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Aggregate Pop. 1830.

15,252 16,074 14,637 13,579 18,637 11,957 8,322 9,362 11,826 3,308

Thence due south along the western boundary

Counties.
of Maryland,

40
Down the Potomac river opposite Maryland, Charlotte
to Chesapeake bay,

320 Southampton
Thence over Chesapeake bay, Pocomoke bay, Orange
and over the intervening peninsula to the

•Dinwiddie, ex. of Petersburg
Atlantic Ocean,

55 Chesterfield Along the Atlantic Ocean,

110 Lunenburg

*Town of Petersburg Having an entire outline of

1680 Stafford

Spottsylvania, ex. of Fredericksburg
These distances being measured from Tanner's Town of Fredericksburg
Map of the United States by a scale, may not be

Total of Spottsylvania county
minutely correct, but we trust are sufficiently ac-
curate for all the ordinary purposes of geography. Northampton
It may be necessary to note, that the short line over Patrick
the peninsula between the Atlantic Ocean and Henry
Chesapeake bay, and between Accomac county of Nottaway
Virginia and Worcester county of Maryland, is Brunswick
usually drawn on maps along N. Lat. 38°; it is, Henrico, excl. of Richmond city
however, actually farther north by about two min Fluvanna
utes of latitude on the ocean, and declining to the City of Richmond
southward, still strikes Pocomoke bay above N. Sussex
Lat. 38o.

Prince George
Again, the south-western boundary of Virginia King William
on the state of Tennessee, ought, and is commonly Prince Edward
supposed, to extend along N. Lat. 36° 30', but by Amelia
an error in the original survey this latter demarca Surry
tion stretches two minutes or more, of latitude, to Northumberland
the north of the curve along which it was to have Fairfax
been-extended.

King and Queen
In latitude, Virginia lies between 36° 30', and Pittsylvania
40° 37' N., and in longitude, from 1° 46' E., to York
6° 36' W. from W.C.

Louisa
The longest straight line that can be drawn in King George
Virginia, is in length 485 miles, and extends from Richmond
the north-eastern angle on the Atlantic Ocean, to Charles City
the extreme south-western on Tennessee and Ken Bedford
tucky. Measured carefully by the rhombs, the area Hanover
of Virginia comes out about 70,000 square miles; Princess Ann
therefore the mean breadth is 144 miles very nearly. Lancaster

Nature has so palpably divided Virginia into two Campbell
sections that her demarcations are obeyed in the legis. Town of Lynchburg
lation of the state, and in the taking of the decennial

Total of Campbell county
census by the general government. The following
Tables exhibit the counties of each section, with Fauquier
their aggregate population, agreeably to the census

Amherst
of 1830.

James City

New Kent
TABLE I.

Norfolk Borough
EASTERN VIRGINIA.

Franklin
Aggregate

Westmoreland
Counties.

Pop. 1830. Goochland
Madison,

9,236

Cumberland
Greensville,

7,117 Isle of Wight
Prince William,

9,330
St. George Parish,

Accomack,
Nelson,

11,254

Accomack Parish, }
Matthews

7,664

Total of Accomack county
Middlesex

4,122
Elizabeth City,

5,053 Halifax

15,134 8,641 7,395 7,100 10,130 15,767 12,737

8,221 16,060 12,720 8,367 9,812 14, 107 11,036 7,109 7,953 9, 204 11,644 26,034

5,354 16,151 6,397 6,055 5,500 20,246 16,253 9,102 4,801 15,720 4,630

{

20,350

26,086 12,071 3,838 6,458 9,814 14,911

8,396 10,369 11,690 10,517 9,109 7,547

16,656 28,034

* Dinwiddie county, including Petersburg
| Henrico county, including Richmond city
| Norfolk county, including Norfolk borough

21,901 28,797 24,806

lll

Aggregate who are deaf and dumb, of twenty-five
Counties.

