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in 1683 by the Turks under the command of Mus- with coffee-houses and other places of entertaintapha, son-in-law of Mahomet IV. who, when on ment. the verge of being master of the city, was nobly “ The Glacis, the circular space of ground repulsed by John Sobieski, king of Poland; and which, as before stated, stretches out immediately thus not only Vienna, but Christendom, were saved from the foot of the ramparts, and encircles the from the imminent danger that threatened them. city, except where the walls are washed by the arm (See the article POLAND.) This capital was taken of the Danube, is,” to use the words of a modern by Bonaparte both in 1805 and 1809. The Con- traveller, “ no longer the naked and cheerless stripe gress held here by the allied sovereigns, on the which it used to be. Much of it has been formed downfall of that illustrious conqueror, is well into gardens belonging to different branches of the known.

imperial family; the whole has been gradually This city is singularly built. “ It forms,” says planted and laid out into alleys; and in 1822 the Dr. Walsh, " three concentrical circles; the first is emperor, in his love for his subjects, allowed a cof. the old city, surrounded by its wall and rampart; fee-house to be built among the trees. Beyond the the next is a plain called the Glacis, which forms a Glacis, the ground in general rises; and along these circle of gardens and pleasure grounds; and the eminences stretch the suburbs of Vienna, surroundthird is the suburbs, an immense circle of houses ing the city like the outworks of some huge fortienclosing within it the other two." (Journey from fication, and finally surrounded themselves by a Constantinople, 382.) The old city does not extend brick wall, a mere instrument of police, to ensure above three miles in circumference. It can boast

the detection of radical and contraband goods, by of no fewer than 18 squares, and it contains 120 subjecting every thing and every person to a strict streets; all of which, though narrow and crooked, examination." (Russell's Tour in Germany, ii. are clean, well paved, and well lighted; and com 250.) The suburbs occupy more ground than the mon sewers abound. The pavement, however, is old city, partly because cultivated fields or large so little elevated above the causeway, that the pe- gardens occasionally intervene; they are also more destrian is not sufficiently protected. Nor is this irregularly built; but the houses are in general the only inconvenience to which such persons are distinguished by great elegance. Most of them are exposed. A great part, often the half of the street, private property; and most of the wealthy and most is rendered useless by heaps of wood, the fuel of distinguished persons connected with the city, such the inhabitants. This wood, being brought into as Prince Lichtenstein and Prince Esterhazy, have the city in logs from three to four feet long, is laid residences there, like palaces, with gardens and down on the street to be cut into smaller pieces, picture galleries. These suburbs, 34 in number, before it is deposited in the cellar. In this way, it are known by different names, and are of all differnot unfrequently happens that from the piling up ent sizes; the Leopoldstadt, situated on an island, is of such wood on both sides of the street, nothing the largest, containing 600 houses; while the smallremains free but the centre; a state of things most est contain only eleven houses. The streets in the unfavourable to the foot passenger, but the difficul. suburbs are either not paved at all, or ill paved; on ties of which the Austrian coachmen avoid with a which account clouds of dust and sand, when a high dexterity peculiar to themselves. The houses are wind prevails, envelope the whole city. in general built of brick, and roofed with slate. The ramparts have already been mentioned as They are of great height, and, like those of Edin- forming a public walk. But the most celebrated burgh and Paris, enter by a common stair. Seve- place of this kind is the Prater, which has been ral families, accordingly, live under the same roof, characterised as the finest public park in Europe. the number of inhabitants to each house averaging “It has more rural beauty than Hyde Park; and forty. The most of the squares are adorned with surely the more varied and natural arrangement of fountains or other monuments, though not always its woods and waters is preferable to the formal very elegantly executed. The statue of Joseph II. basins and alleys of the garden of the Thuilleries." decorates a square which bears his name. The (Tour in Germany, ii, 254.) It is situated in the Graben's square, about the centre of the city, is a Leopoldstadt. It is bounded on three sides by wamore fashionable resort than any other: in it are ter. It consists of a thick forest of oaks, elms, situated the principal shops and warehouses, as also and chesnuts, diverging into five alleys, and opening in the Kohlmark, a large and well-built street that into several lawns of fine turf. Coffee-houses are leads to it. Among all the statues and sculptured erected along the walks. The Augarten, another embellishments with which Austria abounds, the place of public resort, is contiguous to the Prater. want of memorials in honour of great men is much The Brigitten-au is another agreeable walk; but felt; no such memorials occur, except that of Jo- neither of them can stand comparison with the one seph II. The city, it may here be mentioned, is, we have just been describing. It may here be or rather was, encompassed by ditches and ram stated that, in addition to these walks, the inbabi. parts, and communicated with the suburbs by 12 tants of Vienna frequent the theatres, of which gates.

