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by the names of the Allegany and Appalachian mountains, terminate in this State, about fixty miles south of its northern boundary. From the foot of this mountain spreads a wide-extended plain, of the richest foil, and in a latitude and climate well adapted to the cultivation of most of the East-India productions.

The rivers in this State are numerous, and some of them of the ntmost importance.

Savannah river divides this State from South-Carolina : its course is nearly from north-west to south-east. It is formed principally of two branches, known by the names of Tugulo and Keowee, which fpring from the mountains, and unite fifteen miles north-west of the northern boundary of Wilkes county. It is navigable for large veffels up to Savannah, and for boats of one hundred feet keel as far as Augufta. After rising a fall just above this place, it is paffable for boats to the mouth of Tugulo river. After it takes the name of Savannah, at the confluence of the Tugulo and Keowee, it receives a number of tributary streams from the Georgia fide, the principal of which is Broad river, which rises in the county of Franklin, and runs south-east through part of Wilkes county, and mingles with the Savannah at the town of Petersburgh, and might, with a trifling expense, be made boatable twenty-five or thirty miles through the best settlements in Wilkes county. Tybee bar, at the entrance of Savannah river, in lat. 31° 57', has sixteen feet water at half tide. .

Ogeechee river, about eighteen miles south of the Savannah, is a {maller river, and nearly parallel with it in its course.

Alatamaha, * about fixty miles south of Savannah river, has its source in the Cherokee mountains, near the head of the Tugulo, the great west branch of Savannah, and, before it leaves the mountains, is joined and augmented by innumerable rivulets ; thence it descends through the hilly country, with all its collateral branches, · and winds rapidly amongst hills two hundred and fifty miles, and

then enters the flat, plain country, by the name of the Oakmulge ; thence meandering one hundred and fifty miles, it is joined on the east side by the Ocone, which likewise heads in the lower ridges of mountains. After this confluence, having now gained a vast acqni: fition of waters, it assumes the name of Alatamaha, when it becomes a large majestic river, flowing with gentle windings through a vast forest, near one hundred miles, and enters the Atlantic by

* Pronounced Oltamawhaw,


feveral mouths. The north channel, or entrancë, glides by the heights of Darien, on the east bank, about ten miles above the bar, and, running from thence with several turnings, enters the ocean between Sapello and Wolf' islands. The south channel, which is esteemed the largest and deepest, after its separation from the north, descends gently, winding by, M'Intosh's and Broughton illands ; and lastly, by the west coast of St. Simon's island, enters the occany through St. Simon's found, between the south end of the island of that name, and the north end of Jekyl island. On the west banks. of the south channel, ten or twelve miles above its mouth, and nearly opposite Darien, are to be seen the remains of an ancient fort, or fortification; it is now a regular tetragon terrace, about four feet, high, with bàstions at each angle; the area may contain about an acre of ground, but the fosse which surrounded it is nearly filled up. There are large live oaks, pines and other trees, growing upon ice and in the old fields adjoining. It is supposed to have been the work of the French or Spaniards. ; A large swamp lies betwixt it and the river, and a considerable creek runs close by the works, and enters the river through the swamp, a small distance above Brough ton island. About seventy or eighty miles above the confluence of the Oakmulge and Ocone, the trading path, from Augufta to the Creek nation crosses these fine rivers, which are there forty miles. apart. On the east banks of the Oakmulge, this trading road runs. nearly two miles through ancient Indian fields, which are called the Oakmulge fields; they are the rich low lands of the riyer. "On the heights of these low grounds are yet visible monuments or traces of an ancient town, such as artificial mounts or terraces, squares and, banks, encircling considerable areas. Their old fields and planting land extend up and down the river, fifteen or twenty miles from this site. And, if we are to give credit to the account the Creeks give of themselves, this place is remarkable for being the first town or settle. ment, when they sat down, as they term it, or established themselves after their emigration from the west, beyond the Mississippi, their original native country,

. Besides these, there is Turtle river, Little Sitilla, or St. Ille, Great Sitilla, Crooked river, and St. Mary's, which form a part of the southern boundary of the United States. St. Mary's river has its source from a vast lake, or rather marsh, called Ouaquaphenogaw, and flows through a vast plain and pine forest, about one hundred and fifty miles to the ocean, with which it communicates between Vol. III.


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the points of Amelia and Talbert's islands, latitude 30° 44', and is navigable for vessels of considerable burthen for ninety miles. Its banks afford immense quantities of fine timber, suited to the WestIndia market. Along this river, every four or five iniles, are bluffs convenient for vessels to haul to and load. · The rivers in the middle and western parts of this State are, Apalachicola, which is formed by the Chatahouchee and Flint rivers, Mobile, Pascagoula and Pearl rivers. All these running southwardly, empty into the Gulph of Mexico. The forementioned rivers abound with a great variety of fish, among which are the mullet, whiting, theepshead, cat, rock, trout, drum, bass, brim, white, Mad, and sturgeon. The bays and lagoons are stored with oysters and other shell fin, crabs, shrimps, &c. The clams, in particular, are large, their meat white, tender and delicate. The shark and great black ftingray are insatiable cannibals, and very troublesome to the fishermen.