Pop. 1830.
and upwards

93 Loudon

21,939 White persons included in the foregoing Essex

10,521
who are blind

215 Gloucester

10,608 White persons included in the foregoing Nansemond

11,784 who are Aliens. Foreigners not naPowhatan

8,517
turalised

363 Buckingham

18,351 Mecklenburg

20,477

TABLE III. Culpepper

24,027 Warwick

1,570 Caroline 17,760 MALES under ten years of age

74,158 Albemarle

22,618

of ten and under twenty-four 60,074 * Norfolk county, exclusive of Norfolk

of twenty-four and under thirty-six 38,403 borough

14,992

of thirty-six and under fifty-five 27,696

of fifty-five and under one hundred 11,12 1 Total, 832,980 of one hundred and upwards

125

SLAVES.

FREE WHITE PERSONS.

FREE COLOURED PERSONS.

TABLE II.

211,577 General Aggregates of Eastern Virginia. FEMALES under ten years of age

73,666

of ten and under twenty-four 58,574 MALES under five years of age

33, 143

of twenty-four and under thirof five and under ten

ty-six 26,390

36,670 of ten and under fifteen

22,527

of thirty-six and under fifty-five 24,483 of fifteen and under twenty

19,801

of fifty-five and under one hunof twenty and under thirty

dred 33,260

11,219

of one hundred and upwards 131 of thirty and under forty

20,892 of forty and under fifty

13,462 of fifty and under sixty 8,786

204,743 of sixty and under seventy

4,853

Total number of slaves of seventy and under eighty 1,928

416,320 of eighty and under ninety

571
of ninety and under one hundred
of one hundred and upwards

MALES under ten years

of
age

7,118 of ten and under twenty-four 5,240 185,713

of twenty-four and under thirty-six 3,047

of thirty-six and under fifty-five 2,302 FEMALES under five years of

31,391

of fifty-five and under one hundred 1,472 of five and under ten

25,373
of one hundred and upwards

24 of ten and under fifteen

22,361 of fifteen and under twenty 22,438

19, 203 of twenty and under thirty 35,287 of thirty and under forty 21,483 FEMALES under ten years of age

6,891 of forty and under fifty

14,049

of ten and under twenty-four 6,172 of fifty and under sixty

9,303

of twenty-four and under thir-
of sixty and under seventy

5,193
ty-six

3,960 of seventy and under eighty

2,295

of thirty-six and under fifty-five 2,973 of eighty and under ninety - 622

of fifty-five and under one hunof ninety and under one hundred 133

dred

1,783 of one hundred and upwards 14

of one hundred and upwards 23

87 13

age

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GINIA.

of fourteen and under twenty-five

34

TABLE V. Slaves and coloured persons included in the foregoing who are deaf and dumb,

Aggregate of Western Virginia. of twenty-five and upwards

FREE WHITE PERSONS. Slaves and coloured persons included in the foregoing who are blind

MALES under five years of age 393

32,650 of five and under ten

25,415 of ten and under fifteen

20,760 TABLE IV.

of fifteen and under twenty

17,146

of twenty and under thirty Aggregate of the counties of Virginia W. of the Blue

27,651

of thirty and under forty Ridge, or as usually designated WESTERN VIR.