Promenading is the only purpose to which there are five; two in the city, and three in the these fortifications are now applied; a purpose for suburbs; but the dramatic art has not yet attained to which, from their breadth and elevation, they are great perfection in this capital. As connected with well adapted. Together with the Glacis, which the amusements of the people, we may also menwe now proceed to describe, they form the great tion that the number of coffee-houses amount to 70, scene of recreation and amusement, abounding the taverns and ordinaries to 300.


The public buildings of Vienna, though any the deaf and dumb, lying-in-hospitals, &c. Menthing but splendid, must not be passed over in si. dicity is not permitted. lence. The Bourg, an imperial palace, is undoubt Literary institutions are also sufficiently abunedly the finest edifice in the city. Having been dant. There is a university, founded so long ago built at different periods, its exterior presents an as the year 1237, and which has of late become irregular whimsical appearance, unworthy of a pa the best medical school in Germany. There are lace. The emperor inhabits that part of it called 79 professors, and 1200 students, the classes emthe Schweitzenhof. But though in its outward bracing every department of literature, science, characteristics, it is not elegant, its interior is bigh- and theology. Connected with the university are ly interesting, containing collections more valuable, a botanical garden, a military hospital, an anatoit has been supposed, than any other of a similar mical theatre, an observatory, and a veterinary kind in Europe. Among other articles, are men school. The other numerous seminaries are also tioned a great many bronze figures, statues, and in a most efficient state. In the polytechnic school jewels of different kinds, 500 Etruscan vases, 400 is taught whatever relates to the useful arts, differancient lamps, 32,000 gold and silver medals. ent kinds of industry, and commerce. There are the immediate neighbourhood of the palace, are a seminary for the oriental languages, an academy the imperial chancery and the imperial library of arts, a military school, five

of arts, a military school, five schools for training The other public buildings are the mint, the bank, teachers for provincial towns and villages, seminathe university, the war-office, the assembly-room, ries for the children of the nobility, 60 schools for called the Hall of Apollo, and said to be capable of the lower orders, and several charity schools. The containing 10,000 people; the Belvidere, a palace daughters of the wealthier citizens are educated in built by Prince Eugene, now the property of the convents, but an imperial seminary has lately been Emperor, chiefly remarkable for its gallery of va founded for the daughters of officers. Attached to luable paintings. In one of the public buildings, the principal seminaries are museums and collec. namely, the town arsenal, is preserved the head of tions, illustrative of the arts and sciences taught in Mustapha, who commanded the Turkish army at them. Notwithstanding, however, the number and the blockade of Vienna in 1683, and who was efficient state of the various seminaries of educastrangled at Belgrade in the following year. The tion, literature is not in a very flourishing state. number of elegant private houses is very great, There are only 25 printing offices, and 30 bookselthough such houses are not unfrequently placed in lers; a scale far inferior to that of Edinburgh, Lonthe very neighbourhood of the residences of the don, and Paris. The press labours under a severe poorer classes. Vienna can boast among its per censorship. Even foreign works, particularly manent inhabitants of 20 princes, 70 counts, and Journals, are not admitted till the censor has given 50 barons.

his sanction. There are only 30 newspapers in the With regard to churches, the three principal are whole Austrian dominions: of which five belong to those of St. Peter, St. Augustine, and St. Stephen. the capital; the Austrian Observer, published daily, The first is built after the model of the famous and constituting the organ of government, being one of the same name at Rome; the second con the best known. Vienna possesses a good many tains the most interesting monument in Vienna, literary journals, but with one exception, that of that erected to the memory of the Arch-duchess The Annals of Literature (Jahrbucher der LiteraMaria Christina by her husband, and consi ture), they are of very inferior character. dered one of the master-picces of Canova, by Vienna is not remarkable for any thing so much whom it was executed. St. Stephen's, the largest as the number and extent of its public libraries church in the Austrian dominions, is the metropo- and picture galleries. The imperial library conlitan one: it was built in the 13th century, is 340 tains 300,000 volumes, of which 6000 are specifeet in length, 220 in breadth, and 80 in height. mens of early printing, and 12,000 are MSS. In The tower is considered as 430 above the ground: the same library are 8,000 volumes of engravings, it supports a bell weighing 18 tons, made of the and 217 volumes of portraits. The university licannon taken from the Turks after they were forced brary consists of 100,000 volumes. The collections to raise the siege of Vienna. The only other at the Bourg and the Belvidere have already been churches deserving of notice are those of St. mentioned. In the niusical school there is a library Charles, the most regular in the city, and St. Mi of works, both historical and theoretical, relative chael's. The whole number, exclusive of private to music, many MSS. on the same subject, and an chapels, is fifty-seven, twenty in the old city, and extensive collection of ancient and modern musical thirty-seven in the suburbs.

