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pafled Jacksonfburgh, leaving it on the south, branches and embraces Edisto island.
Santee is the largest and longest river in this State: it empties into the ocean by two mouths, a little south of George-town. About one hundred and twenty miles in a direct line from its mouth, it branches into the Congaree and Wateree; the latter or northern branch passes the Catabaw nation of Indians, and bears the name of the Catabaw river from this settlement to its source. The Congaree branches into Saluda and Broad rivers. Broad river again branches into Enoree, Tyger, and Pacolet rivers, on the latter of which are the celebrated Pacolet springs.
Pedee river rises in North-Carolina, where it is called Yadkin river : in this State, however, it takes the name of Pedee; and, receiving the waters of Lynche's creek, Little Pedee, and Black river, it joins the Wakkamaw river, near George-town. These united streams, with the accession of a small creek, on which George-town stands, form Winyaw bay, which, about twelve miles below, communicates with the ocean. All these rivers, Edisto excepted, rise from various sources in that ridge of mountains which divides the waters which fow into the Atlantic ocean, from those which fall into the Miffissippi.
The rivers of a fecondary size, as you pass from north to south, are Wakkamaw, Black river, Cooper, Ainepoo, and Combahee. These rivers afford, to the proprietors of their banks, a considerable quantity of tide swamp or rice land, Hooded from the rivers, except in extraordinary droughts.
In the third class are comprehended those rivers which extend but a fort distance from the ocean, and serve, by branching into num. berless creeks, as drains to 'take off the quantity of rain water which comes down from the large inland swamps ; or are merely arms of the sea; of this kind are Ashley, Stono, Coofaw, Broad, Colleton, May, New, and Right's rivers. The tide, in no part of this state, flows more than twenty five miles from the sea.
A company has been incorporated for the purpose of connecting Cooper and Santee rivers by a canal of twenty-one miles in length.
The sum supposed to be necessary to complete this extensive work is fifty-five thousand fix hundred and twenty pounds sterling. Twentyfive per cent. are allowed by the legislature in tolls for all monies ad. yanced by stockholders. The advantage of a canal at this place, to Vol. III, fi
one who inspects a map of the Carolinas, must appear to be great, both to the public and to the proprietors.
The only harbours of note are those of Charleston, Port Royal, and George-town. Charleston harbour is spacious, convenient, and safe: it is formed by the junction of Athley and Cooper rivers : its entrance is guarded by fort Johnson. Twelve miles from the city is a bar, over which are four channels; one by the name of Ship Chan, nel, has eighteen feet water ; another fixteen and a half; the other two are for smaller vessels. The tides rise from five to eight feet. Port Royal has an excellent harbour, of sufficient extent to contain the largest fleet in the world,
The bar at the entrance of Winyaw bay, which leads to Georgetown, does not admit of vessels drawing more than eleven feet water ; and is, in many respects, a very dangerous place. This circumstance has proved injurious to the growth of George-town, which is otherwise exceedingly well situated for all the purposes of an extensive trade.
The sea coast is bordered with a chain of fine sea islands, around which the sea flows, opening an excellent inland navigation for the conveyance of produce to narket.
North of Charleston harbour lie Bull's, Dewee's, and Sullivan's ilands, which form the north part of the harbour. James island lies on the other side of the harbour, opposite Charleston, containing about fifty fainilies. Further south-west is John's iliand, larger than James ; Sțono river, which forms a convenient and safe harbour, divides these islands. Contiguous to John's island, and connected with it by a bridge, is Wadmelaw ; east of which are the small isles of Keyway and Simmon. Between these and Edisto island is N. Edista inlet, which also affords a good harbour for vessels of easy draft of water, South of Edilto island is S. Edisto inlet, through which enter, from the northward, all the vessels bound to Beaufort, Alepoo, Combahee and Coolaw.
On the south-welt side of St. Helena island lies a cluster of islands, one of the largest of which is Port Royal. Adjacent to Port Royal lie St. Helena, Ladies island, Paris island, and the Hunting islands, five or fix in number, bordering on the ocean, so called from the number of deer and other wild game found upon them. All these inands, and some others of less note, belong to St. Helena parish.
Crossing Broad river, you come to Hilton Head, the most southern sea island in Carolina. West and south-west of Hilton Head lie Pinckney's, Bull's, 'Dawfuskie's, and some smaller islands, between which and Hilton Head are Calibogie river and sound, which form the outlet of May and New rivers.
SOL AND PRODUCTIONS. The soil of this State may be divided into four kinds; first, the pine barren, which is valuable only for its timber. Interspersed among the pine barren are tracts of land free of timber, and every kind of growth but that of grafs. These tracts are called savannahs, constituting a second kind of soil, good for grazing. The third kind is that of the swamps and low grounds on the rivers, which is a mix
ture of black loam and fat clay, producing naturally canes in great · plenty, cypress, bays, loblolly pines, &c. Ini these swamps rice is
cultivated, which constitutes the staple commodity of the State. The high lands, commonly known by the name of oak and hiccory lands, constitute the fourth kind of soil. The natural growth is oak, hiccory, walnut, pine, and locust. On these lands, in the low country, Indian corn is principally cultivated ; and in the back country, besides this, they raise tobacco in large quantities, wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, flax, cotton, and silk.
