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given to the heels and quarters, (such as those of cruiting horses at such immature, growing, and contraction and thrush,) the bar-shoe is proper; tender ages as two and three years old; to their beand particular care should be taken that, in its ap- ing taken from pasture or strawyard, or other explication, these two designs are fulfilled-by seeing posed natural and salubrious situations, and placed that the shoe is bent up behind sufficiently to come and pampered in warm, or (as they are falsely call. in close apposition with the frog, at the same time ed) comfortable stables. This is a fact as demonthat it is so bevelled off at the quarters and heels, strable from the most unlimited field of observation, that those parts do not touch the corresponding

as that two and two make four-a truth as broad parts of the hoof.

and clear as the sun at noonday; and yet is the In convalescent lameness, when the limb has baneful practice to this day persisted in. grown stiff and shrunk from a state of long-conti What adds to the mischief resulting from this nued inactivity; or, in other cases, requiring one precocious and unnatural domestication is, that the limb in particular to be put into action, we employ period of life at which it is instituted is, with the a contrivance called the patten-shoe, which is put animal, a critical one, i. e. it is one at which certain upon the fellow or opposite foot: thus, supposing revolutions are taking place in his.constitution that the off fore leg to require extra bearing or action, render him more obnoxious to disorder, and less we apply the patten-shoe to the near fore foot. able to withstand its ravages when once established: (Vide Fig. 10.)

hence it is that in young horses diseases are rapid Various kinds of what are denominated screw

in their progress, more

so than in old horses; shoes have been from time to time offered to public whereas our remedies in both instances are remarks notice; the design of which is, by mechanical force, able for tardiness of action. to restore hoofs to their original form, which have One more circumstance, bearing on causation of become narrowed and deformed by contraction. disorders in general, remains to be stated: and that This is an operation, however, which requires is, that our principal horse-fairs, the marts where much judgment and precaution, otherwise harm the dealers purchase their “young fresh horses," in place of good may result from such an artificial are held during the vernal and autumnal seasons of proceeding. Strong hoofs alone should be subject- the year; seasons at which all animals are more or ed to the operation; and they, prior to the applica- less (but in a special degree the young horse is) tion of the shoe, should undergo saturation, by predisposed to constitutional disorder. This is long.continued immersion in cold water, in order the period when the colt is about ceasing his growth to render them soft and flexible. The best descrip- and beginning to furnish—to turn, in fact, into a tion of screw shoe is represented by Fig. 11. horse; the time when he is about inheriting his

To conclude the subject of shoeing, it may be powers of propagation, the time when he is cutting thought strange that we have not hinted a syllable his teeth; the time he is changing his coat; the about hind shoes. The fact is, that almost every

time he becomes most subject to contract strangles, variety of shoe applicable for a fore-foot, may be

a disorder that may be compared, in some respects, made useful for a hind-foot; and yet, notwithstand- to the pock or measles in children. Such are the ing this practical axiom, the ordinary hind-shoe shoals and quicksands which that horse-proprietor differs in several material points from the common must labour to avoid, who would conduct a young fore-shoe. It is (or rather ought to be) a square-toe horse through his minority, free from probable and shoe, narrower in the web than the fore-shoe, with fatal disorder. the inrier circumferent border equally thick with We may, conveniently enough for our proposed the outer. The outer heel should be turned up; method of procedure, make a classification of all the inner, not; but then the thickness of the latter the diseases into general, constitutional, local, and should be so augmented in every part that the foot specific. may still preserve its equilibrium. Fig. 12 will A general disorder is one which pervades the serve to illustrate what we mean.

whole system in general, i. e. without (to observa

tion at least) affecting any individual organ or order DISEASES OF HORSES.

