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Arithmetic or numbers, 3. Algebra, 4. Geometry proper, 5. Applications of these to all physics, mechanics, and commercial pursuits.

English language, as a distinct branch is best studied and developed in connection with the proper pursuit of other branches, in all the primary and intermediate grades. It is the medium through which they are expressed. Hence, all that seems necessary in the case, is to seek the clearest and purest and best expression, in giving utterances to the thoughts evolved from the pursuit of other subjects, until a period arrives, in the pupil's growth, when he can profitably enter upon the study of the grammar of his language, antecedent to the study of comparative philology. This period seldom arrives before the student reaches the high school or the college. Hence all English grammar, as generally studied in our schools, could very profitably be deferred until the child acquires through Language Lessons, etc., a correct use of his vernacular, since it is now conceded by our best philologists, that the language is seldom improved by the study of an ordinary text-book on grammar. Meanwhile, however, the grammar of other languages, as the Latin, and Greek, and German-since a knowledge of these is reached, in part, through the grammar- may be studied to advantage. But even here the constant use of the language should accompany its study. Language first, grammar afterwards. Grammar through language, not language through grammar.

And what is said of English Grammar is mainly true of Rhetoric, and Logic, and History, as formal studies. Their elements should be learned and practiced-and they will be so learned and practiced if proper modes of study and recitation are adopted in all the grades from the primary school to the College and the University, where their study becomes a matter of scientific research.

The last named science, viz: Metaphysics is the one to which all others tend. It is the grand objective point of all physics. It is that science towards which physics, or physical sciences, naturally tend, and in which they must as naturally end, if they are properly pursued. Hence, physics taught and learned as a mere end or finality, is a mistake. These sciences lead further on; and more, they afford the only direct route to the metaphysics, or the beyond physics. We read God, by the aid of his word, best through his works. His word tells us, in the man how best to approach him through his works. Physics

therefore come first in the order of learning: nevertheless, there is such an intimate blending of the two of cause and effect-at every stage of correct learning and education, that it is difficult to separate them at any point. The latter may be formulated thus: 1. Infant Psychology, to accompany Elementary Physiology: 2. Theology, or revealed Religion as taught in the gospels. 3. Mental Physiology, or the study of Man psychically, through a physical organism-as suggested in last two articles. 4. Moral philosophy as a system of human Ethics. 5. Comparative Theology, in which not only the different religions may be considered, but the whole field of Man's Moral accountability, and all his relationship to his God and his fellow-men, may be discussed.

Thus man, through physics, studies himself and surroundings, developing Language and Mathematics, and making History. These lead him to make further inquiry concerning himself as physical, and himself as metaphysical; concerning those subtle causes by which he is enabled to perceive and know, to suffer and enjoy, to will and to do. He reaches the abstract through the concrete; the unseen through the seen; the intangible through the tangible; the unknown through the known; the hereafter through the present; the metaphysical through the physical, until he stands master of science and circumstances; ruler of the realm of matter, and the arbiter of his own destiny. Ohio Central Normal School.


EDUCATIONAL APHORISMS. The purpose of instruction and education is not a mere pretended enlightenment, but the illumination of the understanding; and not this alone, but also the utmost possible development, at the same time, of all the powers of the soul.

Mere enlightenment—which was, and not very long ago, the only object of education-is a training of the understanding at the expense of all the mind; and results in nothing except a chilly aurora borealis, without any real life.

The training of the whole intellectual man establishes over him and in him a sun which dispenses light, warmth, and fruitfulness to all.

In the most prosperous period of Greece, almost every Greek was familiar with Homer.

We have Schiller, Goethe, Claudius, Uhland, Ruckert, and many other singers of the noblest grade.

Let us strive to make our people at least partly similar to the Greeks in their acquaintance with their poets.

The common school may be made to do much for this purpose. Time can not be wanting, when we can spend it in stuffing the heads of the children with the names of Asiatic -n.ountains and Brazilian apes.