There is little fruit in this State, especially in the lower parts of it. The oranges are chiefly four ; figs are plenty ; a few limes and lemons, pomegranates, pears, and peaches ; apples are scarce, and are imported from the northern States. Melons, especially the water melon, are raised here in great perfection.
The river swamps, in which ricc can be cultivated with any tolerable degree of safety and success, do not extend higher up the rivers than the head of the tides ; and in estimating the value of this species of rice land, the height which the tide rises is taken into consideration, those lying where it rises to a proper pitch for overflowing the swamps being the most valuable. The best inland swamps, which constitute a second species of rice land, are such as are furnished with reservoirs of water. These reservoirs are formed by means of large banks thrown up at the upper parts of the swamps, whence it is con- , veyed, when needed, to the fields of rice.
The soil on the islands is generally better adapted to the culture of indigo than the main, and less suited to rice : cotton grows very well upon them. The natural growth is the live oak, which is so excel. lent for ship timber, and the palmetto or cabbage tree, the utilit; of which, in the construction of forts, was experienced during the late war,
At the distance of about one hundred and ten miles from the seay the river swamps terminate, and the high lands extend quite to the rivers, and form banks, in some places, several hundred feet above the surface of the water, and afford many extensive and delightful views. These high banks are interwoven with layers of leaves and different coloured earth, and abound with quarries of freestone, pebbles, fint, chrystals, iron ore in abundance, lilver, lead, sulphur, and coarse diamonds.
The swamps above the head of the tide are occasionally planted with corn, cotton, and indigo. The soil is very rich, yielding from forty to fifty bushels of corn an acre.
'It is curious to observe the gradations from the sea coast to the upper country, with respect to the produce, the more of cultivation, and the cultivators. On the islands, upon the sea coast, and for forty or fifty miles back, and on the rivers much farther, the cultivators are all Naves. No white man, to speak generally, ever thinks of settling a farm and improving it for himself without negroes. If he has no negroes, he hires hiinself as overseer to fome rich planter, who has more than he can or will attend to, till he can purchase for himself.
The articles cultivated are corn and potatoes, whichi, with the small sice, are food for the negroes ; rice, indigo and cotton, for exportation. The culture of this last article is capable of being increased equal to almost any demand. The soil was cultivated, till lately, almost wholly by manual labour. The plough, till since the peace, was scarcely uted : now, the plough and harrow and other improvements are introduced into the rice swamps with great success, and svill no doubt become general. In the middle settlements, negroes are not fu numerous ; the master attends personally to his own business. The land is not properly situated for rice : it produces moderately good indigo weed, and some tobacco is raised for exportation. The farmer is contented to raise corn, potatoes, oats, rye, poultry, and a little wheat. In the upper country, there are but few negroes ; generally speaking, the farmers have none, and depend, like the io. habitants of the northern States, upon the labour of themselves and families for subfiftence; the plough is used almost wholly. Indian coru in great quantities, whcat, rye, potatoes, &c. are raised for food, and nzuch tobacco and some wheat, cotton and indigo, for ex. portation.
Rice ground is prepared only by effe&tually securing it from the maior, except fome higher parts of it, which are sometimes dug up
with with a hoe, or mellowed by a plough or harrow. When the rice is young, the overflowing of the water does not prevent its growth. Those who have water in reserve, commonly let it in upon their rice, after first going through with the hoe, while it is young, though it is deemed best to keep out the grass by the hoe only. The water is commonly kept on the rice eight or ten days after hoeing. When the ear is formed, the water is continued on till it is ripe: it is hoed three or four times. When the grass is very thick, a negroe cannot hoe more than one fixteenth of an acre in a day. From three pecks to a buchel is sown on an acre. It produces from fifty to eighty bushels of rough rice an acre; one hundred and twenty bushels of rough rice have been produced on one acre; twenty bushels of which make about five hundred pounds, or eight and a quarter bulliels clean rice for market. After it is threshed, it is winnowed, and then ground in a mill, constructed of two blocks in a simple manner; then winnowed by a fan constructed for that purpose, then beat in a mortar by hand, or, now generally, by horse or water machines, then fifted, to separate the whole rice from that which is broken and the flour. The whole rice is then barrelled in calks of about five hundred pounds, or eight and a quarter bufhels. The small rice serves for provisions, and the flour for provender, the chaff for manure, and the straw for fodder. The blade is green and fresh while the ear is ripe. The price is in the general from nine shillings and four-pence, to ten shillings and fix-pence a hundred; 'reckoning the dollar at four shillings and eight-pence.
CIVIL DIVISION S. Tlfé proprietors who first fent settlers to Carolina, divided it into counties and parishes. The counties were generally named after the proprietors. No county courts, however, were established, and this division, though for a long time kept up in the province, became in a great measure obsolete, previous to the revolution ; since the revolution, county courts have been established, and the State is now divided into districts and counties, and the counties are subdivided; in the lower country into parishes, and in the upper country into smaller or voting districts.
There are leven principal diftri&ts, in whịch are contained thirtyfive counties, as follows: