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local exhibits would be much greater than it actually was, prevented many school boards from participating in the provision for the Centennial Exhibition.
It was so very difficult, by correspondence and by circulars issued, to make a clear understanding of how an exhibit of school condition and work could be made, and just what should be exhibited, that the limited time had passed before many began to comprehend the cost, importance, and character of an educational exhibit. Every city and village district in the State could and would have been represented in tbe Ohio Educational Exhibit, had there been a competent man provided, at the proper time, with the means to visit each village and town and present the matter to the school authorities as it was presented in those cities and towns which were represented. It was quite impossible to reach the country schools. From the State School Commissioner's office there were no means to reach any country school officer who could or would take charge of the preparation of an exhibit of country school work,
Had Ohio been provided with county supervision of schools, there would have been in each county a school officer competent and willing to do this work, and who could have been early and easily reached by the State Commissioner of Schools. From those States provided with county supervision, school work, etc., of country schools were exhibited as generally as from city schools.
Many boards of education were visited by the Commissioner of Schools, in order that the character, cost, etc., of this educational display should be so understood as to induce a eneral participation in this exhibit on the part of the schools and educational institutions of the State.
It will be understood, that aside from the State Board of Centennial Managers there was no representative of the educational interests of the State, proyided with any means, enabling prepare for the Centennial Exposition a representation of the State educational resources, condition, etc., and that nothing was done by the State Board of Centennial Managers, or by the State, making provision for an educational exhibit, until the time had passed when it would be possible to make such an exhibit. Faith in a decent sense of honor and justice on the part of the representatives of the people, induced the undertaking and accomplishment of this extraordinary work some months before there was any possibility of securing the money for defraying the expenses necessarily incurred.
The Commissioner of Schools attended the several meetings of the State Board of Centennial Managers, and upon every such occasion urged the importance of an educational exhibit and that pecuniary and other aid such an exhibit must receive. The State Board invariably received the petitions and requests of the Commissioner of Schools with marked kindness and evident desire to render whatever aid its members could give in securing from the State provision for a creditable exhibit of the State's educational resources and condition. Quite a year passed, however-all the time left for the preparation-before an appropriation was obtained to pay the expenses of the preparation for, and the making of, this educa. tional exhibit. A history of the effort to secure said appropriation need not be given in this brief report. A complete history of the effort to
make those in authority understand the importance, character, cost, etc., of the educational exhibit cannot be written or told. The Commissioner of Education speaks only for himself when he says that at least s (twothirds) of his entire time during the first year or sixteen months of his official life was from necessity devoted to the interest of the Ohio Educational Exhibit, and that, much of this year, he was compelled to work day and night to assist in accomplishing what had to be done in so short a time. In the partial appropriation bill passed by the Sixty-second General Assembly, in the spring of 1876, an allowance of $33,000, in addition to the former appropriation of $12,500, was made to the State Board of Centennial Managers for expenses incurred by that Board, and it was stipulated in this act of appropriation that not more than $8,000 of this sum appropriated should be expended by said Board to pay the expenses of an educational exhibit.
The Ohio Educational Exhibit drew from this fund, on the warrant of the President of the State Board of Centennial Managers, and this warrant was issued on the Treasurer of said Board, only on the written requisition of a committee representing the Ohio Educational Exhibit, and this Educational Committee was required to furnish vouchers to the State Board of Managers for all moneys expended. Not a dollar of the State's money could be or was expended for this educational exhibit without the triple safeguard against its improper expenditure.
At the final financial settlement of the State Board of Centennial Managers the Educational Committee had expended the sum $6,558.40, which left in the hands of the State Board of Centennial Managers an unexpended balance-of the $8,000—the sum of $1,441.60.
The sum of $15.25 was realized from the sale of articles of furniture which had belonged to the Ohio Educational Exhibit. At the last.meeting of the Centennial Educational Committee it was thought best by a majority of said committee that the Ohio Educational Exhibit be kept intact as a permanent exhibit, and the Commissioner of Schools was instructed to ask the authorities of the several schools, etc., which had contributed to the Centennial Exhibit, to consent to this permanent arrangement, and he was instructed to make arrangements in the Commissioner's office for the proper protection and exhibition of all books, materials, etc., belonging to said exhibit. At the last meeting of the State Board of Centennial Managers I presented this matter for the consideration of the members of said Board. At this time some two months or more had passed since all the goods of the Ohio Educational Exhibit had been returned to the State Commissioner of Schools. That officer had no control over said goods. He was provided with no place for storing and with no means for caring for them.
