization Board's air traffic control developmental and promotional responsibilities. Maritime organization has had an even more complex history. The World War I organizations, the U.S. Shipping Board and its Merchant Fleet Corporation, were transferred to the Commerce Department in 1933. Three years later, an independent U.S. Maritime Commission was established as the successor agency to the Board and its Fleet Corporation. The Commission was charged with fostering the development and encouraging the maintenance of a merchant marine. In 1950, the Commission was abolished. The Maritime Administration in Commerce then came into being, as well as the Federal Maritime Board. The Board had both regulatory and subsidy functions. In 1961, a further reorganization abolished the Board and put regulatory responsibilities in a new Federal Maritime Commission and subsidy functions in the Martime Administration.

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