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should be slow, say 25 to 30 turns per minute, ac

On F is fitted the tool or cutter carriage G, cording to the substance operated on and the diam- which has a variety of slides and adjustments which eter of the work.

we shall not attempt to detail;—its motion across $ 30. It is sometimes required to have a projec- the plane of the table is regulated by the long leadtion on a portion of a surface which in other re- ing screw seen at FF,--the depth of the cut of the spects is to be cylindrical, e. g. a feather on the tool is regulated by a slide in the carriage G, which side of an arbor, to enable it to carry round some- is also furnished with a leading screw and divided thing which may be fitted on it. In such cases, if head H. This last mentioned slide has an adjust. the feather or projection is to be short in propor- ment by which it may be set perpendicular to, or tion to the whole length of the work, the circum- at an angle with the cross slide F. ference of the work at the place of the projection § 33. Let us now suppose a piece of metal of any may be brought to an uniform surface with the rest form, bolted down firmly on the table,* let the cross of the work, by the revolving cutter described in slide be adjusted parallel to the surface of the table, $ 20. To do this, the apparatus should be furnished at such a height above it that the point of the cutwith a plain cutter, and made to cut to the proper ter may be made to act on the work; if then the depth, at the root of one side of the projection; table be moved in the proper direction by means of when it has done this, the lathe mandril should be the winch, it is evident that a groove of the form turned slowly round by hand (the cutter at the of the point of the cutter will be made in the upper same time continuing to revolve rapidly), and by surface of the piece of metal, and that this groove this means the extra matter on the surface of the will be parallel to the plane of the table's motion; work will be gradually cleared away, until the op- if the carriage G be now shifted to either hand by posite side of the projection which is to be left has the leading screw F, a second groove will be cut been brought round to touch the cutter. The ap- parallel to the first, or if the shift be less than the paratus should then be shifted a little to the right breadth of the point of the tool, the first groove or left, and the operation repeated until the work will have been widened as much as the cutter has be complete.

been shifted, and by repeating the shift of the screw $31. If the projection extend considerably in the F, and the motion of C, the groove will gradually direction of the axis of the work, this method would become a plane surface parallel both to C and the be tedious, owing to the great number of shifts of cross slide F. If the slide F had been adjusted at position required to be given to the cutting appa- an angle to the plane of C, instead of being paralratus. Another method is therefore had recourse lel to it, then the plane produced on the work to, which leads us to describe a very important im- would, in one direction, have been parallel to the plement in machine making. It is called the plan- table, and in the other to the cross slide. ing engine, and has been but recently introduced $ 34. When the angle of obliquity with the plane into some of the best workshops in this country. of the table is not great, the work is easily accomThis implement may be said to be the greatest gift plished by setting the cross slide to the angle remade by ingenuity to the useful arts, since the in- quired, but when the plane to be cut is perpendicuvention of the common turning lathe, as it holds lar to that of the table, or is nearly so, the effect must the same place in relation to the formation of be produced by adjustment of the slides of the carstraight lines and plain surfaces, which the turning riage G. lathe does to lines and surfaces of revolution.

$ 35. It is hoped that the action of this engine $ 32. We shall proceed to give a description of will now be sufficiently understood to allow of our this important machine. Plate DXXVI, Fig. 1, is reverting to what we said in $ 31, regarding the an isometrical perspective view of a planing engine most convenient way of forming cylindric surfaces, of medium size. A is a strong bed of cast iron, the having feathers or ridges left on some part of their general form of which may be varied according to circumference: in order to effect this and some circumstances, but it must have two angular ridges other purposes, the following provision is made in B dressed truly parallel, and in the same plane re- the construction of the planing engine. In the midlatively to one another. On these ridges lies a table dle of the table C is the grooved passage J, by C, having two grooves corresponding to the ridges' means of which two head-stocks K (like those of B, and its upper surface planed flat and parallel to a turning lathe) may be fixed at any required disthese ridges. To this table a go-and-come motion tance from one another: in the one head-stock is a is given by a winch D and an endless chain. The dead centre, and in the other a short mandril turntable is pierced all over with holes to admit the ing in a collar, and having a divided plate and inpassage of screw-bolts, by which any piece of work dex on its outer end. The piece of work being fixed to be operated on may be securely fastened down between these centres, and its position duly shifted to it.

