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sioned. Of this kind are the two following examples from Demosthenes :
But since he has insisted so much upon the event, I will hazard a bold assertion. But I beseech you, Athenians, let it not be deemed extravagant,— let it be weighed with candour. I say, then, that, had we all known what misfortune was to attend our efforts, had we all foreseen the final issue; had you foretold it, Æschines; had you bellowed out your terrible denunciations (you, whose voice was never heard,) yet even in such a case must this city have pursued the very same conduct, if she had retained a thought of glory, of her ancestors, or of future times. Leland's Demosthenes.
In my affection to my country, you find me ever firm and invariable. Not the solemn demand of my pèrson, not the vengeance of the Amphyctionic council, which they denounced against me, not the terrour of their threatenings, not the flattery of their promises, no, nor the fury of those accursed wretches, whom they roused like wild beasts against me, could ever tear this affection from my breast. Ibid.
Epanaphora, or Repetition, is a figure which gracefully and emphatically repeats either the same words, or the some sense in different words.
This figure is nearly allied to the aparithmesis and climax, and requires nearly the same pronunciation ; that is, the repeated words must be pronounced with a sameness of inflection, but with an increasing force and elevation of voice upon each. This expresses that force, uniformity, and diversity, which constitute the beauty of this figure.
There is scarcely a more beautiful instance of this figure than in Cicero's Second Oration against Antony.
As trees and plants necessarily arise from seeds, so are you, A'ntony, the seed of this most calamitous war. You mourn, O Romans! that three of your armies have been slaughtered-they were slaughtered by A'ntony: you lament the loss of your most illustrious citizens-they were torn from you by Antony: the authority of this order is deeply wounded-it is wounded by Antony in short, all the calamities we have ever since beheld (and what
calamities have we not beheld?) if we reason rightly, have been entirely owing to Antony. As Helen was of Troy, so the bane, the misery, the destruction of this state-is A'ntony.
The first part of this passage forms a kind of dialogue, where both the question and answer require the same inflection, but in different pitches of voice. Thus, You mourn, O Romans! that three of your armies have been slaughtered, must be pronounced in an open middle tone of voice, without much force; but they were slaughtered by Antony, in a lower, louder, and more energetic tone: the two succeeding portions ought to be pronounced in the same manner, with an increasing force and a higher tone on the word Antony; the two last members are of a different structure from the former, and must be pronounced somewhat differently; that is, Antony must be pronounced in a lower tone than in the former members, but with increasing force to the last. In pronouncing this passage in this manner, it has the effect of a climax; every part has a relation to every part; and all the parts belong to each other, and form a striking and harmonious whole.
Sometimes, however, in this figure, especially in verse, the parts do not so necessarily belong to each other as to form a whole; and when this is the case, the pronunciation ought to be as various and as musical as possible, that the repetition of the same words may not too much cloy the ear and injure the melody of the verse.
Thus, in the lamentation of Orpheus for his beloved Eurydice, in Virgil's Georgics, b. iv. v. 465.
Te dulcis conjux; te solo in littore secum,
Te veniente die, te decedente, canebat.
Thée his loved wife along the lonely shores;
Gibbon's Rhetoric, p. 210.
This beautiful repetition requiring a tender, plaintive tone, does not admit of much variety, nor does it stand in need of it. Every thee ought to have the rising inflection, and a pause after it. The first, his lov'd wife, may have a pathetic monotone; and the second may have the falling inflection on lov'd, and the rising on wife, which will form a variety and add to the pathos. Some variety and pathos may also arise from pronouncing the second and fourth thee, with the voice sliding higher and a pause longer than at the first and third.
Thus the beautiful repetition of the word fall'n in Dryden's Ode requires such a variety only as is consistent with the harmony. Every fall'n ought to have a long pause after it, with such an inflection as the verse requires; and the tone of voice, with respect to its height, ought to be more elevated on the last than on any of the former.
He chose a mournful muse,
Soft pity to infuse;
He sung Darius, great and good,
Fáll'n from his high estate,
Lord Kames, in his Elements of Criticism, tells us, that the line fall'n, fall'n, fall'n, fall'n, represents a gradual sinking of the mind, and therefore is pronounced with a falling voice by every one of taste without instruction. It is not easy to understand
what his lordship means by the falling voice, with which he says this line is to be spoken. If he means that the voice is to fall gradually lower upon every succeeding word, we need but try this pronunciation, immediately to discover the impropriety of it; but by the falling tone it is probable was meant a tone of pity, which increases as we repeat the words, but which by no means requires that the voice should drop into a lower key upon every succeeding word: this would entirely overturn the melody of the stanza, for the sake of something like a childish echo to the sense. The truth is, in pronouncing this repetition properly, we must assume a low plaintive tone, pronounce the first fall'n with the rising inflection approaching to a monotone, the second nearly in a monotone with the falling inflection, the third with the falling inflection, and the fourth with the rising, without any monotone at all. The fifth fall'n, which begins the sixth line, must have the rising inflection sliding very high, that the voice may fall gradually upon the succeeding words, and form a cadence.
There is a similar repetition in the first stanza of this ode, which requires a variety of emphasis in the pronunciation, very important to the sense and harmony of the whole.
Happy, happy, hàppy páir !
None but the brave,
None but the brave, deserves the fair.
The first line must be pronounced with the same inflections as the fifth line of the last example, but in a quite opposite tone of passion; that, in a low mournful tone; this in a high, gay and lively one.
The second line must have the falling inflection with emphatic force on the word brave: the third line must have a stronger emphasis, with the falling inflection on none; and the last line a still more forcible emphasis with the same inflection on but: and this diversity will be found absolutely necessary to prevent a too great sameness in the pronunciation.
Prolepsis or Anticipation, is a figure, by which the speaker suggests an objection to what he is advancing, and returns an answer to it. This figure affords an orator a favourable opportunity of altering his voice and manner, and by this means of throwing a greater variety into his pronunciation. The nature of the figure dictates the manner of delivering it. When we propose an objection against ourselves, candour requires a certain fairness and openness of manner, which may show we do justice to the opinion of our adversary, and want to conceal nothing from our judges. This frankness of manner is best expressed by a clear open tone of voice somewhat higher and louder than the general tone of the discourse, nearly as if we were calling out to a person at a distance; after which the answer must begin in a low firm tone, that the objection and answer may be the more clearly distinguished, and that what we oppose to the objection may have more the appearance of cool reason and argument. An excellent example of this figure is in Cicero's Oration for Archias.