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coast. An inhabitant of this district writes, “ Our physicians are, a fine climate, healthy robust mothers and fathers, plain and plenti. ful diet, and enough of exercise: there is not a regular bred physician residing in the whole distı et.”
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, &c. Cumberland mountain, in its whole extent, from the Great Kanhawa to the Tennessee, consists of the most stupendous piles of craggy rocks of any mountain in the western country; in several parts -of it, for miles, it is inaccessible even to the indians, on foot; in one
place particularly, near the summit of the mountain, there is a most remarkable ledge of rocks of about thirty miles in length and two hundred feet thick, flewing a perpendicular face to the south-east more noble and grand than any artificial fortification in the known world, and apparently equal in point of regularity. Through this stupendous pile, according to a modern brypothesis, had the waters of all the upper branches of the Tennessee to force their way; the attempt would have been impracticable at any other place than the one inentioned, for more than one hundred miles eastwardly. Here then seems to have been the chasm, left by the Creator, to convey off those waters which must otherwise have overflowed, and rendered useless a vast tract of valuable country enclosed within the mountains.
The Tennessee, called also the Cherokee, and absurdly the Hogo: hege river, is the largest branch of the Ohio; it rises in the moune tains of Virginia, latitude 37°, and pursues a course of about one thousand miles south and south-west, nearly to latitude 34', receiving from both sides a number of large tributary streams; it then wheels about to the north in a circuitous course, and iningles with the Ohio, nearly fixty miles from its mouth ; from its entrance into the Ohio to the Muscle shoals, a distance of two hundred and fifty miles, the current is very gentle, and the river deep enough, at all seasons, for the largest row boats: the Muscle shoals are about twenty miles in length. At this place the river spreads to the width of three miles, and forms a number of islands, and is of difficult pasage, except when there is a swell in the river. From these shoals to the whirl or suck, the place where the river breaks through the Great ridge, or Cumberland mountain, is two hundred and fifty miles, the navigation all the way excellent,
The Whirl, as it is called, is in about latitude 35°; it is reckoned a greater curiosity than the bursting of the Potoınack through the Blue ridge. The river, which a few miles above is half a mile wide, is here compressed to the width of about one hundred yards; just as it enters the mountain, a large rock projects from the northern More in an oblique direction, which renders the bed of the river still parrower, and causes a sudden bend; the water of the river is, of course, thrown with great rapidity against the southern Tore, whence it bounds round the point of the rock and produces the whirl, which is about eighty yards in circumference. Canoes have often been carried into this whirl, and escaped by the dexterity of the rowers without damage. In less than a mile below the whirl the river spreads into its common width, and, except the Muscle shoals already mentioned, flows beautiful and placid till it mingles with the Ohio.
Six miles above the whirl are the Chiccamogga towns, on the banks of the river, and of a large creek of the same name; from these towns to the mouth of the Hiwassee is fixty mi'es by water, and about forty by land ; this river is a fouth branch of the Tennessee, and navigable till it penetrates the mountains on its south fide. The climate, the fine springs, and fertile plains, render the banks of this river a most delightful place of lettlement. From a branch of the Hiwaflie, called Amoia, there is but a short portage to a branch of the Mobile, and the road all the distance firm and level.
Pailing up the Tennessee, fixty miles from the mouth of the river Hiwaffee, you come to the mouth of Pelefon or Clinch river, from the north, which is large and navigable for boats upwards of two hundred miles, receiving in its course, besides interior streams, Powell's river, which is nearly as large as the main river, and boatable for one hundred miles : this laft-mentioned river runs through Powell's valley, an excellent tract of country abounding with fine springs.
From the Pelefon to the junction of the Holstein and Tennessee is computed forty miles; this last is the branch which formerly gave its name to the main river, not from its fize, but from its notoriety, having on its banks a vast number of Indian villages, and the chief town of the Cherokee Indians, called Chota, and was therefore called Cherokee river ; but the name of Tennessee has of late obtained a preference; it crosses the valley at nearly right angles with
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the mountains, and has on its banks a number of beautiful plains, which are chiefly improved as corn fields by the Indians. In 1788, the whites had advanced their settlements within ten miles of the Indian villages. Forty miles from the Tennessee, up the Holstein branch, comes in Frank river, vulgarly called French Broad, four or five hundred yards wide ; thence, pursuing the Holstein two hun. dred miles, you come to Long-INand, which is the highest navigation yet used; thence about one hundred miles is the source of the river. One mile below Long-Island comes in North-Holstein, and twenty miles above it the Wattago; the former is one hundred yards wide at its mouth, and, with a small expense, might be made navigable to Campbell's Salines, seventy miles farther up. In the Tennessee and its upper branches are great numbers of fish, some of which are very large and of an excellent flavour.
