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" Journey to Ireland," and several occasional elders are intrusted with the government to the poems. He is now best known by the second extent of admissions and excommunications, yet part which he added to the 5th edition of Wal- that there is so much liberty left among the ton's - Complete Angler," valuable for the tech- brethren that nothing of common concern can nical information which it gives concerning fly be imposed upon them without their consent. fishing, and for its descriptions of the scenery Against Williams he defended the interference of the Dove, and of his fishing-house on a little of the civil power in religious matters for the peninsula in the river, having a bowling green support of the truth, maintaining the duty, for near by, and inscribed Piscatoribus sacrum, the good of the church and of the people, of putwith a cipher including the first 2 letters of the ting away those who, after repeated admoninames of Walton and Cotton.
tions, persist in rejecting fundamental points of COTTON, John, one of the first ministers of doctrine or worship. Nevertheless he was charBoston, Mass., born in Derby, Eng., Dec. 4, 1585, itable and benevolent, and contributed freely of died in Boston, Dec. 23, 1652. At the age of 13 his labors and substance to strangers and those he entered Trinity college, Cambridge, and was in distress.-A monumental tablet, with a Latin afterward fellow of Emmanuel and employed as inscription by Mr. Edward Everett, was erected lecturer and tutor. About 1612 he became vicar in St. Botolph's church in 1857, in honor of Cotof St. Botolph's church in Boston, Lincolnshire, ton, chiefly by contributions from his descendwhere he remained 20 years, noted as a preacher ants in Boston, Mass. and controversialist, and inclining in his doctrines COTTON, Sir RÓBERT Bruce, an English anand practices toward the Puritan worship. His tiquary, founder of the Cottonian library, born influence with his people carried them mostly at Denton in Huntingdonshire, Jan. 22, 1570, with him, but he was at length informed against died in London, May 6, 1631. He made a very for not kneeling at the sacrament, and cited to valuable collection of ancient manuscripts, inappear before Archbishop Laud in the high com- cluding many which had been scattered about mission court. Upon this he sought safety in the kingdom when Henry VIII. dissolved the fight, and after sojourning for some time in monasteries. In 1629 he was arrested on a false London went to America, arriving in Boston suspicion of having written an obnoxious pamSept. 4, 1633. In October he was ordained on phlet, thrown into the tower, and his library a day of fasting, by imposition of hands by the was sequestrated. Thongh released, he was still minister and 2 elders, teacher of the church in denied access to his library; and to this depriBoston and colleague with Mr. Wilson the pas- vation he attributed the malady of which he tor. In this connection he remained over 19 died. His collection was augmented by his son years, with such influence and standing that he and grandson, and, after having been partly dehas been called the patriarch of New England. stroyed by fire in 1731, was afterward transferIn 1642 he was invited, together with Hooker red to the British museum. and Davenport, by the assembly of divines at COTYS, or CoTYTTO, & Thracian female diWestminster, to assist in their counsels, and was vinity, whose festival (the Cotyttia) resembled in favor of accepting the invitation, but was that of the Phrygian Cybele. It was held at dissuaded by Hooker,
who was intent upon form- night, and celebrated with licentious revelry. ing himself a system of church government for COUCH GRASS (triticum repens, Linn.), New England. His death was brought on by known by a great variety of names in different exposure in crossing the ferry to Cambridge, localities, such as twitch, witch, quitch, squitch, where he was going to preach. His reputation quack, quake, dog grass, chandler grass, wheat for learning was very high, and, as was frequent grass, is one
of the most troublesome pests of among the ministers of that time, was sustained the farm. The plant is about 2 feet high, bavby an accumulation of obscure and professional ing rough leaves, somewhat hairy, and trailing knowledge. He was a critic in Greek, wrote at the lower joints. Although a grass, it perLatin with elegance, and could discourse in He- forms the office of a vile weed, being an insidbrew, and spent 12 hours a day in reading, his ious creeper, multiplying and ramifying itself in favorite author being Calvin. His pulpit elo- all directions. Its scraggy roots go deep into quence was famous for its simplicity and plain- the soil, and take firm hold. Each joint, whether ness, and his discourses were exceedingly effect- of the root or stem, can produce a new plant, ual in exciting attention to religion. He was very which in turn, if not destroyed, will produce regular in religious observances, keeping the others beyond' number. Every friend to enSabbath holy from evening to evening, and it lightened agriculture is an enemy to couch grass. was from him that the form of that observance Some slovenly farmers let it grow as pasture was disseminated throughout New England. His and meadow, and thus infest their tillage land. publications were numerous, consisting of ser. Its nutritive qualities do not make up for its dismons and controversial works upon most of the advantages in a thorough system of husbandry. subjects discussed in his time. The most im- Couch grass can withstand intense frost withportant are those published in the course of out injury. On lands sown with winter grain, his controversy with Roger Williams, and his or seeded down with grass, even if stripped "Power of the Keys" on the nature of church of their snowy protection and winter-killed, government. He maintained that the church couch grass commonly shows itself in early is constituted of elders and brethren; that the spring when no sign of the crops is to be seen.
