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-DANIEL Hough, according to the Indiana School Journal, has more than 400 books written by Indiana authors and about Indiana. It would be interesting to know how many books have been written by Ohio authors and how many about Ohio.

-GEO. H. Twiss with D. E. Williams has opened an establishment in Columbus, Ohio, for furnishing scientific books, philosophical apparatus, and general school supplies. Mr. Twiss still acts in his old capacity as Agent for D. Appleton & Co.

-ALFRED Kirk of Chicago has entered upon his duties as Principal of the Normal School at Cape Girardeau, Mo. Mr. Kirk was former y Principal of one of the Public Schools of Columbus. We wish him success in his new field of labor, and know that he has the ability to achieve it.

-J. L. McDONALD of Wellsville, Chas. F. Dean of Ironton, Howie H. Ringwood of Hamilton, L. D. Brown of Eaton, J. H. Brownwell of Cincinnati, and Wm. H. Morgan of Cincinnati, received State Certificates from the State Board of Examiners at their meeting in December, in Cincinnati.

-The Rev. Dr. Alexis Caswell died, three weeks ago, at his residence in Providence, R. I., at the age of 78. He was a Professor in Brown University from 1828 to 1868, and after that President until 1872, thus serving his Alma Mater forty-four years. He received his bachelor's degree in 1822.

-John E. BRADLEY Principal of the Albany (N. Y.) High School has received a medal with the inscription Primer Premio— Exposicion International De Chili En 1875” on one side, and the bust of Minerva on the other. This medal was granted for the best plan of organizing a school of an intermediate grade. Plans were sent from prominent schools in England, France, and Germany, and several American cities among which were New York, Boston, Chicago, and Cincinnati.

-MRS. M. L. HARVEY in December last resigned her position as Principal of the B Grammar-School Grade in the Central Building in Akron, Ohio. She was the only teacher in the schools at the time of her resignation that was connected with the schools when Mr. Findley assumed the Superintendency of them. During the sixteen years and four months that she taught in the schools she held a position in a grammar grade.

-Henry G. ROGERS, Principal of the Springfield (0.) High School, with his bride, were lost in the late disaster at Ashtabula. Mr. Rogers was a young man of great worth. The testimonial adopted by the Board of Education January 8, was a fitting tribute to his memory, as well as the ever-to-be remembered memorial services in the Second Presbyterian Church in the afternoon of January 5th.

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INSTITUTES. FRANKLIN Co.--Place, Columbus; time of beginning, Dec. 19; duration, four days; enrolment, 171; average daily attendance including visitors 200; instructors, Prof. Haywood (geography), Prof. R. W. McFarland (arithmetic), E. K. Bryan (penmanship), John Ogden (pedagogics), D. J. Snyder (grammar), A. B. Shauck (music), and W. Y. Bartels (spelling). The Hon. C. S. Smart addressed the Institute on the “Duties of Teachers." The evening lecturers were Prof. T. C. Mendenhall (“Latitude and Longitude,” and “Weights and Measures”) and Prof. Haywood (Local Climate, Seasons, Tides, Tidal Waves and Trade Winds). Officers elected :—Pres., A. B. Shauck of Hilliard, Treas., L. L. Pegg of Mifflinville, Executive Committee, D. J. Snyder of Reynoldsburgh, W. Y. Bartels of Westerville, and D. C. Arnold of Columbus. The Institute is said to have been very interesting. The county examiners Messrs. Snyder, Pegg, and A. B. Coit showed their appreciation of the value of the County Institute by attending every day.

Knox Co.—Place, Martinsburg; time of beginning, October 23d; duration, one week; enrolment, about 60; instructors, Lafever, Merrin, Kunkel, Kennon, and Headington; evening lecturers, Kunkel (Compulsory Education), Merrin (Duties of Parents and Teachers), Lafever (Mathematical, Physical, and Political Geography). Officers elected: J. C. Merrin, President; S. Kunkel, Secretary; H. W. Kennon, Advisory Committee. It was pronounced equal to any institute ever held in the county.

