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son, via St. Michael, June 30, all others heretofore being from steamship Oregon. This demonstrates that the contagion also existed in the Yukon valley, having gained entrance by way of Skagway.
By July 19 it was evident that any person who had been exposed to the contagion from the original cases should have manifested premonitory symptoms (last case isolated July 6) indicative of the disease. Therefore a reduction of quarantine to eight days would amply cover the period of incubation, and accordingly, in the interests of commerce, secondary only to the health of the community, the time of detention was lessened.
July 23 no new cases, excepting from Dawson, having appeared, it was recommended by Dr. S. J. Call, acting on the part of the Treasury, and myself, as chief surgeon of the department, to raise the quarantine, which the commanding general ordered done, merely requiring recent vaccination of all persons landing on the military reservation of St. Michael from Nome City. Very respectfully,
R. G. EBERT, Surgeon, U. S. A., Chief Surgeon.
CHIEF SURGEON'S OFFICE,
Fort St. Michael, Alaska, July 30, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF ALASKA.
Sir: In compliance with verbal instructions of the department commander I have this day made an inspection of physical condition of the Indians on the east shore of Norton Sound between this and Point Keketaunick, distant about 22 miles, and have the honor to submit the following report:
Accompanied by Father Kookarsky, of the Greek Church, and Mr. Windberg, who last evening had reported certain cases of destitution among the natives, a start was made in U. S. Quartermaster's Department launch Nordica for Cape Alpalcluk, 7 miles northeast. Here were found John, his wife, 5 boys, and 1 girì, all suffering from the epidemic influenza so rapidly fatal to the natives. A wife and one son were lying dead and unburied in a separate tepee, a short distance removed, surrounded by a litter of young puppies and older dogs. Of the members of the family alive but one, the wife, was at all able to care for herself. The father was in a precarious condition, unable to be moved to the launch, and will in all probability succumb; the older son, Dan, was breathing at a rate of about 30 per minute, the lungs being completely congested; the girl was in a state not much better, while the younger children, including a nursing babe, were afflicted with an incessant cough. The miserably thin canvas substitute for a tent served but poorly to protect the sick from even the slight drizzling mist then falling. Medicines and food, including condensed milk for infants and tea for older members of the family, were given them for several days, and promises of further assistance when fatigue party to bury the dead should be sent.
A half mile beyond was found a house and tent, both unoccupied, the natives having died, as shown by recent graves. That the owners were among the wealthier of the natives was evidenced by the possession of two stoves, several trunks, quite a cache of drying salmon, and clothing, showing at least a reasonable purchasing capacity by the late possessors. Two seines in which salmon and other fish were entangled, partial decomposition showing that at least a fortnight must have elapsed since last drawn, were still in the water, while a third was on a rack on shore.
The recent graves, the last being covered merely by a skin of a kyack, showed that natives themselves had attended to burial; the fact that the dogs remained would indicate that no other members of the family existed.
At Point Keketaunick, the village which at one time must have numbered not less than 100 inhabitants, and at which the priest expected to find about 60 people, there were but four families, a total of 19 or 20 souls. Excepting one man, a boy, and two half-grown girls, all were helpless. Even these were to a greater or less degree suffering from the prevailing sickness and 3 had died. Beyond a few fish and birds there was no food supply. To these were given the stores directed to be distributed by the department commander.
Owing to the lateness of the hour, other camps more in the immediate vicinity of St. Michael were un visited, though acfurther distribution of supplies was made.
WAR 1900-VOL 1, PT III-17
The diseases are epidemic influenza and measles. Owing to the scarcity of food during the spring and early summer, the ability to resist their inroads has been materially decreased; in other words, partial starvation adds to the mortality. With the entire community stricken by disease all further sources of food cease as far as the efforts of themselves, the natives, are concerned, and those who do not die directly from the infection, which in many cases seems to terminate in an acute tuberculosis, will die of starvation unless relief from Government sources is furnished.