This land must have a thorough harrowing be Coucy, was published in 1829. It is founded fore another crop, and in covering the seed, upon the following legend, which has been reproif any of the cereals are being sown, clean thé duced under various forms : Coucy was in love harrow teeth at the head lands, gather the rub- with a French lady, the wife of the chevalier bish into heaps, and when dry, burn it. A crop de Fayel. Fighting in the ranks of the crusaof turnips, whose broad leaves exclude sun and ders, he was mortally wounded, and deputed bis air, and the frequent disturbance of the soil in servant to carry his heart to his mistress
. The hot weather, are useful in subduing this noxious messenger was surprised by the husband. The weed. If hand hoes, horse hoes, root cleaners, latter caused the heart to be cooked and to be and other disturbing implements are not used, presented to his wife, who tasted it, but being it will defy every effort, made at a late date, tó informed of the origin of the dish she starved banish it from a growing crop for the season. herself to death. Cleaning land thoroughly in autumn keeps the COUGAR (felis concolor, Linn.), a carnivo roots from penetrating the soil deeply, and from rous animal, also called puma, or American lion; getting a strong hold, almost impossible to be and by the early settlers of the United States, broken. In the early autumn the roots strike painter (a corruption of panther) and catamount. horizontally and obliquely, and then go down It has a very extensive range, being found from till the growth of the plant is stopped by the northern New York to Patagonia in South cold of winter. The ashes of couch contain America. The length of the body of the adult only about 10 per cent. of potash and 51 per cougar is from 4 to 4p feet, and that of the cent. of lime. Professor Voelcker found a lit- tail from 2 to 23 feet; the females are sometle more than 20 per cent. of bone earth in it. what less. The fur is thick and close, of a pale The large amount of soluble silica found in its reddish brown color above, shading into white ashes explains why clay soils, rich in alkaline on the flanks and lower parts; the muzzle
, chin, silicates, are conducive to its growth. In parts throat, and inside of limbs are grayish white, of Europe where paring and burning are much and the breast is almost pure white; the back of practised, it is known that the fouler the land is the ears, and the part from which the whiskers made by couch grass, the larger is the ensuing spring, are brownish black; the tip of the tail crop of turnips.
black; the whiskers white; on the face and COUCHING. See CATARACT.
sides there are sometimes a few stripes. The COUCY, the name of a French family, who cougar is an active climber, but prefers the from the 12th to the end of the 14th century grassy plains and meadows of South America, held the first rank among the great barons in where it is very destructive to the herds. In the N. of France. They took their name from the forests of the north it lives chiefly on deer, the castle of Coucy, situated about 12 m. S. W. upon which it drops from a branch overhanging of Laon.
their paths and watering places. It is not satCOUCY, RENAUD, or RAOUL DE, castellan of isfied with seizing a single victim, but will kill Coucy, but probably not a relation of the cele as many of a herd as it can, sucking only & brated family of that name, a French minstrel small portion of the blood of each; it is accordof the 12th century, was the reputed author of 24 ingly destroyed whenever an opportunity offers songs, remarkable for simplicity and tenderness, It is cowardly by nature, and will flee from man; which were reprinted in 1830 under the editor- but if wounded, it will turn upon the hunter, ship of Francisque Michel. His name is asso and prove a dangerous foe. In the north it is ciated with a famous romance of the 13th cen- generally hunted by dogs, and driven to a tree; tury, but which has been mixed up with another where it is easily shot. "It is readily tamed, and legend of Gabrielle de Vergy. This romance, many instances are on record of its docility and under the title of Roumans dou chastelain de even affection.
END OF VOLUME FIFTH,
CONTENTS OF VOLUME V.
25 Chesney, Francis Rawdon.....
25 Chesterfield dist., S. C...
28 Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stan-
80 Cheverus, Jean Louis A. M. L. de.. 61
80 Cheves, Langdon.
45 Chevreuse, Marie de Rohan Mont-
Chézy, Antoine Léonard de.
48 Chickens, Mother Carey's, seo Pe-
50 Chicoutimi co..
52 Chihuahua, state.
Child, Sir Josiah.
53 Child, Lydia Maria.
Children, John George
54 Chiliast, see Millennium.
Chillon, Castle of..
Chiquimula de la Sierra..
189 Cienfuegos, Nicasio Alvarez de... 940
Christopher, Duke of Würtemberg 197 Cinaloa, see Sinaloa,
197 Cincinnatus, Lucius Quintius.... 953
212 Cinq-Mars, Henri C, de Ruzé. 237
Cintra, Pedro de..
Church, Benjamin (two)... 218 Circumflex...
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, 282 Clayton co.
325 Clive, Robert.
Clarke co., Iowa