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each chain, and is, with these tributaries, part of The soil of Vermont is as various as its surface,
From the preceding elements, with the exception The opening of the Hudson and Champlain canal
age is only necessary to open the tide navigation of White rivers is about 850 feet, of similar relative St. Lawrence to Lake Champlain. The subjoined taelevation. Independent, therefore, of the geographic bles will exhibit how much the advance of population position of its natural sections, the mean and ex in Vermont has depended on commercial facility. treme temperature of Vermont must differ greatly, Political Geography.-From the abstract of the following ihe rapid change of height. The eleva respective enumerations of the people of the Unitions given are taken from measurements made ted States, taken in 1790, 1800, 1810, and 1820, with canalling projects in view, taken, of course, published by the United States general governalong the streams, and over the lowest gaps of the ment, with the result of the census of 1830, we find mountains, of consequence, in every case of the that it was not until the census of 1820 was taken streams, below the arable country adjacent. The that the counties of Vermont were complete, as cultivated soil differs in height above the ocean they stand in that of 1830. We have therefore confrom 100 to, it is probable, 1500 feet, or to an structed the general table so as to include only the amount exceeding an equivalent to three degrees two last enumerations, as by them alone can be of latitude.
made any beneficial statistical comparison.
TABLE Of the Distributive Population and Extent of Vermont by Counties :--the Population according to the Census of 1820, and that of 1830. The number of Post Offices in each County, from the Post Ofice List, published at the General Post Office, Washington City, 1831.
Square Population, Population, Pop. to Sq. No.Po.Of. County. Natural Position and General Features.
Mile, 1830. fices, 1831.
The south-eastern county of the state, in the basin of Connecti
cut, and drained by the rivers, Deerfield, Greene, West, Sex
ton's, and Williams. General slope south-eastward,
drained by the rivers Williams, Black, Waterqueechy, and
streams. General slope south-eastward,
The southern side slopes to the southward and is drained by
Orange, but the middle part extending westward into the
Natural Position and General Features.
Square Population, Population, Pop. to Sq. No.Po.0f-
eastward towards Connecticut river; whilst the western part
This is the north-eastern county of the state, extending about
50 miles along Connecticut river, with the general slope to
770 Bennington, Is the south-western county of Vermont. The general slope is
westward, giving source to Hoosack, Batten Kill, and Paulet
680 Rutland, Lies north from Bennington, and west of Windsor and of the
main chain of the Vermont mountains. It is traversed by
820 Addison, North from Rutland, and extending along Lake Champlain, has
a declivity a very little west of north, drained in most part
530 Chittenden, Follows Addison along Lake Champlain; declines westward; is
traversed by Onion river, and contains the mouth of La Moelle
690 Franklin, Reaches from Chittenden, along Lake Champlain to Lower Ca
nada. Declivity westward, and drained by La Moelle and
850 Grand Isle Lies in Lake Champlain, and is composed of the island of the
same name, and of a peninsula jutting southward between
90 Washington, Is the only county of Vermont which can be called central. It
is entirely bordered by other counties of the same state, hav-
Washington in the same valley. Here we meet a real table
Square Population, Population, Pop, to sq. (No.Po.01.
Natural Position and General Features.
is drained by the extreme higher branches of the Mississque
Summary of White Population, by Sex and Ages. of three judges, and a county court for each county,
with three judges each.
18,632 nually by the General Assembly.
History.—The first civilized settlement of Ver15 and under 20, 15,782
15,753 mont, as far as recorded with certainty, dates no 20 and under 30, 24,207
25,180 farther back than 1724, when Fort Dummer, on Con30 and under 40, 15,763
16,264 necticut river, was founded. In 1731, Crown Point, 40 and under 50, 10,405
11,034 on Lake Champlain, was fortified, and settlements 50 and under 60, 7,051
7,152 commenced on that side. Though vexatious to the 60 and under 70, 5,203
4,727 early settlers, the political existence of Vermont, 70 and under 80, 2,203
2,086 as a state, rose from its soil being claimed by both 80 and under 90, 618
652 New York and New Hampshire. The first land 90 and under 100, 48
grants came from the latter, but the former claimed 100 and upwards, 3
the country under the Duke of York's patent. Be
fore the revolution, both the contending colonies
139,790 submitted their claims to the British crown, and
New York prevailed. The country having been in
great part settled under grants from New HampDo. whites, 279,776
shire, which the Assembly of New York declared Free coloured, 881
null and void, compelled resistance, as a measure
of self-defence, and Vermont was found at the com. Total population, 280,657
mencement and end of the revolution unconnected
with any contiguous colony. During the struggle
controversy ended in 1789, and the people immedi-
Executive.- Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and racy.
afforded little element for history for thirty-eight
VERNIER, or NOXIAS. See QUADRANT, Vol. About half a mile from the city, in a garden, XVI. p. 285-286.