The head waters of the Great Kanbawa are in the western part of North-Carolina, in the most eastern ridge of the A'legany or Ap. palachian mountains, and south of the 36' of latitude. Its head branches encircle those of the Holstein, from which they are sepasated by the Iron mountain, through which it passes, ten miles above the lead mines ; thence steering its course along the foot of the Allegany mountain, until it receives Little river from the east, it turns to the north, which is its general course till it meets the Ohio. About fixty miles froin Little river it receives Green Briar river from the east, which is the only considerable tributary ítream in all that distance. About forty miles below the mouth of Green Briar river, in Virginia, in the Kanhawa, is a remarkable cataract. A large rock, a little elevated in the middle, crosses the bed of the river, over which the water floots and falls about fifty feet perpendicularly, except at one side, where the descent is more gradual.
The Shawanhee, now called Cumberland river, of the fouthern branches of the Ohio, is next in fize to the Tennellee, and extends eastwardly ncarly as far, but rúns in a much more direct course ; it is navigable for small craft as far as Nashville'; from the fouch it receives Harper's, Coney, Obey's and Clear Fork rivers; and from the north, Red and Rock Castle rivers, besides many smaller streans.
Of this territory, above half is covered with mountains which are uninhabitable ; some of these, particularly Cumberland, or Great Laurel ridge, are the most stupendous piles in the United States ; they abound with ginseng and stone coal. Clinch mountain is fouth
of thefe, in which Burk's garden and Morris's nob might be described as curiosities.
The Iron mountain, which constitutes the boundary between this district and North-Carolina, extends from near the lead mines, on the Kanhawa, through the Cherokee county, to the fouth of Chota, and terminates near the sources of the Mobile. The caverns and cascades in these mountains are innumerable,
SOIL AND PRODUCTIONS, The farmers on Cumberland river, for the sake of describing their lands, distinguish them by first, second, and third quality. Land of the first quality will bear Indian corn or hemp, but it will not bear wheat without great reduction. Land of the second quality does not bear wheat to advantage until it has been reduced by two or three crops of corn, hemp, tobacco or cotton. Land of the third bears every kind of grain that is usually sown on dry ground in the Atlantic States. It is agreed by all who have visited the Cumberland settlement, that one hundred bushels of Indian corn are frequently gathered from an acre of their best land; fixty or seventy bushels from an acre is very common, but the farmer who expects to gather such a crop must be careful, while the corn is soft, to guard it against bears and racoons. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, buck-wheat, Indian corn, pease, beans, potatoes, flax, hemp, tobacco, indigo, rice and cotton, have already been planted in that settlement, and they 1 thrive in great perfection; the usual crop of cotton is eight hundred pounds to the acre : the staple is long and fine. It is alledged, how, ever, that the lands on the small rivers that run into the Mississippi, have a decided preference to those on the Cumberland river, for the production of cotton and indigo. No experiments have been made on land near the Missisippi within the ceded territory; but there is a small settlement farther down the river, within the limits of the United States, on a similar foil, where the growth and quality of cotton is so remarkable, that its culture is more profitable than any other crop. The foil on those rivers is deep and light, having a small mixture of fand with a black earth; hence, as the planters alledge, it proves favourable to the culture of all kinds of roots, as well as of indigo and cotton.
The lands on the waters of Tennessee and Cumberland rivers are generally well timbered; in some places there are glades of rich land without timber, but these are not frequent nor large. The general growth is poplar, hickory, back walnut, buck eye, or the horse chesnut, fycamore, locust and the sugar maple. The undergrowth, in many places, is cane fifteen or twenty feet high, fo close together as to exclude all other plants; where the cane does not abound, we find red bud, wild plum, spice wood, red and white mulberry, ginseng, Virginia and Seneka snake root, angelica, sweet anise, ginger and wild hops. The glades are covered with clover, wild rye, buffalo grass and pea vine. On the hills, at the head of rivers, we find stately red cedars; many of these trees are four feet in diameter, and forty feet clear of limbs.
A few years finre, this country abounded with large herds of wild cattle, improperly calient buffaloes; but the improvident or ill-disposed among the first letilers have destroyed multitudes of them out of mere wantonness; they are still to be found on some of the foutly branches of Cumberland river. Elk, or moose, are feen in many place , chiefly among the mountains. The deer are become comparatively fcarce, fo that no person makes a business of hunting them for their skins only. Enough of bears and wolves yet remain. Beavers and otters are caught in plenty in the upper branches of Cumberland and Kentucky rivers.
They have phealants, partridges or quails, and turkies in abundance through the year. During the winter their waters are covered with fwans, will geese, brant and duck. Cat-fish have been caught in thvle rivers that weighed above one hundred pounds, and perch that weighed above twenty pounds.
The mammoth appears to have been an inhabitant of this coun. fry, as his bones have been dug up by labourers at Campbell's Salines, on North-Holstein, when finking falt pits; they were from three to feven fest below the mufice of the earth.
Carripin 'l's salines are the only ones that have yet been discovered on the w; pubranches of ihe Tennefee and on this fide the widerness, ihing great search nas beun made for thein. The tract which contains these falines is a great natural curiosity ; it was discovered by Captain Charles Campbell about 1745, who was one of the first explorers of the western country. In 1753, he procured a patent for it from 1'e governor of Virginia. His son, the late General Widtail Cam, bell, who behaved to gallantly in the American war in il years 1,80 and 1781, berame owner of it on his death. But it was not till the time of his dvaih, when falt was very scarce and