15,647 of forty and under fifty

9,919 of fifty and under sixty

6,475 Augusta, North

9,143
of sixty and under seventy

4,118 Augusta, South

10,783
of seventy and under eighty

1,746 Total of Augusta county

19,926
of eighty and under ninety

537 Alleghany

2,816

of ninety and under one hundred 97 Brooke

7,04
of one hundred and upwards

13 Bath

4,002 Berkley 10,518

162, 174 Bottetourte

16,354 Cabell

5,884 FEMALES under five years of age 31,020 Frederick, East

14,100
of five and under ten

24,591 Frederick, West

11,946
of ten and under fifteen

19,575 Total of Frederick county

26,046

of fifteen and under twenty 18,041 Greenbriar

9,006
of twenty and under thirty

26,757 Giles

5,274
of thirty and under forty

14,973 Grayson

7,675
of forty and under fifty

9,701 Harrison, East

10,133
of fifty and under sixty

6,144 Harrison, West

4,589
of sixty and under seventy

3,572 Total of Harrison county

14,722

of seventy and under eighty 1,552 Hampshire

11,279
of eighty and under ninety-

476 Hardy

6,798

of ninety and under one hundred 55 Jefferson

12,927
of one hundred and upwards

14 Kenhawa

9,326 Lewis 6,241

156,471 Logan

3,680 Lee

Total number of free white persons 6,461

318,645 Monongalia, East

6,688 Monongalia, West

7,368 White persons included in the foregoing Total of Monongalia county

14,056 who are deaf and dumb, under fourteen Monroe 7,798 years of age

62 Montgomery

12,306 White persons included in the foregoing Morgan

2,694 who are deaf and dumb, of fourteen and Mason

6,534
under twenty-five

54 Nicholas

3,346 White persons included in the foregoing Ohio

15,584

who are deaf and dumb, of twenty-five Preston 5,144 and upwards

76 Pendleton

6,271 White persons included in the foregoing Pocahontas

2,542
who are blind

140 Randolph

5,000 White persons included in the foregoing Russell

6,714 who are Aliens. . Foreigners not na. Rockingham 20,683 turalized

426 Rockbridge

14, 244 Scott

5,724

TABLE VI. Shenandoah, East

8,327 Shenandoah, West

11,423 Total of Shenandoah county

19,750 MALES under ten years of

age

9,842 Tyler

4,104

of ten and under twenty-four 8,843 Tazewell

5,749

of twenty-four and under thirty-six 4,786 Washington

15,614

of thirty-six and under fifty-five 2,987 Wythe

12,163

of fifty-five and under one hundred 1,034 Wood

6,429
of one hundred and upwards

8

SLAVES.

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FEMALES under ten years of age

9,541 the head of tide-water to the distinct chains of the of ten and under twenty-four 8,347 Appalachian system; and the third, the western or oftwenty-four and under thirty-six 4,257 mountainous section. We might indeed divide the of thirty-six and under fifty-five 2,723 state into four physical sections, by making a westof fifty-five and under one hundred 1,056 ern hilly section contiguous to the Ohio river, but of one hundred and upwards

the mountain chains are distinct so near the west

ern border or Ohio river, as to justify including 25,937 that region in the mountainous part.

These natural sections in their outlines and feaTotal number of slaves

53,437 tures, are so very distinct, as to be, as we have

already remarked, recognised in the legislation of FREE COLOURED PERSONS.

the state. MALES under ten years of age

Comparatively there are few and only confined

1,118 of ten and under twenty.four

tracts of Virginia actually level. Such character

886 of twenty-four and under thirty-six

of surface is restricted to the two counties of North

499 of thirty-six and under fifty-five

ampton and Accomac, on the Eastern shore, and

419 of fifty-five and under one hundred 259

southward of the Chesapeake bay and James river, of one hundred and upwards

to the counties of Princess Anne, Norfolk and 3

Nansemond, with an aggregate area of 2200 square 3,184

miles, or less than the 31st part of the whole area

of the state. Westward from Chesapeake bay, the FEMALES under ten years of age

country gradually rises into hill and dale, though

1,111 of ten and under twenty-four

some flat and even marshy land skirts the wide

859 of twenty-four and under thirty-six 541

mouths of the rivers, which are discharged into of thirty-six and under fifty-five

either the Atlantic Ocean or Chesapeake bay. Vir

406 of fifty-five and under one hundred 241 ginia and Maryland occupy the central part of that of one hundred and upwards

physical section of the Atlantic slope of the United

States, so remarkable for deep and wide rivers. 3, 159

Except, nevertheless, in extent, greater depth and relative position, Chesapeake bay differs in nothing

essential froni Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds to Total number of free coloured persons 6,343

the south, and Delaware bay to the north. In VirTotal aggregate

378,425

ginia and Maryland, the confluents of the Chesa.

