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dear, that salt water was discovered, and salt made by a poor man ; fince that time, under the direction of Colonel Arthur Campbell, it has been improved to a considerable extent, and many thousands of inhabitants are supplied from it with salt of a superior quality, and at a low price. The tract conGifts of about three hundred acres of Alat marsh land, of as rich a foil as can be imagined : in this flat, pits are funk in order to obtain the falt water; the best is found from thirty to forty feet deep. After patlang through the rich foil or mud, from six to ten fvet, you come to a very brittle lime-stone rock, with cracks, or chasms, through which the salt water issues into the pits, whence it is drawn by buckets and put into the boilers, which are placed in furnaces adjoining the pits. The hills that fure round this fiat are covered with fine timber, and not far diftant a coal mine has been discovered.
On Frank river, about thirty miles in a direct line from its mouth, a large, clear, medicinal spring lias lately been discovered, which, on experiment, has been found to relieve various complaints of the human body; its temperature rather exceeds blood heat.
On the same river, nearer its mouth, a valuable lead mine has been discovered.
On the banks of the Holstein are many mines of iron ore, of the best kind, some of which have been opened and worked to advantage, and enough might be made to supply the whole western country: these mines are the more valuable, as there is said to be none of this ore near the Mislimppi, and very little north of the Ohio.
Up the Hiwafsee river, in the mountains on the south side, a mine has been discovered and ore taken, from which, it is said, gold was extracted by an artist, while the British were in poffefsion of Georgia: it is certain, that but few Indians know the spot, and those who dar are very anxious to keep it a secret : the gentleman who gave this information has been within view of the place. The mountain is very high and barren, and has several of the appearances described by mineralists. The discovery was made by means of the river undermining the base of a large cliff or spur of the mountain, which occalioned a great column of the earth or rock to tumble into the water ; this disrupture discovered the vein of yellow metal at a great depth.
CIVIL DIVISIONS AND CHIEF TOWNS." This territory is divided into two districts, each of which is again divided into counties as follows:
... * WASHINGTON DISTRICT.
NASHVILLE. . This is the thire town of Davidson county, and is the largest tours in the territory. The courts are held here; it has two houses for public worship, and a handsomely endowed academy, establislied in 1786.
ABINGDON.. Abingdon is the county town of Washington county: it contained in 1988. about twenty houses, and was rapidly increasing: it is about two hundred and fixty miles from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and three hundred and ten as the road runs, bearing a little to the south of west latitude 36° 30'.
ROAD S. The following are the distances on the new road from Nashville, in Davidson county, to Fort Campbell, near the junction of Holstein river with the Tennessee. . : Miles.
Milcs. From Nashville to Stony river9 Smith's creek * 6
Big spring - 6 Coney river . Il
4 War pach . ☺ Spring creek
. Bear creek
From the foot of Cumberland To Campbell's station, : , mountain
% . near Holstein 10, Through the mountain To the Great island 100
to Emmery's river, å To Abingdon in Wash
branch of the Pelefon 11. ington county 35 To the Pappa ford of the To Richmond in VirgiPelefon or Clinch ri
• 310 ver
Total 635 By this new road, a pleasant passage may be had to the western country with carriages, as there will be only the Cumberland mountain to pass, and that, is easy of afcent; and beyond it, the road is generally level and firm, abounding with fine springs of water.
· POPULATION. In 1763, there were but about ten families fettled west of the Kanbawa, fo many had joined them in 1773, that the settlement was erected into a county, and in 1776, again subdivided into three.-In 1788, the number of inhabitants was reckoned at forty thousand : they must have greatly increased since that period the following is the return made by the governor in 1791.
CIVIL DIVISIONS AND CHIEF TE : This territory is divided into two distr divided into counties as follows:
. WASHINGTON DIST Washington,' .. Greene, Sulivan,
... MERO, Davidsori, .
297) 4447 The chief towns are Na
454 7741 29211 8071 6970 1682 16271
163 3619 . This is the shire /> +9931 8460 126471 2931 22561 28649 in the territory. ' public worship, .MERO DISTRICT., 1786. 6391 855) 12880 181 6591 3459
348 2196 235 380 576 42 54 1387 in 1988 about
1278 1817 2718 68 1161 7042 a di
this return the following note was prefixed: There are several is who have not as yet returned the schedules of the numbers heir districts, namely ;-in Greene county, threein Davidson, Land South of French Broad, one district.
Though it is manifest the deficiency in this return is great, yet we have not sufficient data to determine it, but we may reasonably Tuppose the present number of inhabitants to exceed fixty thouLaud.
In 1788, the militia of this district amounted to between feven and eight thousand effective men, who were principally armed with rifles. It is supposed that their number is increased to nearly double since that period.
To this retu captains who
RELIGION AND CHARACTER. The Presbyterians are the prevailing denomination of Christians in this district : they have a Presbytery, called the Abington Prefbytery, established by act of fynod, which, in 1788, confisted of
twenty-three large congregations, who were then supplied by only fix ministers. There are also fome of the Baptists and Methodift denominations
The inhabitants of this district emigrated chiefly from Pennfylvą. nia, and that part of Virginia which lies west of the Blue ridge. The ancestors of these people were generally of the Scotch nation, fome of whom emigrated first to Ireland, and from thence to America. A few Germans and English are intermixed. The proportion of the whites to the blacks in this district, judgiog from the foregoing in. perfe&t census, is as ten to one. In 1788, it was thought there were: twenty white persons to one negroe. The erection of this territory into a feparate government, it is believed, will tend to lefsen the ne. groe population
There is nothing in the character of this people that distinguishes them from the settlers of new countries in general. Among the bulk of the inhabitants a great fimplicity of manners prevails ; duplicity, or the etiquette of cities and populous places, is unknown among them. If a man deceives another, he is deemed and called a liar; and it frequently happens that " a bloody nose” is the consequence. Wrestling, jumping, running foot races, and playing at ball, are the common diversions. Dancing is coming into falhion. Card playing is a rare amusement. The hunting shirt is still worn by the militia on duty, and by hunters in pursuit of game. At home, and at public afsemblies, they dress like the Virginians. i
Great was the damage sustained by the inhabitants of this country during the war, occasioned by the incursions of the Indians; and it is much to their honour, that when they were offered protection by the British, in the early stage of the war, they nobly refufed it.
COMMERCE. • As the waters of the Cumberland from Nashville, and of the Ten. nessee from the Muscle shoals to the Ohio, are navigable to the Ohio and Mississippi, the people of course, who live in the interior of the country, have the same advantages of water conveyance for trade, as those who live on the Ohio or Mississippi, to New-Orleans or elsewhere. • Besides, there is another probable avenue through which trade will be carried on with this country, which is from Mobile up the waters of the Mobile river as far as it is navigable, thence by a land carriage of about fifty miles, at most, to Ocochappo creek, which