As this is the season in which the native should lay by his winter stores, and as this epidemic extends to Cape York, as I have seen by personal observation, and am reliably informed also down to the coast to the Kuskokwim and up the Yukon for over 300 miles, it is evident that no natives will remain alive by next spring unless immediate measures are taken to feed, clothe, and care for these people for the next ten months. Very respectfully,
R. G. EBERT, Surgeon, U. S. A., Chief Surgeon.
Fort St. Michael, Alaska, July 31, 1900. The CHIEF SURGEON, DEPARTMENT OF ALASKA,
Fort St. Michael, Alaska. Sir: In complance with your request, I have the honor to make the following report as to the Indians in and about St. Michael. There were about 200 natives on the island last winter. This number has been greatly diminished by sickness and death, and others, becoming frightened, have left the island. It is not possible to determine how many of the 200 who were here last winter have died, but I believe it is a large number. To illustrate, a family of 6 were in the hut near the S. S. Mare Island. They became frightened and left the island. One of the family informs me that all are dead except 2. I do not know where the bodies are. About 17 natives have died near the post.
There has been an epidemic of la grippe and measles among them. In several families all would not be able to fish or care for the others. As a result, starvation has played an active part in causing the high mortality. Pneumonia has been a very common complication and in many cases the immediate cause of death.
The following cases are good illustrations of the condition in which I find many of the families:
1. A family of 7 was found in a tent on the beach; all sick, 3 having pneumonia; no one able to work. 2. In the hut south of the Alaska Commercial Company's canteen I found a sick
She was delirious and almost naked. An infant 7 months old was lying in a box. It had measles and pneumonia. In the feeding bottle was some sour milk, which showed that the child had not been fed during the last forty-eight hours. There was no fire in the room, and it was very damp. The mother has since died and the child taken to the home of a Russian priest.
An old man and woman and a little girl were found in one of the huts. The hut is partly underground and has a flat sod roof. Water covered part of the floor. Everything was very damp. They have been moved to a better house, but there is no one to care for tħem. They lie in bed all day with no fire in the room. Their only food is sugar, water, and the bread issued them by the commissary.
The treatment of these cases is very difficult; some will not take medicine at all, and most of them are not to be trusted with poisonous drugs.
The miners and A. C. Co. have used all the driftwood, so that it is impossible for them to get fuel, not even enough to cook their food. Very respectfully,
R. J. MARSA, Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A., Post Surgeon.
REPORT OF MAJ. GEN. LEONARD WOOD, U. S. VOLUNTEERS,
COMMANDING DIVISION OF CUBA.
HEADQUARTERS DIVISION OF CUBA,
Habana, September 10, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY,
Washington, D. C. Sir: In compliance with the instructions of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army, I have the honor to submit my annual report for the period ending June 30, 1900.
I assumed command of this division on December 20, 1899, in compliance with General Orders, No. 206, Headquarters of the Army, December 13, 1899.
During the period for which this report is rendered there have been but few changes in the stations of troops, which are noted in the accompanying report of the adjutant-general of this division, to which special attention is invited. The present stations of troops throughout the island are also accounted for in the “roster" which accompanies the report of Col. W. V. Richards.