peake seem to imitate that great recipient, and PoSlaves and coloured persons included in

comoke, Nantikoke, Choptank and Chester rivers the foregoing who are deaf and dumb,

on the east, and James, York, Rappahannoc, Potounder fourteen years of age

11 mac, Patuxent and Patapsco on the west, widen into Slaves and coloured persons included in

expansive bays before their final discharge into the foregoing who are deaf and dumb,

their common recipient. of fourteen and under twenty-five

7 These minor bays become gradually more shal. Slaves and coloured persons included in

low, and more confined in width approaching the the foregoing who are deaf and dumb,

head of tide-water, but they all retain the distinctive of twenty-five and upwards

6 character of bays, as far as the ocean tides peneSlaves and coloured persons included in

trate inland. Below the head of the tides there are the foregoing who are blind

45 36 counties, comprising an area of 9,989 square

miles, or about two-thirteenths of Virginia. This Measuring the respective counties by the scale section is that designated alluvial, but departing from a map, and forming an aggregate area from from the inner margin and proceeding towards the the parts, does not yield a surface equal to 70,000 Atlantic, it is evident that the respective extremes square miles, the surface given as that of Virginia were formed at very great difference in time. The in the first part of this article; but the discrepancy primitive rock is only laid bare where traversed by arises from fractional loss in each county. If, how- ihe rivers, and in the intermediate spaces the hills ever, we take the reduced area of the counties as very gradually merge into level planes towards the usually measured on maps, the difference may stand as an equivalent for the uninhabitable tracts occu The Blue Ridge traverses Virginia, 260 miles in pied by the mountain chains.

a general direction from south-west to north-east,

and except where traversed by Roanoke and James Virginia is perhaps, of all the states of the United rivers, is a continuous ridge, and it is also in all its States, the one whose natural features are most range in Virginia a county limit. Falling from contrasted. Similar to Maryland and North Ca. this finely delineated chain, is an inclined plane, rolina, Virginia is subdivided into three very dis- containing 15,386 square miles, terminated by the tinct physical sections. First, the eastern, or sea head of the Atlantic tides. This truly beautiful sand alluvial section below the head of the Atlantic section, if we merely regard the fall of water, has a tides. Second, the middle or hilly section, from declivity from about 300 to 500 feet, but the descent

ocean.

of the rivers gives but a defective idea of the slope slope drained eastwardly through the Blue Ridge in the arable soil; which latter, towards the Blue by James and Roanoke rivers. The extreme southRidge, rises in many places to at least 1000 feet ern part falls to the north-westward, and gives above the ocean level. The face of nature, though descent to New River, or the higher part of Great exhibiting little of grandeur, is rich and pleasing Kenhawa. We thus discover that this table land in the ever varying outline of hill, valley and river is partly on the Atlantic slope and partly on the scenery. On the higher extreme, beside the ele. Ohio Valley; and that the inflected line that segant back ground of the Blue Ridge, other detached parates the sources of James and Roanoke of the mountain chains rise, and give intimation that the former, from those of Great Kenhawa of the solid structure of the country is Appalachian, and latter river system, passes the mountain valley obthat the outer ridges or chains of that system in- liquely. fluence the great bends of the rivers. This moun. Politically the Great Valley of Virginia is subtain influence is seen in the courses of Roanoke, divided into 17 counties, and containing 13,072 James, Rappahannoc and Potomac rivers.

square miles; each county contains within a small Between ihe head of tide-water and Blue Ridge fraction of 770 square miles. The aggregate popuare comprised 29 counties of Virginia, and 15,386 lation is 205,818, or a little above 15 to the square square miles. Taking the two eastern sections mile; but of these the whites comprise upwards of together, we have a surface of 27, 190 square miles, three-fourths. comprising 65 counties, or not quite 420 square Passing the table land, between Blue Ridge and miles to the average of the counties. This com

