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each chain, and is, with these tributaries, part of The soil of Vermont is as various as its surface,
the drains of the central mountain valley, but, de. but a large proportion productive. The soil and
clining northwardly, bears its water into St. Law. climate are more suitable to grasses than to fruit,
rence by the St. Francis. See Table XVII., article though of the latter the apple in particular succeeds
United States. Lake Memphramagog, distant 40 well. Of minerals, iron ore is the only one of value
miles from Champlain, is 562 feet more elevated. that is abundant.

From the preceding elements, with the exception The opening of the Hudson and Champlain canal
of the comparatively small section drained into was of inestimable advantage to western Vermont.
Lake Memphramagog, and which slopes north. Having an inland sea extending about one hundred
wardly, the great body of Vermont is composed of miles along its western border, and into which the
two inclined plains, having the eastern chain of its canal entered, more than one-half the state was
mountains as a common apex, and the channel of opened to tide navigation, which was before in a
Connecticut as its eastern and most elevated base, peculiar manner secluded. Pot and pearl ashes, the
and the shores of Lake Champlain as the western product of immense forests, and even the timber of
and most depressed base. Through this main chain, those forests, now find a ready market. Consulting
the summit level between Passumpsic sources and the tables of relative height in the article UNITED
those of Lake Memphramagog are 1175 feet above States, will disclose the fact, that 901 feet of lock-
the Atlantic tides, and that between Onion and

age is only necessary to open the tide navigation of White rivers is about 850 feet, of similar relative St. Lawrence to Lake Champlain. The subjoined taelevation. Independent, therefore, of the geographic bles will exhibit how much the advance of population position of its natural sections, the mean and ex in Vermont has depended on commercial facility. treme temperature of Vermont must differ greatly, Political Geography.-From the abstract of the following ihe rapid change of height. The eleva respective enumerations of the people of the Unitions given are taken from measurements made ted States, taken in 1790, 1800, 1810, and 1820, with canalling projects in view, taken, of course, published by the United States general governalong the streams, and over the lowest gaps of the ment, with the result of the census of 1830, we find mountains, of consequence, in every case of the that it was not until the census of 1820 was taken streams, below the arable country adjacent. The that the counties of Vermont were complete, as cultivated soil differs in height above the ocean they stand in that of 1830. We have therefore confrom 100 to, it is probable, 1500 feet, or to an structed the general table so as to include only the amount exceeding an equivalent to three degrees two last enumerations, as by them alone can be of latitude.

made any beneficial statistical comparison.

TABLE Of the Distributive Population and Extent of Vermont by Counties :--the Population according to the Census of 1820, and that of 1830. The number of Post Offices in each County, from the Post Ofice List, published at the General Post Office, Washington City, 1831.

Square Population, Population, Pop. to Sq. No.Po.Of. County. Natural Position and General Features.

Miles. 1820.

Mile, 1830. fices, 1831.

1830.

Windham,

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Windsor,

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Orange,

The south-eastern county of the state, in the basin of Connecti

cut, and drained by the rivers, Deerfield, Greene, West, Sex

ton's, and Williams. General slope south-eastward,
To the north of the preceding, and in the Connecticut basin:

drained by the rivers Williams, Black, Waterqueechy, and
White rivers. The latter much the most considerable of its

streams. General slope south-eastward,
Northwardly from Windsor, and in the Connecticut basin.

The southern side slopes to the southward and is drained by
the northern sources of White river, and by Thetford river.
The northern part slopes south-eastward and is drained by

Watts's river,
Extending up the Connecticut and Passumpsic rivers above

Orange, but the middle part extending westward into the
basin of Champlain. The southern section is on the narrow
western slope of the Connecticut basin, where the sources of
Onion river rise within 12 miles from the channel of Connec-
ticut. The northern part is divided into two sections by
the eastern chain of Vermont mountains. The eastern and
largest of these northern sections is occupied by Passumpsic
valley: the western gives source to both Onion and La
Moelle rivers. General slope of the eastern part in the valley
of Passumpsic to the southward; the southern section falls

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Caledonia,

Table Continued.

Coualy.

Natural Position and General Features.

Square Population, Population, Pop. to Sq. No.Po.0f-
Miles. 1820. 1830. Mile, 1830. fices,1831.