There has been a steady diminution in the strength of the garrisons of the island since December, 1899. In January the Fifteenth Infantry was relieved from duty in the island and home battalions of the Tenth and Eighth Cavalry were sent to the United States; also home battalions of the First, Second, Eighth, and Tenth Infantry and Second Artillery, and in the month of July, 1900, First, Second, Fifth, and Eighth Infantry were relieved from duty in the island. The general reduction in the garrisons resulted in the abandonment of the posts of Baracoa, Mayarí, Gibara, Nuevitas, Caibarién, Cárdenas, Sagua la Grande, Placetas, Sancti Spíritus, Trinidad, Pinar del Rio, and Guanajay, and the abandonmentof many temporary stations, such as Banes, Cobre, Jiguaní, in the province of Santiago de Cuba, and t'e concentration of the troops of the remaining regiments into comparatively large garrisons, the Seventh Cavalry being assembled at Camp Columbia, near Habana, the Second Artillery garrisoning the defenses of Habana, and one light battery at Columbia Barracks. The entire Second Cavalry has been assembled at Matanzas, headquarters and one battalion of the Tenth Irfantry at Cienfuegos, the remaining battalion being stationed at Morro Castle, Santiago de Cuba. The Eighth Cavalry was at first stationed in temporary camp, near Puerto Príncipe. On the removal of the Fifteenth Infantry in January 2 troops were sent to Ciego de Avila and 1 to Nuevitas, which place was later abandoned as a station. In the month of July 1 tioop was sent from Puerto Príncipe to Guantanamo and 1 to San Luis, Santiago de Cuba, leaving only 6 troops in the province of Puerto Príncipe, 4 in camp about 4 miles from the city of Puerto Príncipe, and 2 at Ciego de Avila, on the Júcaro-Morón Railroad. The Tenth Cavalry is at present stationed headquarters and 3 troops at Manzanillo, 4 troops at Holguín, and 1 troop at Bayamo. A detachment of 10 men of this regiment and an officer are at present stationed at Baracoa, looking after Government property and interests there.
With the single exception of the province of Santiago, troops and companies of the various regiments have been assembled as much as practicable in large garrisons for the purpose of greater convenience
and greater facilities in supplying them. In Santiago de Cuba the wild and mountainous character of a great portion of the province, together with the lack of communication, have rendered it necessary to maintain a number of comparatively small garrisons. There should be no further reduction in the number of troops at present.
The general conduct of the troops has been most admirable, and it may be said that complaints against the troops from the civil authorities and individuals have been of extremely rare occurrence. The general conduct of the officers and men has been excellent and highly creditable to the Army. The variety and number of duties, most of them entirely new, which our officers have been called upon to perform has included supervision and control of almost every class of work, whether administrative or constructive, and the performance of duty has been such that whenever I have had occasion to assign any particular work to an officer, I have always felt sure of the work being properly and efficiently done. The conduct of both officers and men has been such that the military occupation has been free from scandal and evil reports reflecting in any way upon the service. When the variety and scope of the work which our officers have done is appreciated, I believe the general conclusion will be that habits of thoroughness, obedience, and straightforwardness, which are the results of military training, form a splendid basis for administrative and reconstructive work. In general I can say that throughout the island the work performed by officers of the Army has been of incalculable assistance in the establishment of civil government and the reconstruction of the country.
The posts in this division are in good condition to shelter troops. Whenever it has been found necessary to occupy old barracks, formerly used by the Spanish troops, the buildings have without exception been thoroughly renovated and disinfected. Such new barrack buildings as have been constructed have been of light, airy construction, with, as a rule, double roof and suitable verandas, and they have been so placed as to obtain plenty of air and sunshine. All barrack buildings have been provided as well as possible with bathing facilities, and whenever water has been of doubtful quality, all precautions have been taken to make it suitable for drinking and other purposes.
After two years' service in the island I think it can be safely said that our troops can serve here without difficulty.
Owing to the exigencies of the service, the number of officers has been so reduced that it is difficult to get enough to perform the necessary garrison duties. The detail of officers with volunteer regiments, at West Point, and as collectors of customs and on other quasi-civil work has thrown upon the officers who have reniained with their regiments many additional duties and hardships, obliging me to deny to them in many cases well-earned leaves of absence.
A personal inspection of the troops throughout the islands has shown a high rate of efficiency. The barracks inspected by me are without exception clean, neat, and in excellent sanitary condition. The rations furnished to the men are ample and the food good and well cooked. The clothing supplied is satisfactory and the arms and accouterments are in excellent condition. Troop horses, mules, and pack animals are well taken care of and in condition to render hard service.
The health of this command is excellent, and in this connection special attention is invited to the report of the chief surgeon of the division.