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Carver has mentioned a clay of this sort that he saw above St. Anthony's falls. Marl, chalk, gypsum, Ind ocres, are found in various parts.
“ With respect to climate in Kentucky you experience a greater temperature of air than in any country in which I ever travelled, Fahrenheit's thermometer seldom falling below 35 degrees in winter, nor rising above 80 in summer. The approach of the seasons is gradual. The summer continues mostly to the middle of O&tober. The autumn, or mild weather, generally continues until Christmas, when we have some cold and frost until February, when spring approaches, and by the beginning of March several shrubs and trees begin to shoot forth their buds ; by the middle of the month, the buck-eye or horse-chefnut is clad in its summer's livery ; and by the middle of April the fo. liage of the forests is completely expanded ; which is a fortnight earlier than the leaves are thot in Virginia and Maryland. Cumberland is proportionally more temperate than North-Carolina, as Kentucky is than Virginia."
SITUATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES.
| HIS State is situated between 35° 50', and 36° 30' north-lati. tude, and 1° and 6° 30' west-longitude from Philadelphia. Its length is about three hundred miles, and its breadth one hundred and twenty ; it therefore contains about thirty-four thousand square miles. It is bounded on the north, by Virginia ; on the east, by the Atlantic ocean ; on the south, by South-Carolina and Georgia ; and on the west, by a chain of mountains a few miles to the westward of the Great Appalachian mountains. This chain of mountains, taking the whole for a part, has occasionally been called the Great Iron mountain. All that vast country which lies on the west of the Iron mountain, was surrendered to the United States by the State of North-Carolina in the year 1989. It has since been erected into a separate government, commonly called the Territory South of Ohio, or the Tennessee government.
The charter limits of North-Carolina were a line, beginning on the sea side, at a cedar stake, at or near the mouth of a little river on the southern extremity of Brunswick county, and running thence a north-west course through the boundary-house, in latitude 33° 56' to latitude 35°, and on that parallel weít as far as is mentioned in the charter of King Charles II. to the original proprietors of Carolina, viz, to the South Sea. Their northern line begins on the sea coast in Jatitude 36° 30', and runs due west to the termination of the southern line. This line strikes the Miffiffippi fifteen miles below the mouth of the Ohiq. These limits were ascertained and confirmed agreeably to an order of George II. in council. Great-Britain, by the treaty of 1763, which was made with France and Spain, surrendered her claim to all the territory westward of the Mililippi ; and those na.
tions, by the same treaty, granted to Great-Britain the free navigation of the Miffillippi. By the treaty of 1783, between Spain and Great-Britain, his Catholic Majesty expressly confirms the former treaty of 1763, except such parts as are there excepted; consequently he confirms to Great-Britain the navigation of the Misfiflippi ; and Great-Britain, on her part, yields to the United States her entire right to the navigation of the same river. But since Spain now claims the exclufive navigation of the Mississippi, which she had formerly surrendered, it is very probable that the United States to whom North-Carolina has ceded her western territory, may clain the lands on the west side of the Millisippi, which were within the original charter bounds of that State.
. CLIMAT E. The western hilly parts of this State are as healthy as any of the United States. The country is fertile, full of springs and rivulets of pure water. The air is serene a great part of the year, and the inhabitants live to old age, which cannot so generally be said of the inhabitants of the flat country. Though the days in sumıner are extremely hot, the nights are cool and refreshing. Autumn is very pleasant, both in regard to the temperature and serenity of the weather, and the richness and variety of the vegetable productions which the season affords. The winters are so mild in some years, that autumn may be said to continue till spring. Wheat harvest is in the beginning of June, and that of Indian corn early in September.
In the flat country, near the sea coast, the inhabitants, during the summer and autumn, are subject to intermitting fevers, which often prove fatal, as hilious or nervous symptoms prevail. These fevers are seldom immediately dangerous to the natives who are temperate, or to strangers who are prudent. They, however, if suffered to continue for any length of time, bring on other disorders, which greatly impair the natural vigour of the mind, debilitate the constitution, and terminate in death. The countenances of the inhabitants during these seasons have generally a pale yellowish cast, occasioned by the prevalence of bilious symptoms. They have very little of the bloom and freshness of the people in the northern States.