Alleghany mountains, brings us on the Ohio secbined extent is the region denominated Eastern tion of Virginia. The extreme length of this westVirginia, and the population of which by the cen ern slope is within a small fraction of 300 miles, sus of 1830, is represented by Tables II. and III. from the northern boundary of Tennessee, to the On this part of Virginia the white population is extreme northern angle of Brooke county; the greatwithin a small fraction of 14 to the square mile; the est breadth 135 miles over the Kenhawa valley, but slaves and free coloured united, very near 17 to the both extremes being narrow, the mean width is about square mile; and the aggregate of all classes, within 94 miles; area 28,337 square miles. The surface a small fraction of 30 to the square mile.

is in the far greater part mountainous or very hilly. The third or Great Valley section, is in many The chains of the Appalachian system stretch over respects the most remarkable of the physical por- it very nearly parallel to the general course of Ohio tions of Virginia. Lying between the Blue Ridge river, in that part of that stream which bounds and the main Appalachian chains, and extending Virginia on the north-west side. The soil is as from the great bend of Potomac between Harper's varied in quality as the surface is in feature, as Ferry and Hancock's town, about 300 miles to the every grade of fertility and of sterility may be found, northern border of Ashe county, North Carolina, the latter, however, greatly the prevailing characand embracing 13,072 square miles, the mean The elevation of the water at the junction of breadth is 43 miles very nearly. This valley, as the Ohio and Great Kenhawa being 533 feet above it is called, is a real mountain table land. By re the ocean level, and that point being only about 40 ference to Tables III. and IV., Article UNITED miles above the extreme lowest point of Western STATES, page 240 of this volume, the reader will Virginia at the mouth of the Great Sandy river, we perceive that there is a difference of from 300 to 1400 may regard all the land surface of the Ohio section feet between the relative elevation along the oppo as rising above 500 feet. The relative oceanic elesite sides of Blue Ridge. The tables referred vation of Wheeling is 634 feet; therefore the Ohio to, expose also another remarkable phenomenon, river as a base to ihe great inclined plane, and as a that the Great Valley of Virginia rises from little recipient for the water of the western section of Virmore than 300 feet along the Potomac, to upwards ginia, forms in itself a deep valley, lying at a mean of 2000 feet on the opposite extreme on North Ca- of upwards of 560 feet above the Atlantic Ocean, rolina.

or on a level with Lake Erie, about mid-course The surface of the Great Virginia Valley is in along Virginia. an especial manner broken and diversified, and in The dividing ridge between the sources of the every part containing zones of highly productive Ohio confluents and those of the Atlantic Ocean, is soil. It is indeed the continuation of the Kittatinny the apex of the two opposing planes before us, havvalley of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and contains ing its highest elevation in the mountain valleys, along the Blue Ridge a continuation of that im- from which rise on one side the sources of James mense limestone formation which, in fact, in an and Roanoke rivers, and on the other those of Great opposite direction, extends over New Jersey, New Kenhawa. On the region from whence these rivers York and Connecticut into Massachusetts. The rise, the mean height of the farms exceeds 1600 feet. declivity of that part of this lengthened valley which From these elevated valleys the Ohio sources flow is contained in Virginia, presents some peculiar like radii from a common centre. The different features. The northern and nearly one half declines branches of Monongahela rise in Lewis and Ranto the north-eastward towards the Potomac, and is dolph counties, and flowing northwardły over Harthere drained by the Shenandoah, Cacapon and rison, Monongalia and Preston, and receiving nuSouth Branch of Potomac. Southward from the merous confluents, continue northward to meet sources of Potomac and Shenandoah, is a middle those of Alleghany, and form the Ohio at Pittsburg.

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