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lead pencil? Answers:—First year, 40 per cent; second year, 40 per cent; third year, 20 per cent.
Q. In what year should pupils begin to practice penmanship with pen and ink? Answers :-The second, the third, and the fourth year, each, 33} per cent.
Q. Should daily marks for recitation be kept ? Answers :-Yes, 40 per cent; no, 60 per cent.
Q. Shall these marks, when kept, enter as an element into the account for promotions ? Answer:-Yes, 100 per cent.
Q, Should examinations for promotion be periodic ? Answer:-Yes, 100 per cent.
Q. Should every pupil be examined in one study each week? Answers :-Yes, 10 per cent; no, 90 per cent against so many written examinations.
Q. How often should written examinations be held; Answers:-In more than one study once in four weeks, 70 per cent; once in eight weeks, 10 per cent; once in ten weeks, 10 per cent.
Q. Who shall mark the written papers for promotion ? Answers:Each teacher should mark his own papers, 80 per cent; The teacher who is to receive the pupil promoted, 70 per cent. It will be observed that no one voted for a teacher to mark the papers of the pupils in a grade above.
Q. In case of failures should trial or conditional certificates be granted ? Answer :-No, 80 per cent.
Q. Should second trials be granted ? Answers :-No, 80 per cent; yes, when pupils want them, 20 per cent; yes, in special cases only, 60 per cent.
Q. Should allowance be made in arithmetic papers for accuracy of reasoning, when there is error in computation ? Answers :-Yes, 75 per cent; no, 25 per cent.
Q. Is it desirable to use more than 10 objects in teaching beginners numbers? Answers :--Yes, 50 per cent; no, 50 per cent.
Q. In teaching decimals should objects be used ? Answer:-No, 100 per cent, if pupils have been taught whole numbers by objects.
Q. Should the knowledge of the subject, the spelling, the penmanship, and neatness exhibited by a paper be marked in one number? Answers:-Yes, 62 per cent; no, 38 per cent, these marking all these points by a separate per cent on each paper.
Q. Shall the teacher in charge of a school conduct the written examinations prepared by superintendents, supervisors, or committees ? Answers :-Yes, 90 per cent; no, 10 per cent.
Q. When a teacher is absent for a day is it best to procure a substitute ? Answer:-Yes, 85 per cent.
Q. Shall the teacher choose the substitute ? Answer:—No, 100 per cent.
Q. Shall a substitute be paid the same as an absent teacher ? Answer :-No, 85 per cent, unless paid by the teacher.
Q. Should substitutes be paid less than the regular teacher? Answer :-Yes, 70 per cent.
Q. Should a teacher in the first primary grade be paid the same salary as a teacher in the grammar grade ? Answers:-Yes, 85 per cent; not so much, 15 per cent.
Q. Should a teacher in the lowest primary grade have a higher salary than a teacher in any other grade between that and the grammar grade ? Answer:-Yes, 75 per cent.
Q. Should salaries be regulated according to grade? Answer:-Yes, 86 per cent.
Q. Should salaries be regulated by years of experience? Answer:Yes, 84 per cent.
Q. Should salaries be regulated by grade of certificates ? Answers :Yes, 8 per cent; no, 80 per cent, but by success. Q. Should general teachers' meetings be held on Saturdays ? An
— Yes, 50 per cent. Q. Should grade meetings be held on school days? Answer:-Yes, 80 per cent.
Q. How often should general teachers' meetings be held ? Answers:Once a week, 11 per cent; once in two weeks, 17 per cent; once in four weeks, 40 per cent; no stated time, 30 per cent.
Q. Should grade meetings be held at stated times ? Answers :-Yes, 60 per cent; no, 40 per cent.
Q. Should pupils be detained after school to make up studies ? Answer:-No, 90 per cent.
Q. Should pupils be allowed to remain to make up lost lessons ? Answer:-Yes, 100 per cent.
Q. Should pupils be retained for discipline? Answer:-Yes, 88 per cent.
Q. · Should corporal punishment be inflicted without consultation with the principal or superintendent? Answer:-No, 72 per cent.
Q. Should the principal or superintendent inflict corporal punishment for teachers in extreme cases ? Answer :-Yes, 75 per cent.
Q. Should teachers be re-examined when their certificates are renewed ? Answer :-Yes, 50 per cent.
Q. Should cities with a population of 5,000 or more have their own local Examining Boards ? Answer:-Yes, 100 per cent.
Q. Should any method of decreasing tardiness be adopted that would at the same time tend to increase absenteeism ? Answer:-No, 90 per cent.
-All teachers of mathematics should read Alex. J. Ellis's paper on “How to teach Proportion,” read Nov. 15, before the College of Preceptors. It was published in the December issue of The Educational Times. The paper consists of seventy-eight paragraphs. The first is headed “It is a Great Error to skip the Fifth Book of Euclid,” the second “Euclid's Method of Teaching Proportion masterly and simple," and the seventy-eighth "The Value of a Conception of Ratio and Proportion independent of Commensurability.”
-We have always pronounced the word loc'atire as here indicated, and not lo'cative as given in the revised edition of Webster's Dictionary. We have considered the facts that we say voc'ative and not vo'cative, and that the o in Latin is short as decisive, especially as the word is new and usage has not fixed the pronunciation lo'cative. We are glad to learn from an article by Prof. J. C. Freeman, of Chicago University, in the first number of The Educational Weekly, that he began to say lo'cative but naturally drifted into loc'ative. He says Prof. J. H. Allen had the same experience, that Prof. Greenough always says loc'ative, and that such is the pronunciation of the leading colleges of Massachusetts, New York, and other states. Now let the Merriams correct the plate so that the next Webster's Quarto printed will agree with usage as to this word. Several corrections have already been made by this enterprising firm in their determination to have the best dictionary. The Webster of 1859 incorrectly had pho'no-typ-y, but the Webster of 1864, correctly pho-not'y-py. We are not so certain that the change from the fuchsia (fū'shi-å) of 1864, to the fuchsia (fook's-á) of 1870, will be adopted. It is true that the latter pronunciation comes nearer to that of the German proper name Fuchs (fooks), but it is not so easy nor in accordance with common usage as represented in the dictionaries of Worcester, Ogilvie, Chambers, Collins, Nuttall, Cooley, and Stormonth.
-In our account in the Nov. issue, p. 367, of the proposed Exposition to be held in Paris in 1878, the word centimetres was printed incorrectly for metres. The mistake was pointed out to us by Prof. T. C. Mendenhall of Columbus.
-THE Rev. Mr. Mayo says “that the people of the United States will not submit to having education pricked into them by the bayonet.” We suspect that the Reverend gentleman does not understand the purpose of the so-called compulsory laws. It is strange that one who is almost ready to fight for the placing of the Bible in the public schools should take a position that is equivalent to saying that every parent has a right to prevent his children froin receiving an education. Have children no rights ? We advise Mr. Mayo to put his educational views into a consistent whole before in future attempting to get others to adopt them.
-The first number of The Educational Weekly appeared January 4th. It has a neat appearance and will doubtless prove to be a welcome visitor to thousands of teachers. We are glad to announce that the publishers declare positively that there are to be the names of no deadheads on their mailing list. Here and there over the country are found teachers that expect all works published by school-book publishers to be given to them and erroneously class the poor publishers of school journals with the rich publishing firms and expect school journals free even when they make no direct and active effort to extend the circulation of these journals. The first number of a new periodical is seldom if ever a fair sample by which to judge it. We expect that after a time the Weekly will grow into vigorous life.
-The National Teachers' Monthly is now edited by Jerome Allen of Geneseo, N. Y. Rumor says that the coruscations of the retiring editor were too brilliant for the publishers. We feel sure that our modest friend Allen will dispense serener light.
-GEO. T. McCord in the December issue of The Educational Voice writes on the "Language of Decimals.” He seeks after more accuracy. Complete accuracy, we are vain enough to think, is secured by the method of teaching decimals which we have for the last sixteen years presented at teachers' institutes.