instruments. There is an institution for obtaining As connected with the church, the charitable in

casts of statues and other antiquities, of which the stitutions naturally come to be considered; and originals cannot be procured. Besides these, the they are numerous, richly endowed, and well kept. various seminaries of education, as already menThe infirmary, situated in the suburbs, contains tioned, are possessed of libraries and collections, 2000 beds, and is remarkable for the cleanliness of more or less extensive, in the various departments its management. There is a military hospital, as to which these institutions belong. also hospitals for foundlings, orphans, and aged The trade and manufactures of Vienna come

There is a work-house, a receptacle for next to be considered: and these are very considervagrants not accused of any crime, an institution for able.-60,000 individuals are calculated to find


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employment in different branches of productive in are coarse woollens, nails, paper, and wax. Limodustry. Their manufactures embrace silk, gold ges is the capital. Population in 1827, 272,350. and silver lace, ribbons, hardware goods, and phi. VIENNE, a town of France, in the department losophical instruments. The carriages of Vienna of the Isere, situated on the left bank of the Rhone. are much prized. Its porcelain works are very ex The streets are steep and narrow, but the town has tensive, as also founderies for cannon and muskets, lately undergone considerable improvements. It of the latter of which 30,000 are annually exported has a handsome cathedral, dedicated to St. Mau. from the imperial manufactory. Under these cir- rice, and containing the fine tomb of Monimorin, and cumstances, this capital must be a place of consi- that of Jerom de Villars, and two good churches, a derable trade. The exportation of its industry theatre, a lyceum, a free drawing school, and a múfurnishes cargoes too 6000 boats, and merchandise seum rich in antiquities. Vienne possesses several for nearly 2,000,000 of wagons. The Danube, interesting antiquities, among which are a square which is navigable, on both sides, forms the great building like that of Nismes, supposed to have been outlet. Were canals constructed, the commercial a Roman temple. It is called the temple of Augusimportance of Vienna would increase extremely. tus, and is 60 feet long by 40 wide. There are here Three fairs are held in the town; and the number also the remains of a theatre and amphitheatre, of mercantile houses of all kinds amounts to nearly traces of aqueducts, arcades, probably belonging a thousand.

to a triumphal arch, the pillars of an ancient RoThe climate of Vienna is variable, and the city man bridge, and a pedestal with an entablature, being on a plain, is remarkable for its humidity. supposed to have been a monument. Mosaics, reThe water is not good, and is often found to disa- lievos, and marbles occur in various parts of the gree with strangers. Rheumatism, consumption, town; and bronzes, medals, and fragments of coand gout are the prevalent diseases.

lumns and statues are frequently dug up. The manuThe character of the inhabitants only remains to factures of Vienne are woollen and linen goods, draw our attention. The number of the nobility leather, hardware, and coloured paper. Population and wealthy families render, as already hinted, 10,000. See Fisher's Travels to the Hyeres, Let. iv. many places of amusement necessary: and the and Millin's Travels, chap. XX. poor in this respect have caught the contagion. VILLA RICA, a town of Brazil, and capital of The luxury of the table is much attended to. Lite the province of Minas Gheraes, situated on a steep rature and science, notwithstanding the numerous and lofty eminence, connected with a chain of eleseminaries, are not much cultivated: music has vations, of which it is the principal. It was once a been studied with great assiduity and success, and place of great importance and wealth, but from the in pothing are the Vienese more eminent than for diminution in the produce of the mines, it retains their proficiency in this art. They are a gay, little of its former splendour. The population is thoughtless people; the domestic virtues, either by about 20,000. See Maw's Travels in Brazil, p. 171, male or female, are not much cherished. However, and our article Brazil. they strictly observe religious ordinances, and are VINCENT, ST., one of the Caribbee Islands, is free from credulity, superstition, and bigotry. The about 40 miles long and 10 broad. The island conestablished religion is the Roman Catholic; butere. tains 84,000 acres, which are well watered. The ry other form is tolerated. There are three protesto general aspect of the country is mountainous and ant churches, two Greek ones, and two synagogues. rugged, the intermediate valleys being very fertile, The number of inhabitants has been variously and consisting of a fine mould of sand and clay. stated; but it has been lately ascertained not to ex The subjects of Great Britain possess about 24,000 ceed 250,000.-(Malte Brun, vol. vii. p. 494.) acres, and nearly the same quantity is held by Cha