of parts in particular. Any body unaccustomed to horses would be very A constitutional disease is one also in which the likely to run away with the notion, that, as animals, system is disordered, but to which a local or partithey were seldom, or hardly ever, the subjects of cular seat is at the same time palpably or presumadisease, unless it happened that they perchance re- bly assignable. ceived any bodily injury from violence or mal-treat A local disease is one affecting some single part ment; and such a person might feel disposed to or place by itself, without disturbing the system. doubt the veracity of the author of this article, A specific is a constitutional disease, in which when he states as a fact, that, generally speaking, some virus or poisonous matter is supposed to be in a regiment of cavalry, taking man for horse, the circulating in the system. All infections and condeaths of the animal much exceed those of the hu- tagious maladies come into this class; though all man beings every year. The mind in which a fact, specific diseases are not contagious. so notorious in the army, excites any surprise, will An animal body may be compared to a very naturally, here, feel desirous to learn what can be complex machine, the construction of the differthe cause of this. The answer is short, simple, ent parts of which are, as far as we can examine and undeniable. The mortality is owing, prima. into them, of inimitable apparent simplicity, conrily and principally, to the pernicious system of re- sidering their wonderful operations; and possessed

with great resistent and self-repairing powers, con as possible; but it is seldom requisite to draw more sidering the abuse to which it is continually ex than from two to four quarts of blood: ordinary posed. In health, every part of the living machine cases require no bleeding. Mild laxatives are alis supposed to be perfect; or at least perfect to ways called for: the best febrifuge medicine is a such a degree that its functions continue to be per ball composed of one dram of Barbadoes aloes, formed with sufficient regularity and energy to ten grains of cal nel, one dram of antimonial maintain that state: in disease, their harmony of powder, and half an ounce of nitre, made into a operation is destroyed or deranged, either in con mass of proper consistence with syrup of ginger or sequence of the disorder of one part, or set of some aromatic confection. Shсuld the pulse beat parts in particular, or of some unknown influence very quick, and the bowels appear much confined, existing in the system which disarranges, more or this ballought to be administered twice a-day; and, less, the action of the whole. It is this derange as soon as the excrement becomes soft, followed ment of the system which is meant to be under up by a ball composed of half a dram of the powe stood by the term “fever:" the only general disease dered root of white hellebore, made up with aroto which the horse can be said to be subject. For matic confection. Should the legs take to swellit is not our intention here to dive into the abstruse ing, which they are very apt to do, as the fever question, whether there is or is not in nature a dis. abates, the cure may be completed by a diuretic ease that can, in this sense, be denominated gene- ball daily, and walking exercise, (in hand,) regural: some pathologists supposing, and perhapslated by the strength of the patient. rightly, or at all events, reasonably, that every dis The fever we have been describing may, as we order must have “ a local habitation,” and accord- have stated above, either arise spontaneously and ingly ought to have a definite name; and so, like- exist without any apparent or discoverable local wise, will fever, when the period arrives at which malady, or it may owe its origin and continuance these practical reasoners shall have made us ac to some lesion or disease of some part or organ in quainted with its seat.

particular. In the latter case, it is called sympa

thetic fever. In either case, however, the fever First Class.-General Diseases.

presents the same phenomena; and, as far as re

gards its nature, abstractedly, requires similar FEVER.—Here again, were we disposed to be treatment. captious, and our limits would admit of it, we might enter into a lengthened argument to prove

2d Class.Constitutional Diseases. that the horse really was at times the subject of spontaneous fever, technically termed idiopathic, by We shall now pass on to the constitutional diswhich is meant fever arising in the system without eases; and first of those affecting the circulatory any apparent or detectable cause: but no! we shall system. cut the matter short by saying, that we meet with The CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, (by which is meant such cases; and by referring those who may feel those organs which circulate the blood, viz. the desirous to pursue the inquiry to Percival's VE heart and blood-vessels,) in the horse is characterTERINARY Works.

