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work they have confidence, "on certificate of their instructors that they have completed the full course of study required.” Michigan University will do the same from a few of the high schools of that State, provided the candidates “present the diplomas of their School Board, certifying that they have sustained their examinations in all the studies prescribed for admission.” But this is not bridging any chasm. It shows that in certain schools the pupil is taken over the requisite ground, and the examination in the school is allowed to suffice for that for admission to the college. The chasm was bridged beforehand. Suppose an institution, the exact counterpart of that at Ann Arbor, were now in operation in Ohio, would it admit students with less preparation than Marietta requires ? If not, then Marietta and other colleges in the State are ready to'do for our high-school graduates all that could be done by a State college like that in Michigan.
It is possible that the necessity exists somewhere that a State should provide funds from its own treasury to support one or more colleges, but there is no such necessity in Ohio. The time for that has long since passed, if it ever existed. Private benefactions will furnish whatever facilities may be needed without imposing more taxes upon the already overburdened people. The increased disposition to make generous gifts to colleges has been most marked of late years. Three of the oldest and largest colleges in this country have probably received more in the way of donations within twenty-five years than in their whole previous history. And it is but a single year since there went into operation at Baltimore an institution endowed through the munificence of a single man with the largest sum ever given by one person for educational purposes.
As to the management of State colleges, we know how much obloquy has been heaped upon our own legislature from 1804 down to the present. For myself I am ready to say that in the matters as to which they have been most blamed, our General Assembly has done right. They did with the university lands the best that could be done with them. Did any individual proprietor who parted with his lands by sale or lease at that early day do any better? Dr. Manasseh Cutler and General Rufus Putnam never expected that 46,000 acres of land which they bought of the government for less than one dollar an acre, would furnish all the endowment the projected institution would need. As early as 1800 the good General wrote to Judge Fearing, “Is there no public spirit to be found in the Territory except only in the proprietors of the Ohio Company? Is it not possible that some worthy, able, public-spirited gentlemen in Adams County *
may make donations to the institution ?” The Ohio Company -not Congress—had made a generous gift for educational purposes ; they expected that other gifts would supplement theirs as necessity should require.
It is amusing to see how the advocates of State colleges complain of legislative action. Some articles have recently been written by professors in the University of Michigan which are not remarkably respectful to the Legislature of that good State. The position is assumed in the
* Adams County adjoined Washington on the West.
articles that the best method to secure higher education is to entrust it to the care of the State. But in.giving the history of the institution at Ann Arbor, one writer gives instances where “the Legislature did not hesitate to sacrifice the interests of the University.” He says: “The Legislature persisted in tampering with the prices and sales of the lands.” “Whether in the heart of this unfortunate legislature there was any corrupt motive or not, the series of enactments, as a whole, affords an excellent illustration of the danger of submitting the financial affairs of a university to legislative control.'
The other writer speaks of "the landed property dwindling and evaporating under the cruel manipulations of demagogues in the early legislatures of the State.” He speaks of "legislative fraud and malfeasance of trust." “The bearing of this fact”-putting the university under the control of a board of regents—“ upon the success of Michigan's experiment at making a university, will be obvious to those who have noticed how inevitably and with what fatal ease a State university is worried to death by ignoramuses and political hucksters in the legislature whenever in any State the university stands exposed to the direct practices of the legislature upon it." † Most extraordinary statements these to convince us that the best method to secure higher education is to entrust it to the care of the State! The care desired by these advocates of the State system is the appropriation of money; what they think of State control is evident enough.
Let me say a word as to the studies coming between the ages of ten and fourteen. For years I have been impressed with the convietion that our graded system has here its weakest points. The general idea is that the pupil must be master of arithmetic, grammar, and geography, before entering the high school, and that other studies must not be introduced till then. The pupil is thus confined to these branches so long that he becomes disgusted with them. Then at his age he has not maturity of mind enough to study to good advantage the abstruser parts of arithmetic and grammar.
We may learn from other countries a better method. The child is admitted to the German gymnasium at the age of nine, and immediately enters upon studies postponed with us till the high school is reached. In Germany the elementary branches referred to are kept along through the whole course, instead of the vain attempt to have them mastered before proceeding to other branches.
There is not time to expand my thought. I believe that there is a great waste of time and effort under our present system. Were the arrangement made so that the pupil could enter the high school at the age of ten or twelve, this waste would be avoided and much valuable time be saved. The following advantages I should hope might result: (a) a higher degree of culture; (b) a larger number of pupils to complete the course; (c) the introduction of the high schools into smaller towns; (d) better provision for pupils from the country ; (e) the removal of much of the opposition to the high schools.
* North American Review, Oct., 1875. † Scribner's Monthly, Feb., 1876.
There should be a change in the tenure of office of Superintendents and Principals. The insecurity of the teacher's position is a great evil in our system. The higher teachers ought not to be subjected to the hazard of a re-election every year or every two years. The office should have more permanence about it. In point of salary the Superintendent in a large town has the advantage of the Professor in college, but the latter has greatly the advantage in the feeling of security in his position. Practically there has been a good degree of permanence, because our Superintendents have generally been of a high order, and the influence of the wise men on our boards of education has been controlling. But there have been cases of great hardship, and with boards elected by popular vote there will be the liability to sudden and causeless changes. If there be a way to prevent them it ought to be sought out and found.