round them by means of the plate and index, it will From the bed A rises a frame E, of which the be easily understood that the alternate movement face ridges e are truly perpendicular to the ridges of the table and of the work round its centres, will B; each pillar of this frame has a groove, as at f, gradually produce a cylinder, or will leave some through which pass bolts by which the cross slide portions of the surface uncut, accordingly, as may frame F is fixed in any required position, parallel be required; these effects may be further modified by to, or at an angle with the plane of the table C. the adjustments of the cross slide and of the carriage

* The piece of work represented in Plate DXXVI, as being fixed in the engine, will be described afterwards.

G, and by combining their shifts with the move- Edinburgh, for their own use. Some engines are ments and shifts of the table C, and of the work in made much smaller, and are applicable to such the head-stocks.

work as would otherwise be filed in the vice; others § 36. It appears surprising to us that the inge- again have been executed by Sharp, Roberts, & Co., nious artists who invented, and who employ this Messrs. Lilly and Fairbairn, and other engineers beautiful engine in their works, have not added to in Manchester, on such a scale, that very large it that which appears to us would be an important pieces of work are planed in them, e. g. billiard extension of its powers, viz. the means of drilling tables in one casting of 12 feet by 6, which are exholes perpendicular to, or at any required angle to ecuted in this way with perfect accuracy. the surfaces produced by its action.

In Plate DXXVII, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7, are If the slide which carries the cutter be removed drawn to the scale at the foot of the engraving. · from the carriage G, and one substituted, such as Figs. 5 and 6 are to a scale of double size.

shown at Plate DXXVI, Fig. 2, where L is a strong Fig. I shows a slide-rest lathe, calculated to turn arbor, (similar to, but on a larger scale than that light metal work to about 10 inches diameter. The mentioned in § 10,) in which drills may be fitted, frame KK which rises from the table, is intended and M, a pulley of any required diameter, round solely for working the apparatus shown at Figs. 5 which a band may be applied to give it motion, and 6, and described in paragraphs 10 to 22 passim. then by means of the leading screw of the cross The drum H is put in motion by a band S from the slide and the movement of the winch D, the drill great wheel below the bed. Its height above the arbor L may be brought over any required part of bed should be sufficient to keep it entirely clear of the work, and a hole may be pierced, which will the head of the workman.* The frame II swings on necessarily be quite true in its direction, without the turned rod J, which screws into the uprights any care or nicety on the part of the workman. KK; there is another turned rod L, on which a Again, if instead of a boring instrument being puţ loose pulley M slides; on the lower rod of the frame in the arbor L, a chuck something like N were II are two similar loose pulleys M'M', and there is screwed on its nozzle, then by means of eccentric a fourth one N on the rod J. When the drilling cutters like O, circular grooves and valve seats apparatus at Fig. 5 is put into the socket E of the might be cut out, or cross pivots turned, which slide rest, it is set in motion by a band, as shown at would be truly at right angles to others which, PP': as this band must be long enough to allow of might previously have existed on the work, and the pulley P' being moved to a certain distance which might have been fixed in the centres of the from the drum H, it becomes sometimes necessary head-stocks KK. Such an apparatus would be emi.. when P' is near it, to have the means of keeping nently useful in making the working gear of steam the band tight; this is done by a small flying pulley engines.