istic for vigorous though comparatively slow action The fever of a horse is the common or simple in health; and in disease, for the rapidity and perinflammatory fever of a man; and its presence is tinacity with which it pursues the destructive prorecognised by the following signs or symptoms: cess. It is this disordered action of the blood-vesThe horse appears dull and heavy; hangs down his sels which is signified by the term inflammation: head and moves sluggishly and aversely; he feels an action which, of diseases in general, may be cold, in particular his legs and ears are so; his said to constitute the essence; while of those few coat stares, and his skin may have been observed into whose nature we cannot, demonstratively, say to shiver in places: these constitute the primary or it enters, we have but comparatively obscure noprecursory symptoms, and are not invariably pre- tions. sent. They are succeeded by the more essential We shall first, under this head, make a few reones;—preternatural warmth in the skin and tangi. marks on blood-letting, and then proceed with the ble internal parts, and sometimes even in the hoofs, diseases. -mouth dry, tongue furred; quick pulse; breath Blood-LETTING in the horse is for the most part drawn with unusual movement of the flank, (but a simple operation, and one unattended with dannot pains fully or quickly, for that would denote ger; hence the practice among farriers, grooms, another disorder;) increased irritability, so that and horsemen of all denominations. The vein the least noise or unusual sight alarms him and running along the side of the neck, from the head quickens his pulse and breathing. To these may to the chest, called the jugular, is the one commonbe added, loss of appetite; costiveness; urine ly selected for the purpose, both on account of its scanty, and often discharged. Fever may com volume and its superficial situation. Nothing more monly be referred to change of temperature: never is required, to open it, than to make pressure with from heat to cold; but from open situations into the finger just below the place where it is intended warm stables. High feeding and confinement have to apply the phleme, and as soon as the vein is dis. also some share in its production. On occasions, tended by the current of blood coming from the it is induced by over-exertion. Should the fever head, and is perceptible under the skin, to direct run high, it is proper to bleed the animal as soon the blade of the phleme towards it and give the

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blow with the blood-stick. Sometimes a lancet is vulgarly called "a cold,” stands first on used. It is not so good an instrument for general list. It consists of an inflammation, more or less purposes as a phleme: its utility consists in its bė. extended, and more or less violent, of the meming more convenient on particular occasions than brane lining the nostrils, and hence reaching into the phleme, as in opening the vein of the thigh or and coating the inside of the windpipe and its arm; also in its being more portable.

branches. The symptoms denoting catarrh are faNow and then it will happen that the animal miliar to every horse-keeper. A mucous or muco. will get what is called by the vulgar, “ a bad neck," purulent discharge comes from the nostrils, the in consequence of being bled. The place will take matter being white or yellow, according as it parto swelling all on a sudden, and present a globular takes more or less of mucus; the membrane lining tumour as large, perhaps, as one's fist. This the nose is seen to be very red and inflamed, when arises from the escape of blood underneath the the nostrils are opened; there may or may not be skin, and will require nothing more than a vinegar- swellings under the throat, or just beneath the and-water lotion, and some aperient or diuretic roots of the ears; and there commonly is present a medicine internally to disperse it. What is of far cough; to which may be added, should the catarrh more consequence, is the tumefaction which takes

prove severe, the animal grows dull and feverish. place some days after the operation, and runs in It is now ascertained that “a cold” is .caught by the form of a chord towards the head: the orifice of going from a cold to a warm situation; and not the wound made by the phleme, at the same time from exposure to cold, as those who gave it the opening and issuing forth a little ichorous or puru name imagined; therefore, it is that young unbroke lent matter. This will require fomentations, fre horses are the common subjects of it, and in parquent and long continued, and vinegar-and-water ticular at that period when they come to be relotions in the intervals. Also apply the actual moved from pasture for domestication. cautery, or a caustic composed of powdered blue Catarrh itself requires very simple treatment; it vitriol and sulphuric acid, to the wound; and give is only to be regarded as offensive inasmuch as it the horse a strong dose of purgative medicine:- may prove the precursor or lay the foundation of viz. One ounce of Barbadoes aloes, combined with some other disease of injurious tendency; such as syrup of ginger. Should the swelling grow hard roaring or inflammation of the lungs, or even and insensible, it ought to be blistered.

glanders. On this account it ought seldom, in its The HEART, the organ by whose propellent power mildest form, to be allowed to take its own course. the blood is forced through the blood-vessels over In common cases, if we give the animal daily a every part of the body, is but rarely itself the seat ball composed of one dram of aloes, two drams of of disease. Dropsy of the pericardium or heart tartarized antimony, the same of ginger, with a bag is occasionally met with: it is mostly, I think, sufficiency of syrup of buckthorn, and give him a an accompaniment of hydrothorax.