once the cemetery of a Franciscan convent, is a VERONA, a city of Austrian Italy, and the capi- sarcophagus called the Tomb of Juliet. It is made tal of Verona, a province in the government of of Verona marble, with a place for the head, a sockVenice. It is agreeably situated on both sides of et for a candle, and two holes for the admission of the Adige, partly on a slope, and partly on a plain, air. which extends far to the south. The river, which
The manufactures of Verona are silk, which is divides the town into two unequal parts, is crossed the chief one, woollens, leather, gloves, and shoes. with four bridges of stone, of which that of Castel Population 45,000. _East Lon. 11° 1' 15". North Vecchio is the most remarkable. The town is of Lat. 44° 26' 17". For an account of the petrifacan irregular figure, and is about six miles in cir- tions in the vicinity, see Boloa, Monte, Vol. III. cuit, the modern part extending considerably be- p. 624–630. yond the old walls. It is fenced by a moat and an VERSAILLES, a town of France, situated 12 earthen mound, and there are two castles on ele- miles to the S.W. of Paris, and the chief place of vated ground, and a third on the plain, but it is the department of the Seine and Oise. From hav. a place of no strength. Verona has five gates. ing been so long the residence of the court, Ver. Porte del Paglia, built of stone filled with petrifac- sailles is one of the most elegant towns in France. tions, is elegant, and Porta dei Borsari, is an an Its squares and market places are large and elegant, cient double gate like those of ancient Rome. Thc and its streets, which intersect each other at right principal streets are the Corso, where horse races angles, are clean and spacious. The avenues leadare held, and that which leads to the Mantua gate. ing to the palace divides the town into two parts, Some of the rest are well paved and wide, but oth- the one to the left being called the old, and the ers are narrow and dirty. The houses, though of other the new town, in which are situated the prinan ancient aspect, look well, from many of them cipal church and the handsomest buildings. Verbeing built of marble. The principal square con sailles has a cathedral and eight churches, a high tains the handsomest houses.
school, a library, a cabinet of natural history, and a Verona contains a cathedral, in which there is botanic garden. The following is an account of the a fine bronze crucifix; besides several handsome palace and gardens, &c. as they were in 1814. churches. The church of St. Zeno has a fine facade “ The palace itself, when viewed from the west, and a grand portal, and its roof is sustained by rows consists of a centre and two wings. The central of columns, each of a single piece of marble. The building is composed of three sides of a square, the church of St. George contains a picture of the mar square projecting in front of the wings which are tyrdom of that saint, by Paul Veronese. The connected with it. The whole front towards the church of St. Bernardino contains the celebrated garden is 1965 feet in length. It consists of two Capella Varesca by San Michelo. The ancient stories and an attic, and is decorated with Ionic church of St. Nazaro is one of the finest monuments pilasters and columns, and adorned with numerous of sacred antiquity. The church of St. Maria an statues, nearly 14 feet in height, representing the tica, is adorned with the busts of the Scaligeri four seasons, the twelve months of the year, and the family. The town house is ornamented with busts of arts. the learned natives of the city, Pliny, Catullus, “ In the north wing, near its junction with the Cornelius Nepos and Vitruvius. The building main body, stands the chapel, which was begun in called the Royal Palace has never been completed. 1699. When viewed from the west front, it does The other palaces are that of Bevilacqua, a stately not appear as a separate building, excepting by the edifice, Canossa, Gustaversa, Pompei Gherardini, elevation of its roof, which rises higher than the
The museum and the academy have an elegant palace. It is 134 feet long outside, and is decorated Ionic portico, and contain an interesting collection with 16 Corinthian columns and 22 demi-columns of antiquities.
upon the wall, between which are 12 elegantly coThe most important feature of Verona is the Ro. loured glass windows. The marble pavement, the man amphitheatre, situated in the large square of sculpture, and the painting renders this chapel one Del Bro. It is composed of large blocks of marble of the most elegant buildings of the kind in Europe. without cement, and rests on a double row of massy The apartments of the palace are reckoned 1532 in vaults, where the wild beasts were kept. Its exte- number; but as the whole of it was undergoing a rior circumference is 1331 feet, its greatest diam- complete repair, it was difficult to examine them eter is 464, and its lesser 367. The oval arena in with attention. Notwithstanding the scaffoldings the centre is 220 feet long, and 130 broad. The also were placed in every apartment, the extreme seats, staircases, and galleries are entire. richness and splendour were sufficiently visible, number of ranges of seats is 46, and it was capable marble and gilding and the finest paintings being of holding 23,484 persons. Near the amphitheatre profusely lavished on every apartment. The saloon stands the modern theatre built by Palladio, and of Hercules was particularly grand, and the great having a fine portico. The Palazzo del Consiglio gallery, which stretches along the front side of the is a noble edifice, built by San Savino. The Aca- central square, exceeds all description. It is 288 demica Philharmonica and the Philoli contain a feet long, 41 feet broad, and 50 feet high. It is il. number of ancient monuments. Verona has a ly, luminated by 17 windows, with corresponding arceum, a gymnasium, an academy of paintings, and cades on the opposite side, and the pilasters and a public library.