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eastward towards Connecticut river; whilst the western part
in the valley of La Moelle declines to the westward,

560 Essex,

This is the north-eastern county of the state, extending about

50 miles along Connecticut river, with the general slope to
the east towards that streain. The south-western part, how.
ever, gives source to Passumpsic; from the western issues
Clyde river, a confluent of Lake Memphramagog, and from
the northern flows some of the higher tributaries of St.
Francis. Two canals or rail-roads have been projected to
pass over this county; one by the Willoughby and Passump-
sic, and the other by the
Clyde and Nulhegan rivers,

770 Bennington, Is the south-western county of Vermont. The general slope is

westward, giving source to Hoosack, Batten Kill, and Paulet
rivers. The extreme western sources of Deerfield and West
rivers rise in this county; it is therefore a table land in part
between the basins of Hudson and Connecticut,

680 Rutland, Lies north from Bennington, and west of Windsor and of the

main chain of the Vermont mountains. It is traversed by
the western chain; and the western part, drained by Paulet|
and Poultney rivers, falls westward towards the head of Lake
Champlain. The eastern part between the two mountain
cliains, has a northern declivity drained by Otter river, which
stream breaks through the western chain on the northern
border of the county,

820 Addison, North from Rutland, and extending along Lake Champlain, has

a declivity a very little west of north, drained in most part
by Otter river. The eastern part, however, extends into the
central valley, and from which issue the extreme western
sources of White river,

530 Chittenden, Follows Addison along Lake Champlain; declines westward; is

traversed by Onion river, and contains the mouth of La Moelle
river,

690 Franklin, Reaches from Chittenden, along Lake Champlain to Lower Ca

nada. Declivity westward, and drained by La Moelle and
Mississque rivers, it containing the mouths of both these
streams,

850 Grand Isle Lies in Lake Champlain, and is composed of the island of the

same name, and of a peninsula jutting southward between
the two northern bays of the lake,

90 Washington, Is the only county of Vermont which can be called central. It

is entirely bordered by other counties of the same state, hav-
ing Orleans N.; Caledonia N.E. and E.; Orange S.; Addison
S. W.; Chittenden W.; and touching Franklin on the N.W.
This county lies in the elevated valley between the two main
Vermont chains, and is entirely within and very nearly com-
mensurate with the upper part of the valley of Onion river.
The declivity is N.W. by W. nearly, and very rapid. The
country around Montpelier is about 550 feet above the Atlan-
tic tides, but in 10 direct miles eastward at the summit be-
tween the sources of Onion river, and those of Wells, Watts,
and White rivers, the acclivity amounts to from 800 to 1000
feet,

540
The middle county of Vermont, on Lower Canada, follows

Washington in the same valley. Here we meet a real table
land. The greatest length of Orleans is from south-west to
north-east 50 miles. La Moelle river, rising in Caledonia,
flows to the west of south-west over the south-western part
of Orleans, giving to that section a slope towards Lake Cham-
plain. The north-western part slopes to the northward, and

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Orleans,

Table continued.

Square Population, Population, Pop, to sq. (No.Po.01.
Miles. 1820. 1830. Mile, 1830. fices,1831.

County.

Natural Position and General Features.

is drained by the extreme higher branches of the Mississque
river. The much larger part, however, of the whole county
is included in the higher valley of Memphramagog; Black,
Willoughby, and Clyde, confluents of that lake, all rise in
Orange, and the region they drain declines to the northward.
The central part of this county is an elevated region; Lake
Memphramagog is itself 652 feet above the ocean level, and
where a contemplated canal or rail-road is to pass between
the sources of Passumpsic and Willoughby rivers, the eleva-
tion is 1175 feet relative height,

Total,

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32

254

1

Summary of White Population, by Sex and Ages. of three judges, and a county court for each county,

with three judges each.
Malesunder 5 years, 21,700 FEMALES—21,338 Sheriffs and justices of the peace also elected an-
5 and under 10, 19,406

18,632 nually by the General Assembly.
10 and under 15, 17,597

16,881

History.—The first civilized settlement of Ver15 and under 20, 15,782

15,753 mont, as far as recorded with certainty, dates no 20 and under 30, 24,207

25,180 farther back than 1724, when Fort Dummer, on Con30 and under 40, 15,763

16,264 necticut river, was founded. In 1731, Crown Point, 40 and under 50, 10,405