-We give a very prominent place in this issue to the discussion of the “Metric System,” with the expectation that the utterances of Professors Warder and Mendenhall may have their influence in the summer institutes. We hope the subject will be neglected in none of them. The public must be educated, and teachers are the persons to accomplish this work. At the institutes we attend we now always take metric measures and talk upon the metric system. A hinged metric stick can readily be carried in a satchel.

-We spent June 7th and 8th in visiting the Public Schools of Cleveland, Ohio.

The first day we were accompanied by Supt. Rickoff and three members of the Board, Messrs. Stow, Akers, and Seltzer, who constitute the committee on teachers. We visited two buildings on the east side in the forenoon, and in the afternoon four buildings on the west side, one of these being the West-Side High School. Among the assistants of the Principal, Mr. Taylor, are John Bolton, formerly Superintendent of the schools of Portsmouth, Ohio, Mr. Barr, the former Principal, and Miss Stickney. On the second day we visited the Central High School which is under charge of Dr. Williams, assisted by Prof. Penfield formerly of Oberlin College, C. L. Hotze, author of Hotze's Physics, etc., and several ladies, and the Normal School under charge of Alex. Forbes, a Scotchman, who has inherited the keenness of thought for which Scotch metaphysicians have long been noted. We visited the first day the new High-School building. The workmen had begun to lay up the walls of the second story. The building will be a magnificent one, embodying all Mr. Rickoff's experience as to heating and modes of ventilating. We were astonished to learn that so large and fine a structure has been let out on contract for less than $74,000, this amount being that to be paid for the building when ready for the heating apparatus and furniture. When this building shall be ready for occupancy the EastCleveland High School will be transferred to it. There are now employed in the Public Schools of Cleveland 358 teachers, 23 gentlemen and 335 ladies, of whom 21 teach in the High Schools, 2 in the Normal School, 83 in the Grammar Schools, and 233 in the Primary Schools. Besides the head Superintendent of Instruction there are two Supervising Principals (gentlemen), a Superintendent of Primary Instruction (a lady), Superintendents of Music, Drawing, Penmanship, and German, all gentlemen. There are 15 special German teachers. The schools occupy 354 rooms in 41 buildings. The enrolment of pupils is 21,132, number belonging 16,516, and average daily attendance 15,561. We believe the school census is about 46,000. The numbers in the A, B, C, and D Grammar are 404, 640, 812, and 1378, and in the A, B, C, and D Primary 2127, 2651, 2762, and 4917. The Public Schools of Cleveland have a national reputation, but they have not escaped local censure nor inisunderstanding on the

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part of educational men in other cities and towns. Some have thought that the schools are more showy than substantial. It gives us pleasure to declare that in a two days' visit we saw not a single sign of a hobby or of undue attention to any one school study. If we were asked to tell what is the most noticeable thing in the Cleveland schools we could not single out any one thing, but should say that it has evidently been Mr. Rickoff's aim to secure first-class instruction in all the subjects that he thinks deserve a place in Public-School Instruction. He is a man that takes no narrow view of education and aims by the selection of good teachers for the different departments of the schools to secure the best results which Public Schools are susceptible of attaining. We very much doubt whether there is proportionately in any city of our country so large a number of enthusiastic, intelligent, and neat-appearing lady teachers as in Cleveland. The rule for the last ten years in that city has evidently been the survival of the fittest, preceded by a previous attempt at natural selection. Great scholars and teachers among gentlemen are too widely scattered over the country for us to claim for the gentlemen in Cleveland any marked preeminence, although the city may well be proud of the men who are engaged in instructing her sons and daughters in the advanced studies. The Principals of buildings except the HighSchool buildings, we believe, are exclusively ladies. The propriety of this plan has been gravely questioned, it being believed that the too exclusive association of children during the first eight years of school life with ladies leaves one side of the juvenile character undeveloped. Furthermore the great mass of the pupils never reach the schools in which the gentlemen teach. The recent bitter attack on the Cleveland schools by a new member of the Board of Education and the threat to enjoin the Board from hiring a Hall for graduating exercises will only result in a better understanding of what the schools are and what they are accomplishing, and the consequent belief that notwithstanding all the difficulties inherent in the educating of pupils of all kinds of home advantages that they are still the people's colleges.