bran or malt mash every night, with half an ounce The BLOOD-VESSELS are more the subject of dis of nitre mixed in it, and repeat this in the morning; case. Aneurism has been met with: about half a about a week will perfectly reinstate him. In cases dozen cases stand on record. Blood-spavin is ra of much attendant fever, the animal should lose ther a familiar disorder. It consists in an enlarge from two to four quarts of blood. The cough may ment or dilatation of the vein, which passes over be attacked either by a simple liniment rubbed unthe inner and anterior part of the hock; occasioned der the throttle, composed of two parts of hartsby the pressure and consequent partial obstruction horn, and one of sweet oil, or by blistering the in its canal, which the vein receives from a dropsi throat with the Tincture of Cantharides. Some cal tumour (which is the same as a windgall) un practitioners steam the nose with bran scalded in a derneath it; viz, one of the bursæ mucosa, as they nose-bag; for my own part, I have almost relinare called, or bags of joint-oil, which belong to the quished the practice, thinking that it oftener does hock-joint. But a blood-spavin causes no pain or harm than good. Jameness, and therefore cannot be regarded but as ROARING is a disease also of the air-passages. an eyesore. Should it, on this account, be consi- Its common seat is either the windpipe itself or the dered objectionable, the parts may be blistered; or mouth of that tube, which is called the larynx. lightly fired first, and blistered afterwards.

Jis pature consists in partial obstruction of some

kind or other in some one of the air-passages, in Diseases of the Organs of Respiration.

consequence of which a peculiar sound or noise is

created every time the air passes into or out of Of all sets of organs, these are the most prone the lungs with more than ordinary force or celerity. to disease in animals in general, and particularly The noise is more commonly elicited by the act of in horses and dogs; and of all the diseases those inspiration than expiration; occasionally by both. we are about to consider are the most insidious in The nature and intensity of this unpleasant sound their approach and progress; the most destructive will depend upon the particular situation, extent, in their effects. Every act of exertion you put the locality, and relative volume of the obstruction; animal to, calls for “wind;" and it will depend on and therefore it is that we are in some slight measure the soundness of these organs whether he can well enabled to give an opinion about the disease when or ill answer that call, and perfectly or imperfectly we examine the horse, according as we find him to perform the act required of him.

be "a wheezer," " whistler,” "high-blower,” or CATARRH, the technical appellation for what is "grunter;" all which jargon is in common use VOL. XVIII. Part I.

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among horse-dealers, and has been from them whose atmosphere is confined, heated, and loaded adopted by professional men to denote certain with impurities. No animal seeks the open air to kinds or stages of roaring, for which they have as breathe more than the horse: he shows this dispoyet no other terms.

sition in health; he evinces a strong indication for The wheezer's noise has been well compared to it in disease; and, generally speaking, the more we the sound made by an asthmatic man: it has a gratify this natural propensity, the less subject deep-wheezing sound, and proceeds, we believe, shall we render him to disorders of all kinds, but from obstruction in some of the branches of the particularly to the one now under consideration. windpipe.

The characteristic symptom of this malady, that The whistler's note resembles “the northern by which above all others it is known, is the short, blast” rushing through a crack in the window-shut quick, and painful respiration manifested to us by ter. It is occasioned by some diminution or con the heaving of the flanks and the working and pufftraction of the passage either in the windpipe it. ing of the nostrils: the pulse also runs high; but self or the larynx.

very frequently is not so quick as the breathing. A high-blower is recognised by puffs or small The animal's countenance betrays inward pain: he blasts proceeding from the nostrils. In this case, casts an impressive look round to his panting flank. the impediment is in the head.