columns are all of marble with gilt bronze capitals Vol. XVIII. Part I.
and bases. At the back of the central part we were group seated in the middle of six nymphs. On the shown the balcony upon which the King and the right hand of the spectator, and near the bottom of Queen and Dauphin presented themselves to the the rock, is another group, representing the two mob during the revolution.
steeds of Apollo taken to the water by the Tritons; “On the west side of the south wing stands the on the left hand there is another group, consisting orangerie, which is reckoned the finest in the world. of two Tritons and two steeds. Torrents of water It lies very low, and we descend to it by two noble run down different parts of the rock, and form a stone staircases. There is about 1000 orange trees, pool in front of it. The joints of the stones of the and the oldest of them has the following inscription rock are distinctly visible, otherwise it might be upon it: 6 semé en 1421,' so that it is now 409 years considered as natural. It is fairly embosomed in old. The trees are all in green square boxes of wood, and numerous exotic plants grow in the crewood, and each box is numbered, and has also the vices." year in which the tree was planted or brought to
The manufactures of Versailles are, one of firethe orangerie. The Serre, or apartments under the arms, and clocks and watches. The spinning and terrace into which the orange trees are put in win- weaving of cotton, and the bleaching of linen are ter, forms three sides of a square, the other side carried on to some extent. Population about 30,000. opening by an iron railing into the piece of water VESPUCCI, or VESPUCIUS AMERIGO, was born of great extent. The principal side, which looks to at Florence, on the 9th March 1451, of a noble famthe south, is 624 feet long, and 48 wide over the ily. He was the third son, and was educated under walls, which are 12 feet thick. The other side, his paternal uncle, a learned friar. He went to Sereckoning to the extremity of the staircase, is 465 ville to look after some commercial concerns, and feet long
he appears to have been in that city when Colum. “On the west side of the north wing is a huge bus returned from his first voyage. According to basin of water, of great extent, ornamented with the statement of Vespucci himself, he sailed from numerous bronze figures, and with jet d'eaus, jerbs, Cadiz with four caravels, and after touching at the &c. of all kinds. Before the front of the palace, and Canaries, arrived in 37 days at the coast of Paria. extending to a great distance, there were numerous If this be true, he was the first discoverer of the extensive basins of water, lined with marble, and American continent, and anticipated Columbus by containing jet d'eau of every variety. As the a whole year, but there seems to be very little doubt Dutchess of Angouleme happened to visit Ver. that this account is an entire fiction. He sailed, sailles on the same day with us, we had the good indeed, in May 1499, but only as a passenger in the fortune to see all these brilliant waterworks in full expedition fitted out by Ojeda. Touching at the play.
Carribees, the expedition visited the Gulf of Paria, “ Among the numerous objects of interest which and afterwards Hispaniola. At the invitation of the cover the beautiful and extensive grounds of Ver- king of Portugal, he took the command of three sailles, I was much struck with the Bosquet de la vessels, which sailed in 1501, and reached a point Collonade, and with the Bains d'Apollon. The Bos- five degrees south of the line. He set out again in quet consists of a circular peristyle of marble 105 May 1503, with the view of going to the East Infeet in diameter, having 32 columns 16 feet high, dies, but he was driven into All Saints bay, on the formed of different kinds of marble, with their ca coast of Brazil, to which he gave its name. In pitals of white marble. Each of the columns cor 1507, he returned to Seville, into the service of the responds to a pilaster of white Languedoc marble, king of Spain, who appointed him, in 1508, pilot. and the columns support as many arches, the keys major, with an annual pension of 71,000 maravedis, of which represent nymphs, naiads, and sylvan dei- and it is said, that in this capacity, he inserted his ties. The peristyle is surmounted by a cornice, and own name, or that of Amerigo's land, in the maps the cornice by a socle or plinth, on which are of the new world which he projected. This, howplaced vases of marble. In the triangular tympa- ever, is not believed by Mr. Washington Irving, num there are numerous bas reliefs of different artis who ascribes to future geographers the application cles. Within each arch, exactly below the key-stone, of Vespucci's name to the new world. Vespucci there is a basin of marble, from which the water remained at Seville, and retained his office till his is thrown up in a jet 17 feet high. As there is no death, on the 22d February 1512, though it has marble basin at this entrance, the number is, of been stated that he died in 1516, and was buried in course, only 28. The Bains d'Apollon or Le rocher, one of the Azores. For a full and interesting ac. as it is called, consists of a large artificial rock, count of this navigator, see Washington Irving's built of stone from St. Cloud. A grotto, with the Life of Columbus, vol. iv. p. 157–191. App. No. appearance of imperfect pillars, is formed in the ix. See also the Family Library, vol. xi. where rock, and its entrance, which is intended to repre- there is a fine portrait of him. sent the palace of Thetis, is decorated with a fine VESUVIAN. See MINERALOGY, Index.