Fulton Co.—Place, Wauseon ; time of beginning, October 30; duration, one week; enrolment, 184, being an increase of 38 over last year; instructors, T. W. Harvey, Robert Kidd, J. E. Sater, and the Rev. Mr. Pond. The budget-box questions were confined to Theory and Practice. Monday evening was occupied hy short speeches from the Reverends Pond, Atwater, and Eddy ; Tuesday evening, by essays from A. J. Cunningham, Fannie Brigham, H. W. Shaffer, Haitie Fansler, and G. W. Harman ; the evenings of Wednesday and Thursday by Prof. Kidd; and Friday evening by T. W. Harvey on School Supervision, and by Mrs. U. E. Hamilton who read an essay on “True Beauty.” Among the complimentary resolutions was one thanking the President John McConkie for “the kind and pleasant manner in which he had presided over the Institute.”

WASHINGTON Co.--Place, Marietta ; time of beginning, November 14; duration, one week; enrolment, about 150; instructors, W. S. Goodnough (drawing), George T. McCord (gram mar and theory and practice), G. R. Rosseter (arithmetic and mathematical geography), and W. H. Morton (penmanship and map-drawing); evening lecturers, George R. Gear (** The Queen's English”), George T. McCord (“Our Mother Tongue”), W. H. Morton (“How can our schools be improved ?”), and W. S. Goodnough (“The Introduction of Drawing into our Public Schools”). The teachers were delighted with the exceedingly-practical character of Prof. Goodnough's work, and the pertinence of the instructions given by Messrs. McCord, Rosseter, and Morton. The evening addresses were pronounced excellent. 0. H. Mitchell of the Marietta High School gave an account of the proceedings of the

Orthographic Convention that met in Philadelphia last summer, and Dr. I. W. Andrews gave an hour's talk on the

Early History of the State and Washington County.” The President of the Institute, M. D. Follett, in his opening remarks explained the "Origin and Progress of our Present School Law” and its application to contracts. This Institute was pronounced interesting from first to last.

ASHTABULA Co.-Place, Conneaut; time of beginning, November 20; duration, one week; enrolment, 50 gentlemen and 52 ladies; regular instructors, E. T. Tappan (arithmetic, history, geography, theory and practice, and school government), W. D. Henkle (grammar, geography, dictionary, reading, and school government), Rev. J. T. Oxtoby (English language), and E. C. Greenlee (music); evening lecturers, E. T. Tappan (* The Distance of the Stars” and “National Life”), and the Rev. J. T. Oxtoby ("A Peep into Print” and “Likes and Dislikes”). S. A. Searle and Wm. Eby each gave one lesson in penmanship, and A. H. Stockham read an essay on

Health in the School-room. A resolution in favor of Phonetic Spelling was adopted, and one in favor of giving more


attention to "writing in our common schools, and tnat the higher branches should not exclude the common." L. L. Hamlin did his duty admirably as President. Officers elected: President, N. L. Guthrie, Conneaut; Vice-President, Miss A. E. Cole, Kingsville; Secretary, Wm. M. Eames, Jr., Ashtabula ; Treasurer, E. B. Wilson, Kingsville; Executive Committee, A. H. Viets, Jefferson, Irs. J. P. Treat, Geneva, and E. B. Wilson.

Putnam Co.- Place, Columbus Grove; time of beginning, July 31 ; duration, two weeks; enrolment, about 50; instructors, Dr. A. Schuyler and S. F. De Ford (first week), and J. Barnard (second week). Three evening lectures were given. The attendance was regular and the interest sustained. Subscriptions 9. This report was not received until too late for the December issue, hence the delay.

GUERNSEY" Co.-Place, Cambridge; time of beginning, December 25 ; uration, one week; enrolment, over 100; second day 78 gentlemen and 51 ladies; instructors, G. T. McCord, J. C. Hartzler, W. H. Morton, and U.J. Kniseley (?); evening lecturer, W. H. Morton (“ How can we improve our schools"). This report is made from the issue of The Guernsey Times of December 28, and refers only to the work of the preceding day. The rest of the report we have not at hand, as the Times for January 3d failed to reach us.


BOOK NOTICES. OUR FIRST HUNDRED YEARS: the Life of the United States of America,

illustrated in its Four Great Periods, Colonization, Consolidation, Development, Achievement. By C. Edwards Lester. New York: United States Publishing Company, No. 205 East Twelfth Street. 1877. Pages 981.