-It is said that since the passage of the English Education Act of 1870, School Boards representing 12} millions of people in England and Wales have passed compulsory by-laws, that compulsion is now adopted by 46 per cent of the population of England and Wales, and by 82 per cent of the borough population. In Ireland there is no compulsory law. The school attendance in Ireland has increased in five years 31 per cent, while in three years in Scotland under the influence of a compulsory law the increase has been 42 per cent. The average attendance is 67 per cent of the enrolment in Ireland and 75 per cent in Scotland. In London every week 115 persons are fined for neglecting the education of their children. In Glasgow in three years the School-Attendance Committee dealt with 16,000 defaulting parents, 8,000 of whom sent their children to school after remonstrance and warning, and 5,800 more after notice, and 2,200 were prosecuted. These statements are culled from a paper on “The Results of Five Years' Compulsory Education,” read by Prof. Jack at the last meeting of the British Association.
-It is said that the late Hon. De Lorma Brooks of Beloit Wis., about the year 1818 when in search of a school came into the northeastern part. of Columbiana County, Ohio, and met in the road Wm. H. McGuffey, who was also in search of a school. The latter informed Mr. Brooks that a teacher was wanted at New Lisbon and that he had fears of his ability to teach at the County seat. Mr. Brooks secured the school at New Lisbon and Mr. McGuffey procured a situation at Calcutta, St. Clair Township, Mr. McGuffey's estimate of himself contrasts strongly with that of many young graduates nowadays who would readily accept the superintendency of the Schools of New York City on the day of graduation, if tendered to them.
-The American Library Journal is published at 37 Park Row, NewYork City, by F. Leypoldt. Melvil Dewey of 13 Tremont Place, Boston, is managing editor. It is a two-column quarto with wide margins. The first number, dated September 30, 1876, consists of twenty-eight pages. The next two, Nov. 30, 1876, making a double number, carries the paging to 156. A double number was announced for January none to be issued in December. We commend this periodica! to all interested in the field which it occupies. The Associate Editors comprise the leading Librarians of the country, Winsor, Cutter, Abbot, Brevoort, Spofford, Vickers, etc. John Eaton and Wm. T. Harris are also among the Associate Editors. The Journal is beautifully printed and contains excellent matter. We wish we had space to refer to the valuable articles already published. Any librarian that does not subscribe for it ought to be deposed. Its value, however, is not restricted to these officials. Price $5.00 a year, or 50 cents a number.
A New candidate for public favor in the way of juvenile periodicals is “Our Young Folk's Magazine. A Monthly Journal of Instruction and Amusement,” the first number of which appeared last month. It is edited and published by the Rev. Thos. Scully, whose address is Box 3090, Boston, Mass. Each number is to contain forty-eight pages in double col
The first number contains articles with the following titles :-The Barefoot, The King and the Geese, A Hundred Years from now (poetry), The Two Brothers, The Mammoth Cave, Elephant Catching, Paddle your own Canoe (poetry), The Rat Panic at Number 88, A Sister's Love, A Noble Wife, The Disappointed Lion, Dr. Brown's Dinner, and Christmas in the Woods (poetry), filling forty pages, the remaining eight pages being devoted to “Evenings at Home,” “Our Post Office," "Hints for Housekeepers,” and “Puzzle Drawer,” the last closing with a Chapter on Magic. The high-tone of the magazine and its cheapness will doubtless secure for it a liberal patronage. Single copy for one year $1.60, five for $7, 10 for $13, and 20 for $24. The editor can hardly be a native born New Englander for he uses will for shall in his first editorial sentence on page 4.
-SUPERINTENDENT Rickoff, of Cleveland, has again been doing a sensible thing (no uncommon thing for him), in the way of submitting a revised course of study for the High Schools, the chief point of which is that subjects of study are to be pursued for a longer period of time, in some cases three or four times as long, the number of recitations a week being proportionately reduced. We are not so sure of the propriety of reducing the number of recitations, but we are sure that studies should be pursued more exhaustively, and in order that this may be done the number of studies ought to be diminished.
-THE Report of the National Commissioner of Education, for the year 1875, has appeared. It is a volume of 1189 pages. We expect to