at the end of a cord which passes over the loose Š 37. Various other instruments besides the drill: pulley N, and has a weight at the end of it similar ing frame may in the same way be applied, by means to that at O. The flying pulley is made to bear on of slides, to the carriage G. Ingenious workmen the band PP' to keep it in a due state of tension. will easily devise such as may be suited to their When the apparatus at Fig. 6 is used, the band particular lines of pursuit. We shall, however, ven is applied as shown at QQ' passing over the loose ture to suggest one, which, although we have never pulleys M'M'. Tension is given to the band by seen it applied to metals, we think may be so with means of the weight 0, which, by a cord passing advantage in many cases of nice fittings, we mean over M and hooked to the lower end of the swingthe mortise chisel. If a steel cutter like a mortise ing frame II keeps it equally stretched, although chisel were fitted to a slide in the carriage G, and Q may vary its position and distance. were to be worked up and down by a lever handle Figs. 2, 3, and 4 are details of the slide rest; the of adequate length, while the carriage G itself was letters of reference are the same as in Fig. 1st. gradually shifted by the leading screw F, some Fig. 7, is a section of part of the lathe mandril operations might be easily and accurately executed, and its pulley, AAA the grooves for the band, B'B which present considerable difficulties in other me show a groove or channel wider at bottom than at thods. It will at once be seen what advantages such top, in which the heads of two screwed studs can processes would afford in the construction of ma travel round: these studs may be made fast in any chines, the due performance of which depends much required situation by pinching the screws; one stud on the accurate adjustment and true bearing of the and screw is shown separately at B". If they, for parts, and we may safely venture to say that by example, were made fast in their places at 90°, or means of the planing engine a gigantic zenith sec a quarter of a circle apart, and if the pointer R, tor or a transit instrument could now be made with Fig. Ist, were inclined inwards, until its pin touchgreater accuracy by a common workman in a Man-. ed the outer edge of the groove, and were then chester millwright's shop, than could fifty years made fast, it is plain that the mandril, instead of ago have been made by the best London instrument turning freely round, could turn through a quarter maker.

of a circle only, as the studs would, by striking on The planing engine which is represented in the the pin of the pointer R, prevent it from going farplate may be said to be of a medium size. It has ther in either direction; by this means any required been executed by Messrs. Paterson and Mitchell of portion of a circumference may be operated on

* From the nature of the perspective, the frame and drum appear lower than they should be.

without risk of going too far or making unequal For such turning lathes and apparatus as are re. arcs in different parts of the work. The studs are quired by amateurs-Holtzapfel and Deyerline of introduced into the channel through the opening C Charing-Cross are unrivalled for the high finish from the concavity of the pulley.

and elegance of their work. We have also seen Fig. 8, is a convenient form of a throw chuck, amateur's lathes made by Drane of Birmingham, in which the pin A can be made to project more or which, in point of accuracy and efficiency, could less, and be fixed near to, or far from the centre, not be exceeded. by one pinching screw nut D; the pin A fits neatly It may be expected that we should give some in the sliding piece B, the front part of which is idea of the cost of such apparatus as we have desawn through, and the back part screwed. A wash scribed, but this is very difficult, as there is so er C is interposed between the nut D and the back much variety in the nature of the accompaniments of the chuck. When the nut D is turned to the required by different individuals. We shall howright, it draws B between the dove-tailed sides of ever quote the prices of such as are sometimes the slide E, by which A is jammed, and becomes used by the best machine makers. immovable, until relieved by slackening the nut D. A 16 inch slide lathe capable of turning cylindri.

The above designs have been taken principally cal objects, 13 feet long and 13 inches diameter, from lathes made by Drane of Birmingham, whose or flat objects 24 inches diameter, with traversing accuracy and ingenuity are conspicuous in every and reversing apparatus for the main slide; cross thing which proceeds from his manufactory. slide for flat surfaces, and driving apparatus for

In the 46th volume of the Transactions of the five different degrees of speed-costs about £275. London Society of Arts, designs and minute detail A 12 inch lathe, with compound slide rest, eced descriptions are given of an excellent lathe for centric lock rest and driving apparatus-£105. machine-makers' purposes, by Clements of London. A planing machine, capable of planing objects We venture to recommend it as a good study for ten feet long, three feet wide, and three feet high, artists.

and surfaces at any internal or external angle, with The best makers of turning apparatus we happen driving apparatus complete-£285. . to know are as under.