See the article Austria; the various books of ribs, the remainder being considered incapable of Travels connected with the subject, particularly improvement. In 1800, the island was divided into Riesbeck's Travels; Wraxall's Memoirs; Moore's four parishes, St. David's, St. Patrick's, St. AnView of Society in France, Switzerland, and Ger- drew's, and St. George's. It has only two towns, many; Russell's Tour. See also Malte Brun's Ge- Kingston, the capital, and Richmond, the other ography, vol. vii. and Alphabetisch Topographisches, places being merely villages at the landing places. by M. F. Thielen, Vienna, 1827. (T. M.) The dependent islands are Bequei, containing 3700

VIENNE, a department in the west of France. acres, Union, containing 2150 acres, Canouane, Its superficial extent is about 2800 square miles, or with 1777 acres, and Mustique, with 1200, beside 689,083 hectares. Its rivers are the Vienne, the a small island called Admiralty Bay, with a comCharente, the Dive, the Clair, and the Creuse. The modious bay. The small islets are Little Marti. soil is not good; its productions are corn, fruits, nique, Little St. Vincent, and 'Balleseau, each of potatoes, hemp, flax, and wine. The lower classes which produces a little cotton. The other produclive chiefly on chesnuts. Its minerals are iron and lions of the island are, cinnamon, maize, sesamum, marble. It has but few manufactures. Poitiers is vanilla, Chinese tallow tree, camphor gum, and stothe capital. Population in 1827, 267,670.

rax. The botanic garden, long under the manageVIENNE, UPPER, a department in the west of ment of Dr. Anderson, contains 30 acres, of which France. Ils area is about 2230 miles, or 558,078 16 are in the highest cultivation. In 1783, the island hectares. It is mountainous, producing little corn, contained 61 sugar estates, 500 acres in coffee, 200 with extensive pastures. Its minerals are marble, in cacao, 400 in cotton, 50 in indigo, and 580 in 10coal, iron, lead, and antimony. The manufactures bacco, besides what were occupied in raising planVOL. XVIII. -PART I.

2 P*

tains, maize, yams, &c. The following were the the vessel in which it is to be kept, and to keep it number of hogsheads of sugar of 13 cwts. received at a temperature from 75° to 80° in this climate, in in different years.

order to obtain vinegar. The different kinds of 1789, 6,400 hogs. 1805, 17,200 hogs. vinegar are four, wine vinegar, malt vinegar, sugar 1779, 12,120 1810, 18,000

vinegar, and wood vinegar. And some years afterwards the quantity was 20,000. Wine vinegar is made in the following manner:

St. Vincents contains an active volcano, called Le the wine, when mixed with a quantity of wine lees, Souffrier, which is the highest mountain in the is transferred from the tun into cloth sacks, placed chain which runs through the island. It first dis within a large iron-bound vat. The liquid is ex: charged lavas in 1718; in 1811 about 200 earth pressed from the sacks by pressure, and the fluid quakes were felt, but in 1812 it desolated the island thus obtained is put into large casks with a hole in by a tremendous eruption, throwing out torrents of their top, and placed upright. In summer they are lava and clouds of ashes which nearly covered the exposed to the sun, and in winter to a stove. In a island, and injured the soil to such a degree that it few days fermentation takes place. If the heat now has scarcely yet recovered from it. This explosion becomes too high, it must be lowered by coolers, was preceded, by 35 days, by the total ruin of the and the addition of a little fresh wine, as the excelcity of Carraccas, and violent oscillations of the lence of the vinegar depends on the fermenting tem ground were experienced both in the islands and on perature. The process is generally complete in a the coasts of Terra Firma. The ashes fell upon the fortnight in summer, and a month in winter. The decks of vessels above a hundred miles distant from vinegar is then run off into barrels containing sevethe island. The crater of this volcano is a circular ral chips of birch wood. In a fortnight more it will chasm, about 2000 feet up the south side of the be found clear and fit for sale. It must now, howmountain. It is about half a mile in diameter, and ever, be kept in close casks. 450 feet deep. In the centre of the crater rose a Vinegar is usually made from malt in this counconical hill, about 280 feet high, and about 200 in try. One boll of malt, masked in hot water, will diameter, richly wooded with shrubs about half yield 100 gallons of wort in less than two hours. way up, the rest of it being powdered over with When the temperature has fallen to 75°, four galvirgin sulphur to the summit. On the north and lons of the barm of beer are added. At the end of south sides of the base of the cone were two basins 36 hours, it is transferred to casks, which are laid of water, one perfectly pure, and the other impreg- on their sides, and exposed, with their bung-holes nated with alum and sulphur. The eruption began loosely covered, to the sun or to stoves. In three on the 27th April, but reached its paroxysm on the months this vinegar is ready, when it is to be used 30th. Torrents of lava rushed into the sea, and for making sugar of lead; when it is wanted, howmany houses were set on fire, and many negroes ever, for domestic use, the above liquor is put into killed, by a stream of stones and fire, which lasted upright casks, having a false cover perforated with for an hour. The population of the island is 22,000, holes, fixed about a foot from the bottom; on this including 827 whites and 7406 free people of co cover is laid a considerable quantity of rape, or the lour. West Lon. 61° 11'. North Lat. 13° 17'. refuse from the manufacturers of British wine, or

VINCI, LEONARDO DA, a celebrated Italian paint- for want of this, a quantity of low priced raisins. er, was the illegitimate son of Piero Da Vinci, a The liquid is turned into another barrel every 24 notary of the Signoria of Florence, and was born hours, in which time it has begun to grow warm. at the Castle of Vinci, in the Vale of Arno, in The vinegar is sometimes fully fermented without 1452. His love of drawing was early displayed, the rape, which is added towards the end of the and he was placed under the tuition of Verochio, a process, to give flavour. sculptor and painter. In one of his early attempts, Sugar vinegar may be made from a weak soluhe painted an angel in a style so superior to that of tion of 18 ounces of sugar to every gallon of water. his master, that Verochio ever afterwards confined Yeast and rape are next to be added, and whenever himself to sculpture. He died on the 2d May 1519, the process is complete, as the taste and flavour at Cloux, near Amboise, in the 67th year of his age. will indicate, it is to be decanted into barrels or His Treatise on Painting was translated into Eng- bottles. A momentary boiling before bottling, is lish by Mr. Rigaud in 1802, and a volume of his favourable to its preservation. miscellaneous works has been lately published. For Wood vinegar, or the pyroligneous acid, is oba full account of the life and works of this distin- tained by subjecting wood to a strong red heat, in guished painter and philosopher, we must refer the iron retorts. The best woods are oak, ash, birch, reader to our article PAINTING, Vol. XV. p. 301–303. and beech. The liquor obtained is a crude vinegar See also Essai sur les ouvrages physico-Mathema contaminated with tar, the residuary charcoal betiques de Leonard de Vinci, par J. B. Venturi, Pa- ing only one-fifth of the wood distilled. This crude ris 1797, and Carlo Amoretti's Memorie Storiche su acid is rectified by a second distillation in a copper la vita gli studi e le opere di Leonardo de Vinci, Mi- still, by which 20 gallons (out of 100 of crude acid) lano, 1804.

of a viscid tarry matter are separated. It is now a VINEGAR is the name of an acid liquor pre- transparent brown liquid, with an empyreumatic pared from wine, cider, beer, and other liquors, and smell, and a specific gravity of 1.013. When remore recently from the distillation of wood. What- distilled, saturated with quick lime, evaporated to ever be the materials from which common vinegar dryness, and greatly torrefied, the empyreumatic is to be made, it is only necessary to admit air into matter is dissipated, so that by decomposing the

calcareous salt with sulphuric acid, a pure and per should return together. He was seized, however, fectly colourless vinegar, agrceable to the taste, is with an illness at Brundusium or Tarentum, which obtained by distillation. See Dr. Ure's Dictionary cut him off, B. C. 19, in the 52d year of his age. of Chemistry, article Acid, Acetic. See also our ar. His body was conveyed, in pursuance of his request, ticle ChemisTRY, Vol. V. p. 696.