The lake, or rather marsh, called Ouaquaphenogaw, lies between Flint and Oakmulge rivers, and is nearly three hundred miles in cir. cumference. In wet seasons it appears like an inland sea, and has several large islands of rich land; one of which the present generation of Creek Indians represent as the most blissful spot on earth. They say it is inhabited by a peculiar race of Indians, whose women are incomparably beautiful. They tell you also, that this terrestrial paradise has been seen by fome enterprising hunters, when in pursuit of their game, who, being loft in inextricable fwanups and bogs, and on the point of perishing, were unexpectedly relieved by a company of beautiful women, whom they call daughters of the Sun, who kindly gave them such provifions as they had with them, consisting of fruit and corn cakes, and then enjoined them to fly for safety to their own country, because their husbands were fierce men, and cruel to strangers. They farther say, that these hunters had a view of their settlements, situated on the elevated banks of an island, in a beautie ful lake; but that in their endeavours to approach it, they were involved in perpetual labyrinths, and, like enchanted land, still as they imagined they had just gained it, it seemed to fly before them.

They determined, at length, to quit the delusive pursuit, and with much difficulty effected a retreat. When they reported their adventures to their countrymen, the young warriors were inflamed with an irresistible desire to invade and conquer fo charming a country, but all their attempts had hitherto proved fruitless, they never being

* able able again to find the spot. They tell another story concerning this sequestered country, which seems not improbable, which is, that the inhabitants are the posterity of a fugitive remnant of the ancient Yamases, who escaped massacre after a bloody and decisive battle between them and the Creeks. It is certain, that the Creeks conquered and nearly exterminated that once powerful people ; and it is probable, that they here found an asylum, remote and secure from the fury of their proud conquerors.

Besides the St. Mary; the rivers Sitilla, or St. Ille, and the beautiful Little St. Juan, which empties into the bay of Appalachi at St. Mark's, are said to flow from this lake.*

About sixteen miles from the mouth of Broad river, on its south fide, is what is called the Goosepond, a tract of about one hundred and eighty acres, covered with living water about two feet deep: it discharges into the river, and is fed by two springs.

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SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, &c. • The soil in this State and its fertility are various, according to

situation and different improvement. The islands on the sea board, in their natural state, are covered with a plentiful growth of pine, oak and hiccory, live oak, an uncommonly hard and a very valuable wood, and some red cedar. The soil is a mixture of sand and black mould, making what is commonly called a grey foil. A considerable part of it, particularly that whereon grow the oak, hiccory and live oak, is very rich, and yields, on cultivation, good crops of indigo, cotton, corn and potatoes. These islands are surrounded by navigable creeks, between which and the main land is a large extent of salt marsh, fronting the whole State, not less, on an average, than four or five miles in breadth, intersected with creeks in various directions, admitting, through the whole, an inland navigation between the itlands and main land, from the north-east to the south-east corners of the State. The east fides of these islands are,

for the most part, clean, hard, sandy beaches, exposed to the wash · of the ocean. Between these islands are the entrances of the rivers

from the interior country, winding through the low falt marses, and delivering their waters into the sounds, which form capacious harbours of from three to eight iniles over, and which communicate with each other by parallel salt creeks. The principal islands are,

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Skidaway, Walfaw, Offabaw, St. Catharine's, Sapelo, Frederica, Jekyl, Cumberland and Amelia.

The soil of the main land,' adjoining the marshes and creeks, is ncarly of the same quality with that of the islands, except that which borders on those rivers and creeks which stretch far back into the country. On these, immediately after you leave the salts, begin the valuable rice swainps, which, on cultivation, afford the present principal' staple of commerce. Most of the rice lands lie on rivers, which, as far as the tide flows, are called tide lands; or on creeks and particular branches of water, flowing in fonie deeper or lower parts of the lands, which are called inland swamps, and extend back in the country from fifteen to twenty-five miles, beyond which very little rice is planted, though it will grow exceedingly well, as exs periment has proved, one hundred and twenty miles back from the sea. The interinediate' lands, between these creeks and rivers, are of an inferior quality, being of a grey soil, covered chiefly with pine, and a sort of wild grass and finall reeds, which afford a large range of feeding ground for stock both summer and winter. Here and there are interspersed oak and hiccory ridges, which are of a better foil, and produce good crops of corn and indigo ; but these are very little elevated above the circumjacent lands. The lands adjoining the rivers, and, for an hundred miles in a direct line from the sea, continue a breadth from two to three or four miles, and wherever, in that distance, you find a piece of high land that extends to the bank of the river on one side, you may expect to find the low or swamp ground proportionably wide on the opposite side of the river. This seems to be an invariable rule till you come to that part where the river cuts the mountains.

The soil between the rivers, after you leave the sea board and the edge of the swamps, at the distance of twenty or thirty miles, changes from a grey to a red colour, on which grows plenty of oak and liccory, with a considerable intermixture of pine. In some places it is gravelly, but fertile, and so continues for a number of miles, gradually deepening the reddish colour of the earth, till it changes into what is called the Mulatto foil, consisting of a black mould and red earth. The composition is darker or lighter accor. ding as there is a larger or smaller proportion of the black or red earth in it. The mulatto lands are generally strong, and yield large crops of wheat, tobacco, corn, &c. To this kind of land succeeds by turns a foil nearly black and very rich, on which grow large


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