The additions to this machine, suggested in For very large work-Messrs. Lilley and Fair- paragraph thirty-five and thirty-six would add bairn, and Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, & Co. of Man but little to its cost, and would greatly extend its chester.

powers. For medium and light work— Mr. Drane of Bir The machines here specified are formed entirely mingham, and Messrs. Paterson and Mitchell of of metal, and are finished and adjusted with the Edinburgh

most scrupulous accuracy,

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TURNIP, HUSBANDRY. See AGRICULTURE, In Below the union of its two main branches, the dex. See also FRANCE, Vol. IX. p. 411.

Tuscaloosa, now a navigable stream, continues the TURNSOL. See FRANCE, Vol. IV. p. 414. course of Locust river s.W. 40 miles, to about

TURPENTINE. See CHEMISTRY Index. Ma. 10 miles below the town of Tuscaloosa, Here the TERIA MEDICA, Vol. XII. p. 430.

stream inflects to S. S. W. 40 miles to its junction TURPENTINE TREE. See France, Vol. IX. with Tombigbee at Demopolis, and between Greene p. 420.

and Marengo counties. TURQUOISE. See MINERALOGY Index, and The valley of Tuscaloosa is a triangle of 150 FRANCE, Vol. IX. p. 401.

miles base from the mouth to the sources of Locust river, perpendicular 70 miles, and area 5250 square

miles, draining the counties of Walker, Blount, TUSCALOOSA, or Black Warrior, river of Jefferson, and part of Lafayette, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, the great northeastern constituent of Greene, Marengo, and Perry; and lying between Tombigbee, is formed by two branches, Locust N. Lat. 32° 30', and 34° 23', and Lon. 9° 18' and and Mulberry Forks. Locust Fork rises in the 11° W. from W.C. See Art. Tombigbee, p. 42, eastern part of Blount county, from whence flow- of this volume. ing south westwardly, enters Jefferson, in which it TUSCALOOSA, county of Alabama, bounded joins the Mulberry Fork. Mulberry river rises in W. by Pickens, N.W. by Lafayette, N.E. by Jeffer. Walker and the western part of Blount county by son, É. and S.É. by Bibb, s. by Perry, and s.W. numerous branches which unite in the latter, enters by Greene. Greatest length from east to west, 54 Jefferson, and unites with the Locust or eastern miles, and the area being about 1400 square miles, branch.

the mean breadth must be 26 nearly. It extends in

Lat. from 32° 52' to 33° 28' N., and in Lon. from

Towns.

Population. 10° 10' to 11° 02' W. from W.C.

Pisa

20,000 The declivity of this very large and important Sienna

18,000 county is to the southwestward, and in that direc

Prato

10,000 tion the Tuscaloosa traverses it by a very circuitous

Pistoia

9,000 channel, dividing it into two not very unequal sec Arezzo

7,000 tions. The northwestern part is also traversed by

Cortona

5,000 Sipsey river, flowing also to the south westward. Volterra

4,000 The southeastern border on Bibb, follows the di Poutremoli

2,000 viding ridge between tributary fountains of Tusca

Grosseto

2,000 loosa and Sipsey rivers. The surface is rolling Piombino

1,500 rather than abruptly hilly. Much of the soil ex The physical appearance of Tuscany is equally cellent. Excluding the Creek territory east of interesting and diversified. The Appenines traCoosa river, Tuscaloosa county is not far from verse it in a south-east direction, but the highest central, regarding the extremes either of north or

summits of that range in Tuscany do not exceed south or of east and west.

3,000 feet.

Several smaller chains extend from Though a wilderness at the termination of the this celebrated ridge in different directions, declinlast war with Great Britain, this new county con- ing in elevation as they approach the sea. The tained, in 1820, a population of 8229.

champaign parts of the country consist chiefly of By the post-office list of 1831, Tuscaloosa, be- valleys extending along the banks of the numerous side the capital of the same name, had offices at rivers with which the dutchy abounds. The rivers Buck's store, Carthage, and Halbert's.

indeed, or rather streams, are so many, that they Tuscaloosa, the seat of justice, and of the gov- have been estimated at 200, all of which have their ernment of the state of Alabama, is situated on the rise in the Appenines, or the mountains that diverge left bank of Tuscaloosa river, and very near the from them, and flow into the Mediterranean. The centre of the county. According to a table pub- most important are the Arno, the Ombrone, and lished in the post-office list, 1831, this state capital the Chiana. The valley of the Arno, it may here be is, by the nearest mail route, 994 miles from Phila- mentioned, has been much celebrated. At a remote delphia, and 560 from Charleston in South Caro- period, when Florence and Pisa were distinguished lina.

