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ber of files being determined by the size of the column. If an attack comes from the left, they have only to face the left and are in the best possible position for either attack or defense. If an attack comes from the right, in like manner they face the right and are then in an equally good position. And if an attack comes from both sides, which would not be at all probable, the officer in command of the leading company could promptly devise means to meet such an emergency.

By this method the march would not be retarded, which I regard as a matter of the utmost importance. It cannot be said to be an exaggeration to assert that 10,000 men who can march 30 miles a day are nearly as valuable for military purposes as 20,000 who can only march 15 miles a day. Of course, when a large body of troops is on the march the usual method should be adhered to, of having detachments of cavalry on roads parallel, or nearly so, to the line of march. Cavalry detachments should also scout out upon roads which cross the one being traveled.

I also recommend that speed in marching be given consideration in all practice marches and in all marches in campaign. When a soldier carries a gun, 150 rounds of ammunition, blanket and canteen, and one day's rations it is of the utmost importance that this burden should rest upon him as short a time as possible. If a day's march is to be 15 miles and he makes it in five hours he then can throw off all his burden and has the balance of the day for rest. If the march is prolonged to nine or ten hours this burden is upon him for so much longer period and he reaches his destination too late for rest and preparation for the night, and the men who go on guard frequently have no rest whatever before entering upon their new duty. I have found from experience in the Philippines that a quickstep was not tiresome to the men, and upon making inquiry amorg officers and soldiers I learned that the plan I have suggested was quite satisfactory to them. Another advantage of this is that the troops become accustomed to and enabled to make rapid forced marches, which oftentimes is the main feature in a successful campaign. I discovered that by marching fifty-five minutes and resting five minutes troops could easily cover 3 miles an hour and sometimes they even exceeded that speed.

I think care should be taken to have light shoes with thin soles for small men. A very heavy man needs more leather between him and the ground than a light one, and in providing shoes for the Army this matter should be given careful consideration.

There are also attached hereto reports of the following staff officers of this department: The adjutant-general, the acting inspector-general, the judge-advocate, the chief quartermaster, the disbursing quartermaster, the chief commissary, the chief surgeon, the chief paymaster, the engineer officer, the ordnance officer, the signal officer, the inspector of small-arms practice.

The following are the officers who have served upon my staff during the period covered by this report:

Lieut. Col. W. P. Hall, assistant adjutant-general, U. S. A., adjutantgeneral.

Col. Simon Snyder, Nineteenth Infantry (joined July 25, 1900), acting inspector-general.

Maj. Eli L. Huggins, Sixth Cavalry (relieved July 24, 1900), acting inspector-general.

WAR 1900-VOL 1, PT III- -15

Col. Thomas F. Barr, assistant judge-advocate-general, U. S. A., judge-advocate.

Col. James G. C. Lee, assistant quartermaster-general, U. S. A. (relieved July 16, 1900), chief quartermaster.

Lieut. Col. Edwin 'B. Atwood, deputy quartermaster - general, U. S. A. (joined July 16, 1900), chief quartermaster.

Maj. J. T. French, jr., quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers, assistant to the chief quartermaster.

Capt. R. L. Brown, assistant quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers, assistant to the chief quartermaster.

Maj. W. L. Alexander, commissary of subsistence, U. S. A., chief commissary.

Col. Albert Hartsuff, assistant surgeon-general, U. S. A., chief surgeon.

Capt. Henry I. Raymond, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., attending surgeon and examiner of recruits.

Maj. Charles H. Whipple, paymaster, U. S. A., chief paymaster.

Maj. Hugh R. Belknap, additional paymaster, u. s. Volunteers (relieved July 25, 1900).

Maj. Beecher B. Ray, additional paymaster, U. S. Volunteers (joined July 12, 1900).

All these officers have been highly efficient in the performance of their various duties. Very respectfully,

JOSEPH WHEELER, Brigadier-General, Commanding.




Omaha, Nebr., August 1, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY,

Washington, D. C. SIR: I have the honor to submit annual report of conditions and administration of this geographical department during the past year.

The following organizations are now serving in the department:


Commanding officer.