The very best that he could do had been done, and yet the necessity for some better care and protection seemed urgent. But few of the school boards and trustees, directly interested in the Centennial exhibit, had sent me a written consent to an arrangement for a permanent exhibit. None had objected to such an arrangement. Under these circumstances the State Board thought it best that some arrangements be made to insure the proper protection and exhibition of the materials of the Ohio Educational Exhibit, or of such part of it as might be left to the care of the State, and said Board made an appropriation of $112 00 to be expended by the State Commissioner of schools in building a case for such protection and exhibition and in arranging and caring for this exhibit.
This sum of $112 00 after deducting the $15 25 realized by the sale of furniture, makes $6,656 15, the entire sum expended for the Ohio Educacational Exhibit, which is $1,343 85 less than the amount which the State Board of Centennial Managers was empowered by the act of appropriation to use for the Educational exhibit. It is to be regretted that a few small claims against the Ohio Educational Exhibit were not presented to the Centennial Committee and to the State Board of Centennial Managers before said Board had made its final settlement and had returned to the State the balance $1,343 85 of unexpended moneys. It is my opinion that these claims-amounting, perhaps, to some $60 or 70—are just and valid claims against that appropriation now held by the State. The preparation for the Educational Exhibit was made as nearly as could be in accordance with terms of the report made by the Centennial Educational Committee and adopted by the State Teachers' Association July 1st, 1875.
A History of Education in Ohio was prepared by the several writers already named in that report-an additional chapter on Benevolent and Reformatory Institutions was written by Hon. E. D. Mansfield. This Historical record was printed and bound by the State and its distribution was governed by the General Assembly of Ohio, and was made in accordance with the terms of a joint resolution, passed by said General Assembly.
It may be proper to add here that I used my best effort to secure the printing and binding of additional copies of this valuable work, but my effort was not crowned with success.
Local histories of the rise and development of the graded-school system were prepared by the following named cities and towns: Akron, Beverly, Barnesville, Bucyrus, Cambridge, Canal Dover, Canton, Cincinnati, Circleville, Columbus, Dayton, Defiance, Eaton, Elyria, Findlay, Fremont, Garrettsville, Hamilton, Hillsboro, Ironton, Lancaster, Lebanon, Marysville, Massillon, Middletown, Newark, New Lisbon, New London, Norwalk, Oberlin, Orrville, Painesville, Piqua, Portsmouth, Preble County, (see Eaton) Ripley, Salem, Sandusky, Steubenville, Toledo, Troy, Warren, Wapakoneta, Waverly, Xenia, Youngstown, Zanesville, and historical sketches of the following named colleges and higher institutions of learn. ing-Antioch College, Baldwin University, Cleveland Academy, Cleve. land Female Seminary, Clermont Academy, Cincinnati Wesleyan College, Denison University, Grand-River Institute, Heidelberg College, Hillsboro Female College, Hiram College, Kenyon College, Lake Erie Female Seminary, Marietta College, Mt. Union College, North-western Ohio Normal School, Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, Oberlin College, Ohio Central Normal School, Ohio University, Ohio Wesleyan Female College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Otterbein University, Steubenville Female Seminary, St. Xavier College, Twinsburgh Institute, Western-Reserve College, Wittenberg College, Wilberforce University,
Van Sickle's Business College. Also historical sketches of the following named Benevolent and Reformatory Institutions were written: Ohio Institution for the Education of the Blind, Ohio Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, Ohio State Asylum for the Education of Idiotic and Imbecile Youth, Western Ohio Hospital for the Insane, Ohio Girls” Industrial Home, Ohio Reform Farm School, Ohio Penitentiary, Private Benevolent Institutions, Cincinnati Orphan Asylum, Jewish Orphan Asylum, Widows' Home. These historical sketches were written and printed at the expense of the several localities furnishing them, but the binding was done at the expense of the State, and hence the General Assembly claimed the control of the distribution of these works. Directly after the completion of the binding of these volumes two copies of each volume of local sketches were sent from the office of the State School Commissioner to each school and institution which had furnished a sketch. The remainder were distributed in accordance with a joint resolution, passed by the General Assembly, controlling said distribution.