His legs and ears are icy cold. His mouth is dry, The grunter emits murmurs or deep-buried even parched. He never is found lying, not even at sounds resembling the grunts of a hog. This noise, night; but stands with his fore legs stretched out we are of opinion, proceeds from the ramifications and apart, one from the other. Should the pulse of the windpipe.

and breathing run immoderately high, the mouth The genuine roarer, or as he is sometimes desig- feel cold and clammy, and a cold sweat appear over nated, in contra-distinction to the other species, the body, we may prepare ourselves for a fatal issue. “the confirmed roarer,” is the one whose boations, The treatment of this disease consists principally in inspiration, are too loud and too notorious to in the judicious use of the phleme: all other reme. need characterization.

dies are of secondary import. In general, the first To detect this disorder, we must by some means blood-letting should be such as to have a perceptior other force the animal to make a deep, sudden, ble effect on the pulse: it is impossible to say preor quick inspiration. The horse-dealer's mode of cisely what quantity it may be requisite to draw to procedure (and it is the readiest and most sum do this; that will so much depend on the size, age, mary one) is to make a feint at an unexpected mo condition, and constitution of the patient. Having ment to give the horse a blow upon the head, as bled the animal, clothe him very warmly, flannelthough you were going to knock him down. Hard bandage his legs, turn him loose into a box which galloping, particularly up hill, and still more, hard has openings giving free access to the external air, driving in harness, are, however, the surest tests of and administer to him half a dram of the powdered roaring

root of white hellebore, the like quantity of aloes, Whenever we are called on to treat roaring, we two drams of emetic antimony, and half an ounce may assure our employer that the horse's life is in of aromatic confection. In six or eight hours, no danger; but we cannot, on any reasonable should the symptoms continue unabated, bleed him grounds, in the majority of cases, hold out pros- again; at all events give him another ball, which is pects of success. Very many roarers are harness to be repeated; providing he shows no disposition horses, and become so disordered from the conti to nausea or purging, every six hours. As soon as nual reining-in of the head by the bearing rein. an impression on the violence of the symptoms has These cases, if recent, are the most favourable we been made by bleeding, blister both sides, and incan encounter: the plan of proceeding with them sert a rowel in the chest. During convalescence, it consists in so confining the head that the very op is proper to exhibit every other day a ball composite tendency be given to it; viz. reining it as posed of nitre and soft soap, to prevent any accumuch outward or forward as possible, and at the mulation of water within the chest, which is the same time elevating the nose: by thus posturing most common fatal termination of the disease. the animal for four or five hours every day, and working his mouth so as to produce the same effect at exercise, much benefit, and even a cure, may

Broken Wind. result. In other cases, repeated blisters along the In contra-distinction to a roarer, a broken-winded course of the windpipe, or several setons passed horse is called a piper, in our vulgar horse cant. transversely through the skin in front of it, aided The subject of it is much sooner detected than the by the absorbent effects of purgative and diuretic roarer; it being a disorder of much more general medicines, are the only measures likely to be pro concern, and one that the animal manifests at all ductive of much amelioration.

times, in a state of rest as well as action; in fact, INFLAMMATION OF THE Lungs is the disorder there is no common dealer nor groom who is not which attacks and proves fatal to so many

of well acquainted with its signs, and the injurious young horses on their first entrance into the stable.

consequences resulting from it. Two denotations The various changes to which they are subjected, especially guide us in discovering it:-a peculiarly all, more or less, appear to conduce to it; but none disordered breathing, and the particularity of the in so great a degree probably as the change from a cough which accompanies it. Expiration becomes situation abounding with cold and pure air, to one comparatively long, protracted, and difficult; inspi

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ration altogether as short, sudden, and free: this is eat his hay, and especially his corn, as usual; and shown by the flanks very gradually and slowly con- give him scalded oats, bran or malt mashes, and tracting until they have drawn themselves up to green meat, &c. in fact any food easy of masticatheir utmost, and then all on a sudden expanding tion. and resuming their original fulness.

The cough,

Dropsy.--Hydrothorar, or water in the chest, is which is only occasional, and most so under exer- by no means an unfrequent occurrence in young tion, is so peculiar in its sound that, once heard, it horses: it commonly comes on gradually, as a se. can hardly ever be mistaken: it is short and feeble, quel of inflammation of the lungs; and when once scarcely audible at any distance; it appears as if it established, is, unfortunately, without the reach of came from the very verge of the summit of the any known therapeutic means. Ascites, or water in windpipe, or as if it had been chopped off in its the belly, is a more rare disease. The author has passage.