By a calculation on Mercator's principles, it commercial cities, it was embellished with the villas bears S. 561o W. from W.C.; distance 7208 statute of wealthy merchants. It is now inhabited by workmiles; the given post distance between those places men, and in it are manufactured the linen stuffs is 858 miles. N. Lat. of Tuscaloosa 33° 12', Lon. that form an important article in the commerce of 10° 43' W. from W.C.

DARBY. the grand dutchy, as well as those straw hats which,

under the name of Leghorn hats, are known in every

part of the world. TUSCANY. The Grand Dutchy of Tuscany, The climate of Tuscany may be regarded as on the ancient Etruria, Tuscia or Thuscia,* is bounded the whole agreeable and favourable, and characteron the west by the Mediterranean; on the north by ized by that mildness, serenity and salubrity for the dutchies of Lucca and Modena; and on the which staly has always been remarkable. But this east and south by the States of the Church. It is description must not be taken in an unqualified of an oblong shape; its superficial extent being sense. The sirocco or south-east wind, so preva1098 square leagues, and as the population in lent in the south of Italy, rages to a most baleful 1826 amounted to 1,275,000, it averages 1,161 to extent in Tuscany, blasting the hopes and destroythe square league. It contains five provinces: ing the labours of the vine-dresser and the agriculProvinces.

Population.

turist. The district, known by the name of the

Maremma, is probably the most unhealthful spot in Florence

596,250 Pisa

Europe, and is as remarkable for its pestilential

295,640 Sienna

humidity as other parts of the same dutchy are for

128,080 Arezzo

their fertility or beautifully diversified scenery. It

201,290 Grosseto

stretches along the sea coast, from Pisa southward, 53,730

and in superficial extent is equal to about 1,700 Total population

English square miles. It consists nearly of one 1,275,000

continued marsh; it is comparatively destitute of This Grand Dutchy contains no fewer than 26 inhabitants, the population being only forty persons towns, 135 burghs, and 6,017 villages. The chief to a square mile; and though means have already towns are the following:

been used, and others are still contemplated, for

draining and cultivating this unproductive district, Towns.

Population.

it still remains as barren and as noxious as ever. Florence, the capitalt

80,000 The Maremma is chiefly devoted to pasturage. Leghorn or Livorno

66,000

Notwithstanding the general fertility of Tuscany, The ancient Etruria was in many places of greater extent than the modern Tuscany. The Tiber, for example, formed its boundary on the south.

| The ancient capital was Cortona, in the neighbourhood of the Thrasymen Lake, celebrated for the third defeat of the Romans by Hannibal. B.C. 217.

agriculture has not been brought to a very improved how to appreciate and reward these distinctions in state. There is indeed no instance of a large farm, others. This enlightened family, to whose patronthe country being subdivided into such small patches, age of the arts and of learning not only Tuscany that in some cases a pair of oxen is sufficient to per- but Europe are indebted, became extinct in 1737, form the ploughing necessary in six or eight such when by arrangement between France and Austria, lots. The most fertile portions of the dutchy are the archdutchy was conferred on the duke of Lordevoted to the cultivation of vines and olive trees; raine. Bonaparte deprived this latter family of and almost all the corn fields also, are intersected their territory, which was erected into a monarchy by rows of these and other fruit trees. The pea. under the name of the kingdom of Etruria, and santry are so poor, that even in the case of such given to the duke of Parma; it was afterwards depatches, the landlord is obliged to supply part or clared an integral part of the French empire. But the whole of the farming implements; a wretched on the downfall of this ambitious conqueror, it was system of farming, to which the name metayrie restored to the family who had succeeded the Med. (the coloni partiarii of the Latins) has been applied. icis, and the island of Elba was added to it. (See The Tuscans, however, display great ingenuity in Elba.) Ferdinand, a very enlightened prince, was irrigating their lands, and in extending cultivation in 1824 succeeded by his son Leopold II., now along the declivities of their hills and mountains. grand duke of Tuscany.