Fort Crook, Nebr
Jefferson Barracks, Mo
Fort Leavenworth, Kans

Fort Logan H. Roots, Ark..
Fort Niobrara, Nebr

Fort Reno, Okla..
Fort Riley, Kans

Maj. Walter Dugan, Tenth Infantry Company I, Tenth Infantry.
First Lieut. Herschel Tupes, First Infantry Company B, First Infantry.
Capt. R. N. Getty, First Infantry..

Companies C and D, First

Capt. F. E. Lacey, jr., First Infantry.. Company A, First Infantry.
First Lieut. John F. Stephens, Tenth In- | Company K, Tenth Infantry.

First Lieut. Henry B. Dixon, Eighth Cav- Troop A, Eighth Cavalry.

Lieut. Col. George B. Rodney, Fourth Tooops B and D, Eighth

Cavalry; Light Battery F,
Third Artillery; Light
Battery B, Fourth Artil-
lery: Siege Battery 0,

Seventh Artillery.
Capt. Harry E. Wilkins, Tenth Infantry... Company M, Tenth Infantry.
Capt. Farrand Sayre, Eighth Cavalry Troop C, Eighth Cavalry.

Fort Robinson, Nebr
Fort Sill, Okla..

Siege Battery 0, Seventh Artillery, is under orders for service in the Orient, while orders have also been received for the recall of headquarters and two battalions of the First Infantry from Cuba to Fort Leavenworth, Kans. At that station headquarters, band, and two battalions will then be prepared for foreign service.

During the year the following troops have been prepared for service in the Tropics and forwarded from this department: Troop K, Third Cavalry; headquarters and Troops A, B, D, I, K, L, and M, Sixth Cavalry; Troops A, C, K, First Cavalry, and six regiments of United States Volunteer Infantry, namely, Thirty-second and Forty-fourth, at Fort Leavenworth, Kans.; Thirty-eighth and Forty-ninth, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. ; Thirty-ninth, at Fort Crook, Nebr.; Fortieth, at Fort Riley, Kans.

In the preparation of all these troops the greatest care was taken that they be carefully selected and thoroughly outfitted in every particular, and as well drilled before departure as time and circumstances would permit. Special attention was given to target practice, and it is believed that all of these troops left the department thoroughly equipped and in every way well prepared for the arduous duty they are now performing.


Schemes for lyceum instruction at the various posts were prepared and submitted by post commanders and approved at these headquarters. For work done reference is made to Appendix A (No. 4), from which it will appear that the usual marked interest has been taken in this branch of instruction.


Progressive schemes of instruction were prepared in accordance with orders and regulations covering the period from April 1 to November 30. Owing to the constant changes of troops it has been impossible satisfactorily to complete the schemes of instruction só outlined, but all commanding officers, so far as can be seen from their reports and gathered from the reports of the acting inspector-general of the department, have zealously endeavored to carry out their orders in this respect, covering garrison drills, field exercises, problems in minor tactics, calisthenic and gymnastic exercises, signal instruction, first aid, etc. For more complete illustration of what has been done in this direction reference is made to Appendix A (No. 7).


Extensive repairs and construction are now in progress under the able supervision of the chief quartermaster of the department, Lieut. Col. Forrest H. Hathaway, at Forts Leavenworth and Robinson and Jefferson Barracks. At the latter post I regret exceedingly that the Quartermaster-General did not find it practicable or advisable to remodel the post mess hall to serve as administration building, and by adding kitchens and mess rooms to the barracks make it possible to abolish the post mess at that important post as recommended by these headquarters. I suppose it is now conceded everywhere that the post mess is a distinct injury to the service and should be abolished as rapidly as possible.

The old Government building in this city has also been remodeled and converted into a most commodious and comfortable department headquarters, thus saving the large expenditure heretofore made for rent.


I am glad to note that all Indian tribes residing within this department or contiguous to it have continued to be quiet and peaceable during the past year as during the previous year, so that no calls have been made for troops in connection therewith. From all reports received, it is also noted that progress is being made by all of the tribes in the direction of civilization. It is especially gratifying to report the quiet behavior and progress in agriculture and stock raising by the Apache prisoners of war, now located at Fort Sill, Okla. Of all the tribes encountered, the Apaches have been regarded as the least promising; in fact, twenty years ago no one would have ventured to predict the advancement these Indians have now actually made. For more complete particulars reference is made to the report of the officer in charge of Apache prisoners of war, Appendix L. These Indian prisoners, by their good behavior, have earned the good will and deserve liberal treatment and assistance at the hands of the Government.