It has been observed that more of the inhabitants, of the men efpecially, die during the winter by pleurisies and peripneumonies, than during the warm months by bilious complaints. These pleurifies are brought on by intemperance, and by an imprudent exposure Vol. III.
to the wcather. Were the inhabitants cautious and prudent in these respects, it is alledged by their phyficians, that they might in ge. neral escape the danger of these fatal diseases. The use of Aannel next to the skin during the winter is reckoned an excellent preventative of the diseases incident to this climate.
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SEA COAST, &c. · North-Carolina, in its whole width, for fixty miles from the sea, is a dead level. A great proportion of this tra&t lies in forest, and is barren. In all the champaign country, marine productions are found by digging eighteen or twenty feet below the surface of the ground. The sea coast, the sounds, inlets, and the lower parts of the rivers, have uniformly a muddy, soft bottom. Sixty or eighty miles from the sea, the country rises into hills and mountains.
The several rivers in this State are the Chowan, formed by the confluence of the Meherrin, Nottaway, and Black rivers ; all of which rise in Virginia. It falls into the north-west corner of Albemarle found, and is three miles wide at its mouth, but narrows fast as you afcend it.
The Roanoke, a long rapid river, formed by Staunton river, which rises in Virginia, and Dan river, which rises in South-Carolina. The low lands on this river are subject to inundations. It is naviga. ble only for shallops, nor for these, but about fixty or seventy miles, on account of falls, which in a great measure obstruct the water communication with the back country. It empties, by several mouths, into the south-west end of Albemarle sound. The planters on the banks of this river are supposed to be the wealthiest in North-Carolina. One of them, it is said, raises about three thousand barrels of corn, and four thousand bushels of peas, annually.
The Cumai is a small river, which empties into Albemarle found, between the Chowan and the Roanoke.
Pamlico, or Tar, a river which opens into Pamlico found: its course is from north-west to fouth-east. It is navigable for vessels drawing nine feet water to the town of Washington, about forty miles from its mouth ; and for scows or flats, carrying thirty or forty hogMeads, fifty miles farther, to the town of Tarborough. Beyond this place the river is inconfiderable, and is not navigable. · The Neus, a river which empties into Pamlico found below New.
berni bern ; it is navigable for sea vessels about twelve miles above the town of Newbern; for scows fifty miles; and for small boats two. hundred miles.
The Trent river, from the south-west, which falls into the Neus at Newbern, is navigable for sea vessels about twelve miles above the own, and for boats thirty.
There are several other rivers of less note, among which are the Pasquotank, Perquimins, Little river, Alligator, Soc. which discharge themselves into Albemarle found. All the rivers in NorthCarolina, and, it may be added, in South-Carolina, Georgia, and the Floridas, which empty into the Atlantic ocean, are navigable by any vessel that can pass the bar at their mouth. While the water. courses continue wide enough for vessels to turn round, there is generally a sufficient depth of water for them to proceed.
Cape Fear, more properly Clarendon river, opens into the sea at cape Fear, in about latitude 33° 45'. As you ascend it, you pass Brunswick on the left, and Wilmington on the right. The river then divides into north-east and north-west branches, as they are called. It is navigable for large vessels to Wilmington, and for boats to Fayetteville, near ninety miles farther. This river affords the best pavigation in North-Carolina. Yadkin river rises in this State, and running south-eastwardly, crosses into South-Carolina, where it takes the name of Pedee, and passes to the sea below George. town.
The rivers of this State would be much more valuable, were it not that they are barred at their mouths. This circumstance, and the coast furnishing no good harbours, will prevent the State from build. ing large fhips, for which they have an abundance of excellent timher. Several causes have been assigned for all the harbours and rivers being barred, south of the Chesapeak. Some suppose the bars are formed by the current of the long rivers throwing up the sands, where their rapidity terminates ; others with more probability fay, that a bank is thrown up by the gulf stream, which runs near these fhores.
The banks of the rivers in this, and the other neighbouring States, often overflow after great rains, which does much damage to the plantations. A gentleman on the spot asserts, that he has seen the water thirty feet below the banks of the river, just after it had been ten feet above them. This is owing to the narrowness of the mouths of the rivers, which do not afford a sufficient channel Cc 2