Some towns in Tuscany, particularly Florence See the various Travels in Italy, particularly Siand Pisa, were at one time remarkable for com mond's Travels in Italy and Sicily; Addison's Remercial enterprise. But circumstances are now marks on Italy; Eustace's Classical Tour, and Ros. changed. Leghorn is now the only port of any coe's Life of Lorenzo de Medicis. consequence. Its exports consist of wine, oil of olives, fruit of various kinds, perfumed essences, linen, woollens, Leghorn straw, manufactured silks TUSCARAWAS, river of the state of Ohio, the of various sorts, marble: its imports are confined main and eastern constituent of Muskingum river, chiefly to articles from the north of Europe, has its remote sources in Medina and Portage and from the Levant, including tropical commo- counties, interlocking sources with those of Cuyadities.

hoga and Mahoning branch of Big Beaver river. The government is monarchical, not restrained The different higher branches uniting in the by any representative body or any written au northwestern angle of Stark county, and by a course thority, but exercised with mildness and judgment. a little E. of S. passes the villages of Clinton, MasThe title of the sovereign is that of Arch-Duke; sillon, and Bethlehem, in Stark, and Bolivar, Zoar, his appellation is Imperial Highness. The public Canal-Dover, New Philadelphia, Schoenbrun, Gnarevenue is £708,500; the public debt £5,000,000; denhutten, and Newcomerstown, in Tuscarawas the army does not exceed 4,000 men. The estab- county, bends gradually in the southwestern part lished religion is the Roman Catholic; the number of the latter, to a course nearly due west, which of Jews amounts to 20,000.

it pursues to its junction with White Womans Tuscany has been long celebrated for the learned creek at Coshocton, in Coshocton county, to form men it has produced: in which respect it is proba- the Muskingum river. bly superior to any other portion of Europe of The entire comparative course of Tuscarawas is equal population. It can boast of a long and illus- less than 80 miles, and only about 70 below the trious list of statuaries, architects, painters, poets, New Portage, where it is united to the Cuyahoga authors historical, literary, scientific, theological. by the Ohio Canal. This important public work It can boast of the best collections of the fine arts, gives great interest to the physical history of Tusand the finest specimens of architecture in Europe. carawas. The canal follows its valley either near The celebrated picture gallery of the De Medicis is or at no great distance from its banks, from the well known. Tuscany possesses three universities, village of New Portage, in Medina county, to its those of Florence, Pisa, and Sienna. The number mouth at Coshocton. The canal at the summit is of public libraries is seven, one of them at Florence 873 feet above the level of the Atlantic ocean, 305 containing 130,000 volumes, including 11,000 MSS. feet above lake Erie, and 499 feet above the Ohio at Elementary schools are in a flourishing state; the Portsmouth. Lancastrian mode of tuition has been introduced. TUSCARAWAS, county of Ohio, bounded south

The history of Tuscany can be told in a few by. Guernsey, southwest by Coshocion, northwest words. It long resisted the inroads of the Romans; by Holmes, north by Stark, and east and southeast and it was not conquered by that people till the by Harrison. The extreme length, either north and year of the city 474, or less than three centuries south or east and west, is nearly equal to 30 miles, before the christian era. After the fall of the Row the mean breadth 24, and area 720 square miles; man power, it was tributary to Lombardy. During extending in latitude from 40° 13' to 40° 39', and the contention in the middle ages, Florence, Pisa, in longitude from 4° 8' to 4° 44' west from W.C. and Sienna erected themselves into separate com The general declivity is to the southward, in monwealths. The sovereign power of Florence, and which direction the northern part is traversed by afterwards that of the whole of Tuscany, came into Tuscarawas river and “Ohio Canal.” In the souththe hands of the Medicis, an illustrious family that ern section of the county, both the natural and arti. first acquired immense wealth by trade, and which, ficial channels wind to S.W. and W. remarkable for literature and taste themselves, knew By the post list of 1831, there were post offices

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