-We hope that teachers will not fail to gather in full rce at Put-inBay. A respite of two years ought to make them eager to see each other again. We believe no reductions have been made by the railways. The usual excursion tickets to Put-in-Bay from various points in the State can be turned to good account. For the benefit of teachers we give the following times of boats going to Put-in-Bay from Sandusky, Cleveland, Toledo, and Detroit. The Jay Cooke leaves Sandusky at 5 P. M., and the Gazelle at 9:20 A. M. and 7:45 P. M. daily except Sundays. On Sunday the Gazelle leaves at 9 A. M. only. The Pearl leaves Cleveland daily at 8:30 A. M., reaching Put-in-Bay at one o'clock P. M. The Chief Justice Waite leaves Toledo daily at 8 A. M. and arrives at Put-in-Bay at 11:30 A. M. The Jay Cooke leaves Detroit daily except Sundays 8:30 A. M., and arrives at Put-in-Bay at 1 P. M. After the above was written we saw a notice that the Pearl had been put on the Cleveland and Detroit line in consequence of the partial burning of the R. N. Rice at her dock in Detroit.

In our visit to the Cleveland schools we listened to an interesting lecture to the Senior Class of the High School by Dr. Williams, the Principal, on the reasoning of common life, also to Mr. Aborn teach perspective in the High School and in the Normal School, to a class in the sixth book of the Eneid conducted by Prof. Penfield, a very fine classical scholar, and to a suggestive recitation in English literature conducted by a lady (name forgotten). In one of the lower grades of schools we witnessed examples in rapid addition, reminding us of similar exercises seen twenty years ago in Daniel Hough's schools in Cincinnati, when Mr. Rickoff was superintendent. The teacher ordered all the pupils to lean forward and down, with their faces over the desks, while she put down such numbers as 9, 6, 8, 5, 4, 7, etc., to the number of about twelve, and upon a signal to raise themselves up and begin to add and rise to their feet as the result was reached. In from 12 to 15 seconds she erased the numbers and called for results, at which time nearly all the pupils were on their feet, and generally about 75 per cent had correct results. The exercise was continued for some time with a variation in the manner of conducting it. Among other things heard were lessons in German, reading, gymnastics, writing, language lessons, and the telling of a fairy story to interest the younger children. As a whole the Cleveland Schools cannot be justly charged with want of variety.



-We give in an advertising page a preliminary announcement of the National Educational Association, which is to meet in Louisville, Ky., August 14, 15, and 16. Doubtless an excursion to the Mammoth Cave will be provided for. We speak from experience when we say this worldrenowned cave is a curiosity worthy of the personal examination even of teachers. Let us have a full attendance at Louisville. Don't be afraid o the heat. We attended a meeting of the Kentucky Teachers' Association, two years ago, a hundred miles south of Louisville, in the middle of July, and found the weather no warmer than we found it the next month at the Wisconsin Teachers' Association in Eau Claire, or at the National Educational Association in Minneapolis.


EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE. - WHEN notified that a subscriber has failed to receive any number of this journal due him, we always remail it. All changes of address should reach us by the twentieth of the month preceding the one in which the change is to take effect. If a subscriber should delay the order for change of address until after a number shall have been sent to his former address, he should forward a two-cent stamp to the postmaster to pay for forwarding the number. Subscriptions should begin with January, April, July, or October.

-The Elyria (Ohio) High School has a new piano.
-There are seven school buildings in Vineland, N. J.
-The enrolment in the Tiffin (0.) Public Schools in April was 1028.

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