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they terminate in a question (as at No. I. on the word No;) in both which places the inflection of voice is exactly the same, but should be somewhat higher and more continued at the note of interrogation, than at the comma. The falling inflection is likewise divisible into that which marks a member containing perfect sense not necessarily connected with what follows (as No. I. at the semicolon at did; and at No. IV. at the colon at commandments;) and that which marks the close of a period (as No. IV. at man :) these two are essentially the same inflection, and differ only as they are pronounced in a higher or a lower tone,the former terminating the members at did and commandments, in a middle or higher tone; and the latter, after a gradual fall of voice upon the preceding words, sinks into a lower tone upon the word man.
The two circumflexes, No. VI. and No. VII. fall and raise, and raise and fall the voice upon the same syllable, in which operation the vowel seems to be considerably extended: for which reason, in the rising circumflex, No. VI. I have extended the vowel o by doubling it, and giving the first part of the vowel to the falling, and the last to the rising inflection. In the other example, No. VII. you, being a diphthong, admits of a double sound, exactly equivalent to the letter u, which, being analysed, is no more than ye oo, pronounced as closely together as possible; (See Critical Pronouncing Dictionary in the Principles, No. 39, 171, and No. 8, in the notes) and, therefore, if we might be permitted to violate spelling for the sake of conveying the sound, the first part of the word might be pronounced ye, with the rising inflection, and the last part like oo, with the falling.
In this exhibition of the several inflections of the voice to the eye, we have an opportunity of observing the true nature of accent. The accented syllable, it may be observed, is always louder than any other, either before or after it; and when we pronounce the word with the falling inflection, the accented syllable is higher as well as louder, than either the preceding or succeeding syllables; as in the word satisfactorily, No. III. But when we pronounce this word with the rising inflection, as in No. II. though it is louder and higher than the two first syllables, it is certainly lower than the three last. Did he answer satisfactorily? Those who wish to see a more minute investigation of the nature of accent, may consult Elements of Elocution, Part II, page 181.
The different states of the voice.
After the foregoing analysis of the voice into its several modifications or inflections, we may take occasion to give a sketch of those states or varieties, of which it is susceptible in other respects. Besides the inflections which have been just enumerated, the only varieties of which the voice is capable, independent of passion, are, high, low; loud, soft; and these, as they succeed each other in a more or less rapid pronunciation, may be either quick or slow. The terms forcible and feeble, which are certainly not without ideas to which they are appropriated, seem to be severally a compound of two of these simple states; that is, force seems to be loudness and quickness, either in a high or a low tone; and feebleness seems to be softness and slowness, either in a high or a low tone. This, however, I wish to submit to the consideration
of the philosophical musician. As to the tones of the passions, which are so many and various, these, in the opinion of one of the best judges in the kingdom, are qualities of sound, occasioned by certain vibrations of the organs of speech, independent on high, low, loud, soft, quick, or slow, which last may not improperly be called different quantities of sound.
It may, perhaps, not be unworthy of observation to consider the almost unbounded variety which these principles produce by a different combination with each other. The different quantities of sound, as these states of the voice may be called, may be combined so as to form new varieties by uniting with any other that is not opposite to it. Thus, high may be combined with either loud or soft, quick or slow; that is, a high note may be sounded either in a loud or a soft tone; and a low note may be sounded either in a loud or a soft tone also; and each of these combinations may succeed each other more swiftly er slowly while forcible seems to imply a degree of loudness and swiftness, and feeble a degree of softness and slowness, either in a high or a low tone. This combination may, perhaps, be more easily conceived by classing these different quantities in contrast with each other.
High, loud, quick,
Forcible may be high, loud, and quick, or low, loud,
The different combinations of these states may be thus represented:
When these states of the voice are combined with the five modifications of voice above-mentioned, the varieties become exceedingly numerous, but far from incalculable. Perhaps they may arise (for I leave it to arithmeticians to reckon the exact number) to that number into which the ancients distinguished the notes of music; which, if I remember right, were about two hundred.
Practical system of the inflections of the voice.
Words adopt particular inflections, either according to the particular signification they bear, or as they are either differently arranged or connected with other words. The first application of inflection relates to emphasis, which will be considered in its proper place; the last relates to that application of inflection, which arises from the division of a sentence into its component parts, by showing what turns or slides of voice are most suitable to the several distinctions, rests, and pauses of a sentence. For this purpose the rising inflection is denoted by the acute accent, thus ('), and the falling inflection by the grave accent, thus (').
Direct period, with two conjunctions.
RULE I. Every direct period, so constructed as to have its two principal constructive parts connected by correspondent conjunctions, requires the long pause with the rising inflection at the end of the first principal constructive member.
As we cannot discern the shadow moving along the dial-plate, so the advances we make in knowledge are only perceived by the distance gone over.
As we perceive the shadow to have moved, but did not perceive it móving; so our advances in learning, consisting of insensible steps, are only perceivable by the distance.
As we perceive the shadow to have moved along the dial, but did not perceive it moving; and it appears that the grass has grown, though nobody ever saw it grow so the advances we make in knowledge, as they consist of such minute steps, are only perceivable by the distance.
Each of these three sentences consists of two principal correspondent parts; the first commencing with as, and the last with so; as the first member of the first sentence is simple, it is marked with a comma only at dial-plate; as the second is compounded, it is marked with a semicolon at moving; and as the last is decompounded, it is marked with a colon at grow; this punctuation is according to the general rules of pausing, and agreeable to good sense; for it is certainly proper that the time of the pause should increase with the increase and complexity of the members to which it is annexed, as more time is required to comprehend a large and complicated member, than a short and simple one; but whatever may be the time taken up in pausing at the different points, the inflection annexed to them must always be the same; that is, the comma, semicolon, and colon, must invariably have the rising inflection.
The same may be observed of the' following sen
Although I fear it may be a shame to be dismayed at the entrance of my discourse in defence of a most valiant man; and that it no way becomes me, while Milo is more concerned for the safety of the state than for himself, not to show the same greatness of mind in behalf of him: yet this new form of prosecution terrifies my eyes, which, whatever way they turn, want the ancient custom of the forum, and the former manner of trials.
Cicero's Oralion for Milo.