met with two cases: one was a genuine case; the The pathological nature of this disease appears other turned out to be a sequel or consequence of to be still undetermined. The prevalent opinion inflammation of the membranes of the chest, folseems to be, that it consists in a rupture of the air. lowed by hydrothorax. Its presence but obscurely cells of the lungs: this theory, however, is not free indicated: the only sure tests are, a sense of Aluciu from objections; for it is said, that there exists rup- ation to the hand, and of guggling or undulation to ture, occasionally, without broken wind, and again, the ear, combined with actual enlargement of the broken wind without rupture: and if it were rup- belly; rarely, however, has the practitioner been led ture, why should not some cases recover? which, to make these trials, from the fact of the disease it is well known, none ever do.

being known to be quite out of the ordinary line of As to remedy, we possess none: it is an irreme- practice. In truth, we yet lack much information diable disease. From a habit which broken-winded on the subject. horses have of often breaking wind, the old farriers STOMACH STAGGERS. -GORGED STOMACH. Such conceived that the difficulty might be removed by is the phraseology we are compelled to adopt (for making what is called an artificial anus: it is need- the want of a veterinary nomenclature) to express less to add, that the expedient proved as effectless the disorder occasioned by preternatural distension as it was absurd, cruel, and disgusting.

of the stomach with food or air, or both combined. Neat cattle, it is known, are very liable, at certain

seasons of the year, and in certain situations, to Diseases of the Organs of Nutrition.

contract a disorder called the hove; the origin of The organs of nutrition comprise the mouth, the which is, voracious grazing in some luxuriant pasgullet, the stomach and intestines, and the liver; ture, (especially young spring clover,) which lying the milt and sweet-bread also rank among them, in the paunch too long, gas is extricated until the but they are very rarely found diseased.

bag is distended even to bursting. This creates inLampas is the term used by our common farriers sufferable pain, and the animal runs wildly and futo denote an unnatural prominence of the fleshy riously about, bellowing as if it were mad. The bars, crossing the roof of the mouth, just behind author has witnessed one very striking case of this the upper incisive teeth. Many absurd notions are description in the horse; the symptoms resembled abroad respecting the origin and nature of this sup- those of violent grips; every thing had been pracposed malady, (for we can hardly regard it in the tised which offered any hope of affording relief; but light of disease,) and still more are the means all in vain. The animal died in great torment, and which have long been, and among the lower farri- a tympanitic stomach was found to have been the ers even still continue to be, employed under the occasion of his violent complaints. Now and then false cover of an asserted remedy: we allude to the it happens that the stomach becomes over distended cruel practice of cauterizing the swollen parts with with food, giving rise either to symptoms of coma red hot iron. The veritable nature of this sup- mon cholic, or to a very different set of symptoms, posed evil is neither more nor less than an inflam- viz. such as indicate pressure upon the brain; which matory turgidity of the gums as well as palate, the arises from the sympathy of the brain with the stonatural concomitant of the process of dentition; so mach. These cases commonly happen in large brewthat we discover lampas in the intervals between the eries, dockyards, and other places where horses are 2dand 3d, 3d and 4th, and 4th and 5th years: and such in the habit of being employed for many hours tobeing the true nature of the complaint, what can be gether without food. This injurious practice, howmore preposterously barbarous than the practice ever, has of late years been so much exposed and recommended in the Farriers’ Dictionary, " to ap- explained, that we seldom hear of any grievances ply a hot iron to the parts, so as to burn the excres of the kind. One of the most effectual preventives cence! away." With as much reason, and certainly against the malady, is the plan now commonly (if there existed any at all) more necessity, might adopted by brewers' servants, stage-wagoners, &c. we introduce a heated iron into the mouth of a child of feeding with hay on the road, or carrying with suffering from the self-same malady—" cutting of them nose-bags. the teeth;” when every surgeon knows that simple Colic, or gripes, means, pathologically considlancing of the gums is all that is required of him. ered, a spasm or astriction of some part of the And this is all that is required, too, of the veteri- intestinal canal; though farriers use the phrase nary surgeon. Lance the gums in cases when the “gripes" to denote all the disorders of the guts, animal manifests uneasiness or pain by refusing to indiscriminately: it is, perhaps, properly speaking,

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