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RELIGION AND CHARACTER. The inhabitants of this state, who profess the Christian religion, are of the Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Baptist, and Methodist deno. minations. They have but a few regular ministers among them..
No general character will apply to the inbabitants at large. Col. lected from different parts of the world, as interest, necessity, or inclination led them, their character and manners must, of course, paitake of all the varieties which distinguish the several states and kingdoms from whence they came. There is so little uniformity, that it is difficult to trace any governing principles among them. An averfion to labour is too predominant, owing in part to the relaxing heat of the climate, and partly to the want of necessity to excite inanftry. An open and friendly hospitality, particularly to strangers, is an ornamental characteristic of a great part of this people.
Their diversions are various. With some, dancing is a favourite amusement; others take a farcied pleasure at the gaming table, which, however, frequently terminates in the ruin of their happiness, fortunes, and conititutions. In the upper counties, horse-racing and 'cock-fighting prevail, two cruel diversions imported from Virginia
and the Carolinas, from whence those who practise them principally emigrated. But the most rational and universal amusement is hunt. ing; and for this Georgia is particularly well calculated, as the woods abound with plenty of deer, raccons, rabbits, wild turkeys, and other game ; at the same time the woods are so thin and free from obstructions, that you may generally ride half speed in chace without danger : in this amusement pleasure and profit are blended.* The exercise, more than any other, contributes to health, fits for activity in business and expertness in war ; the game also affords
* The following account of a Georgia planter's method of spending his time is extracted from the American Museum for 1790 :
Aboue fix in the morning he quits his bed, and orders his horse to be got ready ; he then swallows a dram of bitters to prevent the ill effects of the carly fogs, and sets our upon the tour of his plantation. In this route he takes 311 opportunity to flop at the negroc houses, and if he sees any lurking about home, whose buliness it is to be in the field, he immediately inquires the cause : if no sufficient cause be given, he applies his rattan whip to the shoulders of the flave, and obliges him inftantly to decamp. If licks ness be alledged, the negroe is immediately thut up in the fick-house, bled, purgel, and kept on low diet, till he either dies or gets into a way of recovery. After having examined the overscer relative to the welfare of the poultry, hogs, cattle, Sec. he proceeds round the farm, takes a cursory view of the rice, corn, or indigo Ec'ds, and examines into the state of the fences and other inclosures; about the liour of eight, his circuit is finished, when, before he alights at his own door, a tribe of young negroes, in the primitive state of nakedness, ruih out to meet him, and receive the horse.
Breakfast being over, he again mounts a fresh horse, and rides to the county town, or the first public house in the neighbourhood, where he talks politics, inquires the price of produce, makes bargains, plays a game at all-fours, or appoints days for horse races or boxing matches ; about four o'clock he returns, bringing with him some friends or ac. quaintance to dinner. If the conspany he lively or agreeable, he rarely rises fioin table before sun set. If it be a wet evening, or the weather very disagreeable, cards or conversation employ him till bod time. If it be fair and no moonlight, after an early supper, a fire is kindled in a pan, and two or three of them fet oul stored witli fomic bottles of brandy, preceded by a negroe who carries the fire, in order to ihoot deer in the woods, as these creatures are so attracted by a light, that they constantly stand still, and fix their eyes upon the blaze, by the reflection of which from the eye-ball they are easily discovered oni shot. Sometimes, however, it happens, that tame cattle that have been burned into the woods to range, are killed by mistake.
About midnight they return, according to luck, with or without game; their shins and faces sadly scratched, and themselves fit for nothing but to be put to bed. This is the general routine of existence among such of the Georgians as live in the more retired and woody parts of the State. Others have their weekly societies, for sentimental and colloquial amusement; as to trade and business, it is entirely managed by ovcrsccrs and hftors.
them a palatable food, and the skins a profitable article of com merce.
TRADE AND MANUFACTURES. The chief articles of export are rice, tobacco, of which the county of Wilkes only exported, in 1788, about three thousand hogsheadsą indigo, fago, lumber of various kinds, naval stores, leather, deer skins, snake root, myrtle and bees wax, corn, and live stock. The planters and farmers raise large stocks of cattle, from one hundred to fifteen hundred head, and some more.