The Commissioner of Schools appointed Prof, T. C. Mendenhall a committee to supervise the preparation of graphic illustrations of school statistics and progress. This was done so ably and fully as to receive the marked attention and commendation of the whole enlightened world. The school work—drawing penmanship, examination papers in Arithmetic, English Grammar, English Composition, Geography, Natural Science, Music, and the High-School studies—was the actual unassisted and uncorrected effort of the pupils, collected and exhibited strictly in accordance with the rules provided for the preparation of student's work. A report of the character of the pupils' work—the comparative condition of popular education in the State and in foreign countries, &c., was to have been made to the State Commissioner of Schools, by the Chairman of the Committee of Oversight and Management of the Ohio Educational Exhibit at Philadelphia, and this was to have been reported to the Teachers' Association at Put-in-Bay, by the Commissioner of Schools, with such additional matter of interest as the Commissioner chose to make. For reasons, doubtless sufficient, the Chairman of the Committee of Oversight has not submitted a report to the Commissioner of Schools, hence such report could not be made to the Teachers' Association. It may not be improper to add here that the State Commissioner of Schools expects to make a full report of the Ohio Educational Exhibit to the people of Ohio in his next annual report to the General Assembly.
I report here briefly my deductions from personal observation and examination of the Ohio Educational Exhibit and the educational exhibits of other States and other countries.
1. The only exhibit of students' or pupils' work displayed at the International Exposition that included all grades from the first primary year through the last year of secondary instruction, was from Ohio.
2. The pupils' work, of the Ohio Educational Exhibit, taken as a whole was superior to the pupils' work of any other Educational Exhibit, taken as a whole, i. l., taking the pupils' work of each grade or year of the different educational exhibits shown at the Philadelphia Exposition, and measuring the practical results indicated by this work, and the .superiority of the pupils' work of the Ohio Educational Exhibit was evident.
3. That the actual condition of public education was not shown at this International Exhibit. The school exhibits of each of the several States represented at Philadelphia was generally an exhibit of students' work, &c., from cities and towns-graded schools. The ungraded schools of Ohio had no representation in the Ohio Educational Exhibit.
But a very few States attempted to exhibit country school work or condition, and of all the States represented Ohio is the only one that exhibited work from all grades of the city and village schools. The representation of ungraded or country schools of Ohio could not be secured for want of some representative head in each county for such schools.
4. The excellence or superiority of the Ohio Educational Exhibit was due, to some extent, to the fact that only the city and village schools were represented, and the superiority of these schools is largely due to the intelligent legislation and management given to city and village schools and not given to ungraded schools. The legislator who takes pride in the public schools of Ohio, may do so not because of anything he has done, as a legislator to improve the condition of these schools, but because of the intelligence and indefatigable energy of the teachers of the State.
5. An evident want of that practical industrial training or rudimentary training and instruction which is a preparation for the industrial life that must be pursued by the masses. This observation applies to the public education of all the States represented at Philadelphia. Less to Massa.chusetts than any other State.
6. A want of uniformity in the character of instruction and training. That is, the schools of one city indicated great proficiency in Arithmetic or perhaps Penmanship or Drawing, and at the same time marked inefficiency in Language lessons or Geography. The schools of another city showed good instruction in Music and Composition, and a want of good instruction in Penmanship and Arithmetic. " In what one city or village school showed proficiency, another showed want of instruction. The schools of no one locality showed a uniform proficiency-in all the branches taught in the public schools-over the schools of any other locality, although superiority of the schools of one town over another was evident.
7. A general subordination of the lower grades of the same school to a mere preparation for an examination fixed as a test for admission to a higher grade and consequent mediocrity and inapplicability of attainments as the logical and inevitable results of such instruction.
8. That the Ohio Educational Exhibit was a fair representative exhibit of public education in the city and village schools of Ohio. That it was not a representative exhibit of the country or ungraded schools of the State, but represented an educational condition better than that of the country schools—better chiefly because of the intelligent management given to the one and denied the other.
9. That the Educational Exhibit from Ohio—though showing some defects in the arrangement of a school system designed to extend the greatest practicable and practical good to the masses—to all was still the