11,034 on Lake Champlain, was fortified, and settlements 50 and under 60, 7,051

7,152 commenced on that side. Though vexatious to the 60 and under 70, 5,203

4,727 early settlers, the political existence of Vermont, 70 and under 80, 2,203

2,086 as a state, rose from its soil being claimed by both 80 and under 90, 618

652 New York and New Hampshire. The first land 90 and under 100, 48

87

grants came from the latter, but the former claimed 100 and upwards, 3

the country under the Duke of York's patent. Be

fore the revolution, both the contending colonies
Total males, 139,986

139,790 submitted their claims to the British crown, and
Do. females,
139,790

New York prevailed. The country having been in

great part settled under grants from New HampDo. whites, 279,776

shire, which the Assembly of New York declared Free coloured, 881

null and void, compelled resistance, as a measure

of self-defence, and Vermont was found at the com. Total population, 280,657

mencement and end of the revolution unconnected

with any contiguous colony. During the struggle
Increase from 1820 to 1830, 44,893, or a little against Great Britain, the Vermonters did their
above 19 per cent.

duty.
By the census of 1830, there were in Vermont The revolution consummated, New York urged
153 persons amongst the whites, and 5 coloured its claims of soil and jurisdiction, which were finally
persons, who were deaf and dumb: and 51 whites withdrawn, Vermont paying 30,000 dollars. This
who were blind.

controversy ended in 1789, and the people immedi-
Political Geography:- Constitution ; Judiciary; ately took measures to obtain admission into the
Legislature, styled General Assembly, composed of Union as a state. On the 14th March 1791, Ver-
one house only, elected annually by the people. mont became the fourteenth state of the confede-

Executive.- Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and racy.
Council of 12; all elected annually by the people. The constitution under which Vermont entered
Every orderly freeman of 21 years of age, a citizen the confederacy was superseded by another, which
of the United States, and who has resided in the was adopted at Windsor, 9th July, 1793. Except to
state one whole year next before the election at improve their country with roads, bridges, manu-
which he offers to vote, is entitled to the right of factories, and schools, the people of Vermont have
suffrage.

afforded little element for history for thirty-eight
Judiciary elected annually by the General Assem of the last years of their progress as an independent
bly, is composed of a Supreme Court, consisting republic.

VERNIER, or NOXIAS. See QUADRANT, Vol. About half a mile from the city, in a garden, XVI. p. 285-286.

once the cemetery of a Franciscan convent, is a VERONA, a city of Austrian Italy, and the capi- sarcophagus called the Tomb of Juliet. It is made tal of Verona, a province in the government of of Verona marble, with a place for the head, a sockVenice. It is agreeably situated on both sides of et for a candle, and two holes for the admission of the Adige, partly on a slope, and partly on a plain, air. which extends far to the south. The river, which

The manufactures of Verona are silk, which is divides the town into two unequal parts, is crossed the chief one, woollens, leather, gloves, and shoes. with four bridges of stone, of which that of Castel Population 45,000. _East Lon. 11° 1' 15". North Vecchio is the most remarkable. The town is of Lat. 44° 26' 17". For an account of the petrifacan irregular figure, and is about six miles in cir- tions in the vicinity, see Boloa, Monte, Vol. III. cuit, the modern part extending considerably be- p. 624–630. yond the old walls. It is fenced by a moat and an VERSAILLES, a town of France, situated 12 earthen mound, and there are two castles on ele- miles to the S.W. of Paris, and the chief place of vated ground, and a third on the plain, but it is the department of the Seine and Oise. From hav. a place of no strength. Verona has five gates. ing been so long the residence of the court, Ver. Porte del Paglia, built of stone filled with petrifac- sailles is one of the most elegant towns in France. tions, is elegant, and Porta dei Borsari, is an an Its squares and market places are large and elegant, cient double gate like those of ancient Rome. Thc and its streets, which intersect each other at right principal streets are the Corso, where horse races angles, are clean and spacious. The avenues leadare held, and that which leads to the Mantua gate. ing to the palace divides the town into two parts, Some of the rest are well paved and wide, but oth- the one to the left being called the old, and the ers are narrow and dirty. The houses, though of other the new town, in which are situated the prinan ancient aspect, look well, from many of them cipal church and the handsomest buildings. Verbeing built of marble. The principal square con sailles has a cathedral and eight churches, a high tains the handsomest houses.