and interred on the Puteolan Way, VINE, VINEYARD, and VINERY. See our article The tomb of Virgil is still exhibited to travellers, HORTICULTURE, Vol. X. p. 537, 569-574; 585, 586. and is thus described by Eustacc: “ To ascend the

VIOLIN, an instrument of four strings, played hill of Posilipo, we turned to the right, and followed by a bow, and tuned to fifths. The date of its in a street winding as a staircase up the steep, and vention is unknown. It has not been traced higher 'terminating at a garden gate. Having entered, we than the 16th century; and in the beginning of the pursued a path through a vineyard, and descending 17th, it was hardly known in England. See Burney's a little, came to a small square building, flat roofed, History of Music, vol. i., and the Prize Essay of placed on a sort of platform on the brow of a preBagatella, entitled, Regole per la costruzione de' cipice on one side, and on the other sheltered by a violini. Padua, 1786.

superincumbent rock. An aged ilex, spreading VIRGIL, Publius VIRGILIUS MARO, a celebrated from the sides of the rock, and bending over the Roman poet, and the author of the Æneid, was born edifice, covers the roof with its ever-verdant foliage. B. C. 70, at Andes, a village. near Mantua. Ke Numberless shrubs spring around, and interwoven was educated at Cremona, Milan, and Naples, and with ivy, clothe the walls, and hang in festoons over was initiated into the epicurean philosophy by Syro. the precipice. The edifice before us was an ancient Upon the supposition, which is not improbable, tombấthe tomb of Virgil! We entered; a vaulted that his own history is given in the Eclogues under cell and two modern windows alone present themthat of Tityrus, he seems to have gone to Rome, selves to view: the poet's name is the only ornament when he was 30, to recover lands that had been of the place. No sarcophagus, no urn, and even possessed by the soldiers of Octavius and Antony. no inscription to feed the devotion of the classical Here he was introduced to Octavius and to Mecæ- pilgrim.' The epitaph, which, though not genuine, nas, and through their influence he succeeded in is yet ancient, was inscribed by order of the Duke recovering his property. When his Eclogues were of Pescolangiano, the proprietor of the place, on a finished, which was in his 32d or 34th year, he was marble slab placed on the side of the rock opposite induced by Mecænas to write the Georgics; and the entrance of the tomb, where it still remains. during the seven years which they occupied, he Every body is acquainted with it. lived at Naples. The latter years of his life were

“Mantua me genuit Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc spent in the composition of the Æneid.

Parthenope, cecini pascua, rura, duces.” Virgil was in great fayour with Augustus; and when his beautiful tribute to the memory of Mar Some authors have asserted that this is not the cellus was recited before Octavia, the affectionate tomb of Virgil. The reader will find an ample dismother sainted away at the concluding words, Et cussion of the subject in Eustace's Classical Tour Marcellus eris. In return for this pathetic cele- through Italy, p. 516-521. The general opinion bration of the virtues of her son, she is said to have is in favour of the authenticity of the tomb. given the poet ten sesterces (above £.80) for every One of the best editions of Virgil is that of Proline of the passage..

fessor Heyne, published at Leipsic in 1788. See Virgil paid a visit to Greece, where he met with the Article Æneid. Augustus at Athens. It was arranged that they




VIRGINIA, one of the states of the United States, Along the main ridge of Cumberland Mounbounded on the S. by North Carolina; S.W. by tain in common with Kentucky, to the eastTennessee; W. by Kentucky; N. W. by the State of ern and main branch of Sandy river, Ohio; N. by Pennsylvania and Maryland; N.E. by Down Sandy river by comparative courses to another section of Maryland, and E. by the Atlantic its influx into Obio river, Ocean; having outlines:

Up Ohio river opposite to the state of Ohio,

Miles. and following the bends to the western bounAlong N. Lat. 36° 30', in common with North

dary of Pennsylvania, say Carolina,

340 Along the western boundary of Pennsylvania, Along Tennessee from its extreme north-east

due south, to the extreme south-western ern angle, to the extreme western angle of

angle of that state, Virginia, at Cumberland Gap in Cumber Thence due east along the southern boundary land Mountain,

110 of Pennsylvania to the extreme north-west

ern angle of Maryland,




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