The amount of exports in the year ending September 30th, 1791, was four hundred and ninety-one thousand four hundred and seventy-two dollars. In return for the enumerated exports, are imported Weft-India goods, teas, wines, various articles of cloathing, and dry goods of all kinds. From the northern States, cheese, fish, potatoes, apples, cyder, and shoes. The imports and exports of this State are principally to and from Savannah, which has a fine harbour, and is a place where the principal commercial business of the State is transacted. The trade with the Indians in furs and skins was very considerable before the war, but has fince been interrupted by the wars in which they have been involved. The manufactures of this State have hitherto been very inconsiderable, if we cxcept indigo, filk, and fago. The manner in which the indigo is cultivated and manufactured is as follows: the ground, which must be a strong rich foil, is thrown into beds of seven or eight feet wide, after having been made very mellow, and is then raked till it is fully pulverized; the feed is then sown in April, in rows at such a distance as conveni. ently to admit of hoeing between them. In July the first crop is fit to cut, being commonly two and a half feet high; it is then thrown into vats constructed for the purpose, and steeped about thirty hours; after which, the liquor is drawn off into other vats, where it is beat, as they call it, by which nieans it is thrown into much such a state of agitation as cre:im is by churning. After this process, lime water is put into the liquor, which causes the particles of indigo to settle at the bottom. The liquor is then drawn off, and the sediment, which is the indigo, is taken out and spread on cloths, and partly dried; it is then put into boxes and pressed, and, while it is yet soft, cut into. fquare pieces, which are thrown into the fun to dry, and then put up in casks for the market. They have commonly three cuttings a season. A middling crop for thirty acres is one thousand three hun. dred pounds,
The culture of Gilk and the manufacture of fago are at present but little attended to. The people in the lower part of this State manus facture none of their own cloathing for themselves or their negroes : for almost every article of their wearing apparel, as well as for their husbandry tools, they depend on their merchants, who import them from Great-Britain and the northern States. In the upper parts of the country, however, the inhabitants manufacture the chief part of their cloathing from cotton, hemp, and fax; and in general manufactures are on the increase,
STATE OF LITERATURE. The literature of this state, which is yet in its infancy, is commencing on a plan which affords the most flattering prospects. It feems to have been the design of the legislature of this State, as far as possible, to unite their literary concerns, and provide for them in common, that the whole might feel the benefit, and no part be nego lected or left a prey to party rage, private prejudices and contentions, and consequent ignorance, their inseparable attendant. For this purpose, the literature of this state, like its policy, appears to be considered as one object, and in the same manner subject to common and general regulations for the good of the whole. The charter, containing their present system of education, was passed in the year 1785. A college, with ample and liberal endowments, is instituted in Louisville, a high and healthy part of the country, acar the center of the State. There is also provision made for the institu. tion of an academy in each county in the State, to be supported from the same funds, and considered as parts and members of the same ins ftitution, under the general superintendence and direction of a prefi. dent and board of trustees, appointed, for their literary accomplish: ments, from the different parts of the State, invested with the cuslo. mary powers of corporations. The institutions thus composed, and united is denominated, “ The University of Georgia.”
, That this body of literati, to whom is intrusted the direction of the general literature of the State, may not be so detached and indepen. dent, as not to possess the confidence of the State ; and, in order to secure the attention and patronage of the principal officers of govern. ment, the governor and council, the speaker of the House of Af: fembly, and the chief justice of the State, are associated with the board of trustees, in some of the great and more folemn duties of their office, such as making the laws, appointing the president, for
tling tling the property, and instituting academies. Thus associated, they are denominated, “ The Senate of the University," and are to hold a stated, annual meeting, at which the governor of the State presides.
The Senate appoint a board of commifíioners in each county, for the particular management and direction of the academy, and the other schools in each county, who are to receive their ioftructions from, and are accountable to the Senate. The rector of each academy is an officer of the university, to be appointed by the president, with the advice of the trustees, and commiilioned under the public seal, and is to attend with the other officers at the annual meeting of the Senate, to deliberate on the general interests of literature, and to de termine on the course of instruction for the year, throughout the university. The president has the general charge and oversight of the whole, and is froin time to time to visit them, to examine into their order and performances.
The funds for the support of their institution are principally in Jands, amounting in the whole to about fifty thoufand acres, a great part of which is of the best quality, and at present very valuable. There are also nearly fix thousand pounds sterling in bonds, houses and town lots in the town of Augusts. Other public property, to the amount of one thousand pounds in each county, has been set apart for the purposes of building and furnishing their respective academies.
CONSTITUTION. The present constitution of this state was formed and establifhed in the year 1789, and is nearly upon the plan of the constitution of the United States.
INDIAN S. The Muskogee, or Creek Indians, inhabit the middle part of this State, and are the most numerous tribe of Indians of any within the limits of the United States: their whole number some years since was seventeen thousand two hundred and eighty, of which five thou, fand eight hundred and fixty were fighting men. They are composed of various tribes, who, after bloody wars, thought it good policy ta unite and support themselves against the Chactaw's, &c. They conlist of the Appalachies, Alibamas, Abecas, Cawittaws, Coosas, ConNhacks, Coolactees, Chacfihoomas, Natchez, Oconies, Oakmulgies, Pkohoys, Pakanas, Taensas, Talepousas, Weetumkas, and some