The outlook to me, fellow-teachers, is full of hope as the retrospect is full of interest. The educational record of Ohio is not to be effaced with a sneer. In some departments much more has been done than some of our own citizens suppose. Institutions are of slow growth, but the choice fruit already produced by the colleges of Ohio is an indication of what the future has in store. Already there have been many instances of generous giving, and the noble example of the proprietors of the Ohio Company of 1786 will be followed more and more as the years roll away.
Prof. Tappan rose to thank President Andrews for the many wise and witty things to which the Association had been listening. Professor T. said, however, that the duty of the State to colleges depends upon circumstances, and that the State of Ohio owes a reasonable support to the Miami University at Oxford, to the Ohio University at Athens, and to the Agricultural and Mechanical College at Columbus.
AFTEROON SESSION—2 O'CLOCK P. M.
R. W. Stevenson, of Columbus, from the committee on place of meeting presented the following report:
Your committee on place of meeting respectfully report:
Believing that the success of our meeting for several years is largely owing to the opportunities afforded by the place for social intercourse, we recommend that the next meeting be held at Put-in-Bay, provided that satisfactory arrangements can be made by the Executive Committee with the proprietors of the hotels.
R. W. STEVENSON,
Miss C. A. SEWART. The report was adopted.
E. H. Cook, from the committee on nomination of officers, reported the following nominations, which were adopted : For President, T. C. MENDENHALL, of Columbus.
Vice-Presidents, E. W. Coy, of Cincinnati; H. P. UFFORD, of Chillicothe; Miss LUCIA STICKNEY, of Cleveland ; Miss M. M. EBBERT, of Tiffin, and A. A. McDONALD, of Toledo,
Secretary, J. W. Dowd, of Troy.
Executive Committee, E. F. Moulton, of Warren, and J. M. GOODSPEED, of Athens. The remaining members of the committee were considered as holding over one year and two years from present date, last year being regarded as a blank in the history of the Association.
Committee on communications between Teachers and those wishing to employ Teachers, A. B. Johnson, of Avondale, L. S. THOMPSON, of Sandusky, and M. H. LEWIS, of Circleville.
E. H. Cook submitted the following resolutions on Spelling Reform :
Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Association the question of simplifying English spelling is worthy of the careful consideration of every teacher.
Resolved, That the Committee on Spelling Reform, appointed by this meeting, be instructed to enter into correspondence, as far as it can, with State Associations and other bodies of teachers, with the purpose of calling their attention to this important matter, and that said committee report the results of their investigations at the next annual meeting.
The following resolution was introduced by H. Holbrook, of New Jersey :
Resolved, That in order to advance the spelling reform, so much needed, and so ably set forth in the paper read by Mr. Vaile and discussed by Mr. Dowd, it is the opinion of this Association that this reform must be gradual, and that one of the proper steps to be taken now is for county examiners to require a knowledge of the elementary sounds from every candidate before granting a certificate to teach.
The preceding resolutions were referred to the committee on resolutions.
On motion the following resolution was adopted : Resolved, That the Executive Committee of the Association be, and they are hereby, requested to give place in the preparation of the programme of the next session of the Association to a discussion of the powers, duties, and responsibilities of County Examiners.
Miss Lucia Stickney, of Cleveland, gave notice that at the next meeting of the Association she would move that the Con. stitution be so amended that ladies may become members of the Association by the payment of an annual fee of fifty cents without regard to previous membership.
E. T. Tappan, of Gambier, gave notice that he would move next year that the Constitution be so amended that the President of the Association shall be ex-officio a member of the Executive Committee.
Hon. Chas. S. Smart, Commissioner of Common Schools, then presented a report on
THE CENTENNIAL EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT OF OHIO. The work of preparation for an exhibition, at the International Exposition held at Philadelphia, of the educational condition and interests of Ohio was commenced soon after entering upon the duties of the office, to which I had been recently elected,-as soon indeed as I could make myself acquainted with what the law required of me to do as State Commissioner of Schools, and could see that this important and extraordinary work should be done and that at least a beginning must be made by the official head of the educational department of the State, or it would, in all probability, not be made at all. This extraordinary work of preparation was continued until the opening of the Exposition as vigorously and thoroughly as was possible, with little or no means and limited time and aid to do so great a work.
The work and expense of making this preparation seemed to belong to the State Board especially provided by State authority to prepare the several important interests of Ohio for the Centennial Exhibition.
It was difficult, indeed almost impossible, for the State Board to prepare such an exhibit of educational condition and interests as would fairly represent the State. An educator thoroughly conversant with the educational system, condition, and resources of the State, had been employed as early as 1874 to do this work for the Board. The educational interests of the State are certainly important-perhaps second to no other-in determining the status of the commonwealth. Two years had passed since the State authorities had determined that Ohio should be represented at the Centennial Exposition, and had made provision for such representation, and no plan had as yet been suggested for representing its educational condition and resources.
The State Commissioner of Schools, from his official position, had facilities for preparing an educational exhibit not possessed by any other public officer, and for the honor of the State, he was persuaded to assume the extraordinary labor and responsibility, but not any part of the expense, of making the best exhibition possible within such limited time.
Every school and college in the State reporting to the Commissioner of Schools, or that he could otherwise reach, was, as early as possible, notified of the action of the State Commissioner of Schools, of the Centennial Educational Committee, and of the State Association, respecting the desired preparation for an educational exhibit and copies of the rules governing pupils' work, the collection of materials, &c., were sent to all school officers and principals throughout the State. Representative schools of the State responded to the request for local school exhibits; however, the apprehension on the part of school authorities that the cost of preparing