We hardly know how to describe this magnificent volume. It does not resemble an ordinary prosaic history. It is a series not of essays but of brilliant paragraphs, such as the author of the Napoleon Dynasty knows well how to write. The field covered is as wide as that of human effort as exhibited in the life of our nation, in all its relations, political, religious, literary, scientific, ete. Such a work cannot fail to infuse into the minds of its readers a love for our country's benefactors, whether statesmen, judges, divines, poets, historians, inventors, physicians, teachers, etc. We have seen it announced that this work has been placed in the list of text-books adopted by the New-York Board of Education. The work beside being pleasant to read is also an excellent book for reference. as here are gathered items of information from all quarters.. White's PROGRESSIVE ART STUDIES. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, & Co..

New York and Chicago.

We have received three packets of these studies. The primary packet for drawing by guide-points contains cards from A. to O., each 20 by 17 centimetres, giving 249 varieties of lines and figures. The ornamental packet, numbered C., contains 12 cards 25 by 19 centimetres, a portion of which are examples in beautiful colors. It is accompanied by a 16-page pamphlet, the size of the cards, that explains the designs, which are by Clarence Eytinge. The Landscape packet contains 12 cards of the size of the last with pamphlet, and 12 blank cards. INVENTIONAL GEOMETRY: A Series of Problems, intended to familiarize

the pupil with geometrical conceptions, and to exercise his inventive faculty. By Wm. Geo. Spencer, with a Prefatory Note by Herbert Spencer. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1877. Pages 97.

This is one of the Science Primers prepared by the father of the celebrated Herbert Spencer. It contains 446 exercises or questions. The following are samples of their character: “ 69. Can you make an isosceles triangle without using niore than one circle?” 86. Of how few lines can you make a figure with a reëntrant angle? " 265. Can you draw a tangent to an arc of 90° ?" “ 407. Can you place a square in any triangle?

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1. What the data must be. The question may arise why a term as familiar as education should stand in need of definition. The answer is found in the fact that language is a slow and unconscious growth of the human mind, and that words come into general use and represent ideas that are vague and empiric long before they acquire definite and scientific meanings. To free such important terms as education from their vagueness, and to give them clear and distinct connotations, which shall be in harmony with the real and essential attributes embodied in the things represented by them, is the work of philosophy and science. If possible the fundamental law which underlies those attributes which form a distinct class or concept should be developed and made the central idea in a good definition. Since the establishment of the correlation of forces, light has been defined as that mode of molecular motion which excites in us visual sensations. This definition is based on the deepest and widest generalization of physical science. Hence to define the term education in a way that shall meet the demands of philosophy and science, it is necessary to ascertain, so far as possible, the essential attributes which enter into the educational process, and also the fundamental law and conditions through which those attributes are evolved. Such attributes must be fixed upon, which, because of their constancy, universality, and fundamental nature, will logically lead to the greatest number of interesting and important properties which may admit of extensive practical applications.

2. What the data must be. In seeking the data out of which to frame a correct definition of education, we might adopt one of two methods. We might, in the first place, make a study of the various theories of education as these have been advanced by their eminent expounders, and reduced to practice by their disciples. But, unfortunately, we find here much that is discordant and conflicting among those different theories. The only way in which it would be possible to learn whatever of truth there may be in each of those systems would be by comparing them, one by one, with man himself, the being to be educated. The nature, the requirements, and the interests of man as he appears in the midst of the complex and multiform relations which environ him must constitute the ultimate criterion by which to judge of every thing which aspires to enter as an element into his education. Hence the more scientific method will be to go directly to man that we may learn, so far as possible, what are those fundamental laws and facts of human nature which, as manifested in his complex organism, must underlie a true theory of education. Hence to determine what is a true definition of education really involves a discussion relative to the true nature and theory of education.

3. How the data must be derived. After it has been settled that the data out of which a philosophic definition of education can be constructed must be derived directly from the study of human nature, other important questions arise. From what point of view shall man be contemplated, and what shall be the method of studying his complex and mysterious nature? Shall the student of human nature adopt the method of physics, and begin with the concrete material facts which the Creator has impressed on man's physical organism, and by means of these endeavor to rise to a knowledge of the facts and laws of his mental organism? Or shall he adopt the method of metaphysics which confines itself exclusively to the facts of consciousness, and endeavor to learn from these the educational laws of human nature? Again, shall the investigation be carried on inductively or deductively?—for the facts of human nature whether these be of an objective or subjective character,

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