In all of the arduous work incident to mobilization, instruction, and forwarding of troops for foreign service, involving innumerable transfers of men and material, the organization of new regiments, and the practical reorganization of old ones, uniform zeal and energy of officers have been most noteworthy. Not a single case of neglect or misconduct of an officer has called for disciplinary measures, while my especial thanks are due to all of the members of my personal and department staff, and their assistants, for promptness and efficiency in the discharge of all their duties. • Very respectfully,

HENRY C. MERRIAM, Brigadier-General, U. S. A.




San Antonio, Tex., August 25, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY,

Washington, D. C. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the conditions and affairs in this department since June 30, 1899, the date of my last report:

The troops remaining on duty in the department are distributed as follows: Troop E, Tenth Cavalry, Fort Brown; Troop F, Tenth Cavalry, Fort McIntosh; Troop G, Tenth Cavalry, Fort Ringgold; Troop H, Tenth Cavalry, Fort Clark and Camp Eagle Pass; Battery O, First Artillery, Fort San Jacinto, Fort Crockett, and Fort Travis; Light

Battery K, First Artillery, Fort Sam Houston; Company A, Twentyfifth Infantry, Fort Bliss; Company C, Twenty-fifth Infantry, and Company D, Twenty-fifth Infantry, Fort Sam Houston.

I have visited all the posts in the department, except Forts Brown and Ringgold. These will be visited later.

Fort Bliss, which I inspected last December, is in excellent condition. The buildings are all new and in good repair.

The garrisons and posts of Fort Clark and Camp Eagle Pass were inspected between February 3 and 5, 1900, and found to be in good condition, except Camp Eagle Pass. Camp Eagle Pass (old Fort Duncan) is garrisoned by a detachment from Fort Clark. The buildings are very old and nearly beyond repair. While habitable for a small detachment, when conditions will permit of a full garrison the question of a thorough rebuilding of the old post or the building of an entirely new post in a more suitable location will have to be considered. The present site (old Fort Duncan) is ill suited for a military post under modern conditions. The entire reservation is dominated by higher ground on the Mexican side. The Rio Grande has, year by year, cut into the reservation. At this point, where a large amount of American capital is invested, there should be an adequate garrison, and it is but a question of time when this point must of necessity be garrisoned. The citizens of Eagle Pass have offered to donate 640 acres of land situated on the high ground just east of the railroad bridge. This, in my opinion, is the proper site for the post, as it would command the bridges and fords and be safe from encroachments of the river. There is no cemetery at the post; 73 bodies of soldiers, civilians, and children were moved in April last from the plot formerly used as such to the national cemetery at San Antonio. This ground was outside the reservation and did not belong to the United States.

On December 8, 1899, I visited Galveston, Tex., and inspected Forts San Jacinto, Travis, and Crockett. These posts are about 4 miles apart, and the labor falling on one battery in garrisoning them, or rather furnishing care-taker detachments for them, is excessive. Nearly all the time of the battery has to be employed in the necessary cleaning and oiling for the preservation of the guns, leaving but scant time for the other instruction of the men. As soon as conditions will permit, at least one additional battery should be sent to Galveston.

The defenses when completed will consist of

At Fort San Jacinto.–Battery of two 10-inch B. L. rifles; battery of two 3-inch 15-pounder rapid-fire guns; battery of two 4.7-inch rapid-fire guns; battery of two 6-inch rapid-fire guns; battery of eight 12-inch mortars; battery of two 10-inch B. L. rifles at Pelican Spit.

NOTE. —Pelican Spit is separated from Fort San Jacinto by a narrow channel, and is just inside the harbor entrance.

At Fort Crockett.Battery of two 10-inch B. L. rifles; battery of two 3-inch 15-pounder rapid-fire guns; battery of eight 12-inch mortars.

At Fort Travis.- Battery of two 8-inch B. L. rifles; battery of three 3-inch 15-pounder rapid-fire guns; battery of four 6-inch rapid-fire guns.

These are all in excellent condition.

At the time of my visit the battery was in comfortable temporary buildings near Fort Crockett. Since then, 60 acres adjoining the reservation have been purchased, giving sufficient room for the erection of barracks and quarters for a two-battery post. Permanent

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