school, a library, a cabinet of natural history, and a Verona contains a cathedral, in which there is botanic garden. The following is an account of the a fine bronze crucifix; besides several handsome palace and gardens, &c. as they were in 1814. churches. The church of St. Zeno has a fine facade “ The palace itself, when viewed from the west, and a grand portal, and its roof is sustained by rows consists of a centre and two wings. The central of columns, each of a single piece of marble. The building is composed of three sides of a square, the church of St. George contains a picture of the mar square projecting in front of the wings which are tyrdom of that saint, by Paul Veronese. The connected with it. The whole front towards the church of St. Bernardino contains the celebrated garden is 1965 feet in length. It consists of two Capella Varesca by San Michelo. The ancient stories and an attic, and is decorated with Ionic church of St. Nazaro is one of the finest monuments pilasters and columns, and adorned with numerous of sacred antiquity. The church of St. Maria an statues, nearly 14 feet in height, representing the tica, is adorned with the busts of the Scaligeri four seasons, the twelve months of the year, and the family. The town house is ornamented with busts of arts. the learned natives of the city, Pliny, Catullus, “ In the north wing, near its junction with the Cornelius Nepos and Vitruvius. The building main body, stands the chapel, which was begun in called the Royal Palace has never been completed. 1699. When viewed from the west front, it does The other palaces are that of Bevilacqua, a stately not appear as a separate building, excepting by the edifice, Canossa, Gustaversa, Pompei Gherardini, elevation of its roof, which rises higher than the

The museum and the academy have an elegant palace. It is 134 feet long outside, and is decorated Ionic portico, and contain an interesting collection with 16 Corinthian columns and 22 demi-columns of antiquities.

upon the wall, between which are 12 elegantly coThe most important feature of Verona is the Ro. loured glass windows. The marble pavement, the man amphitheatre, situated in the large square of sculpture, and the painting renders this chapel one Del Bro. It is composed of large blocks of marble of the most elegant buildings of the kind in Europe. without cement, and rests on a double row of massy The apartments of the palace are reckoned 1532 in vaults, where the wild beasts were kept. Its exte- number; but as the whole of it was undergoing a rior circumference is 1331 feet, its greatest diam- complete repair, it was difficult to examine them eter is 464, and its lesser 367. The oval arena in with attention. Notwithstanding the scaffoldings the centre is 220 feet long, and 130 broad. The also were placed in every apartment, the extreme seats, staircases, and galleries are entire. richness and splendour were sufficiently visible, number of ranges of seats is 46, and it was capable marble and gilding and the finest paintings being of holding 23,484 persons. Near the amphitheatre profusely lavished on every apartment. The saloon stands the modern theatre built by Palladio, and of Hercules was particularly grand, and the great having a fine portico. The Palazzo del Consiglio gallery, which stretches along the front side of the is a noble edifice, built by San Savino. The Aca- central square, exceeds all description. It is 288 demica Philharmonica and the Philoli contain a feet long, 41 feet broad, and 50 feet high. It is il. number of ancient monuments. Verona has a ly, luminated by 17 windows, with corresponding arceum, a gymnasium, an academy of paintings, and cades on the opposite side, and the pilasters and a public library.

columns are all of marble with gilt bronze capitals Vol. XVIII. Part I.

2 D*

&c.

and bases. At the back of the central part we were group seated in the middle of six nymphs. On the shown the balcony upon which the King and the right hand of the spectator, and near the bottom of Queen and Dauphin presented themselves to the the rock, is another group, representing the two mob during the revolution.

steeds of Apollo taken to the water by the Tritons; “On the west side of the south wing stands the on the left hand there is another group, consisting orangerie, which is reckoned the finest in the world. of two Tritons and two steeds. Torrents of water It lies very low, and we descend to it by two noble run down different parts of the rock, and form a stone staircases. There is about 1000 orange trees, pool in front of it. The joints of the stones of the and the oldest of them has the following inscription rock are distinctly visible, otherwise it might be upon it: 6 semé en 1421,' so that it is now 409 years considered as natural. It is fairly embosomed in old. The trees are all in green square boxes of wood, and numerous exotic plants grow in the crewood, and each box is numbered, and has also the vices." year in which the tree was planted or brought to

The manufactures of Versailles are, one of firethe orangerie. The Serre, or apartments under the arms, and clocks and watches. The spinning and terrace into which the orange trees are put in win- weaving of cotton, and the bleaching of linen are ter, forms three sides of a square, the other side carried on to some extent. Population about 30,000. opening by an iron railing into the piece of water VESPUCCI, or VESPUCIUS AMERIGO, was born of great extent. The principal side, which looks to at Florence, on the 9th March 1451, of a noble famthe south, is 624 feet long, and 48 wide over the ily. He was the third son, and was educated under walls, which are 12 feet thick. The other side, his paternal uncle, a learned friar. He went to Sereckoning to the extremity of the staircase, is 465 ville to look after some commercial concerns, and feet long

he appears to have been in that city when Colum. “On the west side of the north wing is a huge bus returned from his first voyage. According to basin of water, of great extent, ornamented with the statement of Vespucci himself, he sailed from numerous bronze figures, and with jet d'eaus, jerbs, Cadiz with four caravels, and after touching at the &c. of all kinds. Before the front of the palace, and Canaries, arrived in 37 days at the coast of Paria. extending to a great distance, there were numerous If this be true, he was the first discoverer of the extensive basins of water, lined with marble, and American continent, and anticipated Columbus by containing jet d'eau of every variety. As the a whole year, but there seems to be very little doubt Dutchess of Angouleme happened to visit Ver. that this account is an entire fiction. He sailed, sailles on the same day with us, we had the good indeed, in May 1499, but only as a passenger in the fortune to see all these brilliant waterworks in full expedition fitted out by Ojeda. Touching at the play.

Carribees, the expedition visited the Gulf of Paria, Among the numerous objects of interest which and afterwards Hispaniola. At the invitation of the cover the beautiful and extensive grounds of Ver- king of Portugal, he took the command of three sailles, I was much struck with the Bosquet de la vessels, which sailed in 1501, and reached a point Collonade, and with the Bains d'Apollon. The Bos- five degrees south of the line. He set out again in quet consists of a circular peristyle of marble 105 May 1503, with the view of going to the East Infeet in diameter, having 32 columns 16 feet high, dies, but he was driven into All Saints bay, on the formed of different kinds of marble, with their ca coast of Brazil, to which he gave its name. In pitals of white marble. Each of the columns cor 1507, he returned to Seville, into the service of the responds to a pilaster of white Languedoc marble, king of Spain, who appointed him, in 1508, pilot. and the columns support as many arches, the keys major, with an annual pension of 71,000 maravedis, of which represent nymphs, naiads, and sylvan dei- and it is said, that in this capacity, he inserted his ties. The peristyle is surmounted by a cornice, and own name, or that of Amerigo's land, in the maps the cornice by a socle or plinth, on which are of the new world which he projected. This, howplaced vases of marble. In the triangular tympa- ever, is not believed by Mr. Washington Irving, num there are numerous bas reliefs of different artis who ascribes to future geographers the application cles. Within each arch, exactly below the key-stone, of Vespucci's name to the new world. Vespucci there is a basin of marble, from which the water remained at Seville, and retained his office till his is thrown up in a jet 17 feet high. As there is no death, on the 22d February 1512, though it has marble basin at this entrance, the number is, of been stated that he died in 1516, and was buried in course, only 28. The Bains d'Apollon or Le rocher, one of the Azores. For a full and interesting ac. as it is called, consists of a large artificial rock, count of this navigator, see Washington Irving's built of stone from St. Cloud. A grotto, with the Life of Columbus, vol. iv. p. 157–191. App. No. appearance of imperfect pillars, is formed in the ix. See also the Family Library, vol. xi. where rock, and its entrance, which is intended to repre- there is a fine portrait of him. sent the palace of Thetis, is decorated with a fine VESUVIAN. See MINERALOGY, Index.

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