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From the opposite extreme flow the higher sources' dated April 10th, 1606, for that part of the coast of Tennessee, whilst from the central part issue the extending from N. Lat. 34° to 45°.

This great fountains of Great Sandy, Great Kenhawa, Little zone of 14 degrees of latitude, was granted to two Kenhawa and numerous creeks, all finding a com-' companies under the relative names of North Virmon recipient in the Ohio.

ginia and South Virginia. South Virginia was From ihis rapid outline of the Ohio section of given to the London Company, and North Virginia Virginia, it must be obvious, that the climate of to the Plymouth Company. the whole must vary materially from that of similar The London Company effected a settlement April latitudes on the Atlantic coast; and again, from 1607, at Jamestown on Powhatan, or as since called difference of relative level the climate on the high James River, and thus commenced not only Vir. Appalachian valleys must be very different from ginia but the United States. So vague, however, that on the greatly lower and locally deep ravine of and injudicious were the views of the London ComOhio river.

pany, that after four years of wretchedness and disThe difference of temperature alluded to is so cord, the settlers broke up their establishment in evidently great, that the writer of this article has 1610, and had actually embarked for Europe, but seen repeatedly, early vegetation far advanced at were restored to their abandoned houses by the Wheeling, when little or no appearance of spring timely arrival of Lord de la War. met the eye along the dividing ridge of the waters. In 1612 the second Charter was granted, and in

All Virginia westward from Blue Ridge, com 1619 the first legislature of Virginia was convened; prising an area of 41,409 square miles, is the region and in 1620 Africans were brought into the colony of Virginia represented in the census tables by by a Dutch ship and sold as slaves. Nos. 4, 5 and 6. By reference to these tabular A state of natural distrust between the English views it will be seen that the aggregate population, colonists and the native Indians, was coeval with 1830, was 378,425, or a small fraction above 9 to the settlement of Virginia, which, in 1622, eventuat. the square mile. Of the preceding were whites, ed in a massacre of the former by the latter, in 318,645, or about 7} to the square mile, whilst the which 347 persons perished. To the absurd and coloured class, free and slaves; amounted to only arbitrary government of the London Company was 32,280, or about 8 per cent of the whole.

thus added Indian warfare. The vexatious meaFrom the preceding elements we find the density sures of the Company were arrested in 1624 by in. of population in Virginia inverse to distance from terference of the crown. The colony was made the Atlantic, but we find also, that as the aggregate royal and ruled by commission. The royal goverpopulation becomes more scattered, that the rela nors were little if any more wise or steady in their iive number of whites increase, until on the large administration, than had been the agents of the western section they amount to 92 per cent of the London Company. To these petty tyrants there whole.

was one exception in Sir William Berkeley. This

nobleman ruled with wisdom and moderation, and Political Geography, History, &-c.—The first char. in 1729, restored the legislature of the colony by ter of Virginia was granted by Queen Elizabeth in calling an assembly of the burgesses. 1583, and made out in favour of Sir Humphry As an English colony, Virginia was royal in its Gilbert. This first English adventurer to form a features, and imparted congenial feelings to the incolony in America, perished at sea in the attempt; habitants. In the long revolutionary struggle in but in the ensuing year, Sir Walter Raleigh, a England from 1642 to 1660, the Virginians sided maternal brother of Sir Humphry, obtained a re- with the royal party. Compelled by force to subnewal of the original patent. By both instruments mit to parliamentary authority, they seized the first the general name of Virginia was imposed on the favourable moment to act upon their real sentiAtlantic coast of North America. The term so ments, and Charles II. was acknowledged in Virvery extensive as to embrace the whole extent from ginia before he was in England. The restoration Florida indefinitely to the north, was gradually of a pageant was alike a failure in both countries; restricted to its existing limits.

but weak and defenceless the colony of Virginia Sir Walter Raleigh's patent was dated May 25th, suffered most, and the monopolising spirit of the 1584, and under it a colony was planted on Roanoke, mother country was felt in its effects upwards of a which ultimately failed. In August 1587, the gov- century,-to the revolution in 1775. ernor sailed to England in search of supplies, and The Church of England was established by law the few persons left behind were never again heard in 1662, which, with exactions in trade, large grants of; they were, it is most probable, massacred by of land to royal favourites, and the caprice of royal the savages. The patent was itself subsequently governors, excited and fostered a resistance which vacated by the attainder of Raleigh.

prepared the public mind to meet the catastrophe The war with Spain and the attempted invasion which produced the independence of the United of England in 1588, and the declining age of Eliza- States. beth, prevented such then merely speculative al As early as 1732, the future hero of the United tempts during the residue of her reign, but early States was born in Virginia, and had become mature in that of James I., Mr. Hackluyt revived the in in years when his services were demanded to give tention of settlement on the North American coast, the kings and people of the earth the most salutary and himself and others obtained by petition, a patent lesson they have either ever received. In the coloVOL XVIII.- Part I.

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nial war, commenced in 1775, George Washington, second branch of the executive department consists and the Virginians generally were truly distinguish- of a council of state, elected by joint ballot of the ed, and in consummating the revolution the part two houses, and consisting of three members; term acted by that state was glorious in the true intent three years, and one member vacating his seat anof the term.

nually. The senior councillor is lieutenant govSince the revolution, no great event particular to Virginia occurred until October 1829, when a con The judiciary is composed of a supreme court of vention met to revise the constitution.

appeals and superior and inferior courts. Judges The first constitution of Virginia was adopted the of the court of appeals and superior courts elected . 5th July 1776, but the then existing settlements by the legislature in joint ballot. Term of office were in great part east of the Alleghany chain, and during good behaviour, or until removed by a were even thin on the Great Valley contiguous to concurrent vote of both houses of the legislature, and west from Blue Ridge. As the population two-thirds of the members present voting for his gradually extended to the Ohio, the provisions of removal. the first constitution were regarded by the western For staple productions and Internal Improvesettlers as partial and oppressive. After many abor- ments, see article United States. tive attempts, a convention met, and on the 14th of In making up this article we did not deem it January 1830, reported the existing constitution, within the scope of our duty to make any remarks which was ratified by the people and is now in ope on the respective colours or castes of its population, ration.

but as the legislature has itself acted upon the quesThat most important of all rights, the right of tion of removal and abolition as regards its slaves suffrage is secured by very complex provisions. and free people of colour, we place on record the The right of voting is extended to every white male. following Preamble and Resolution, reported by citizen of the commonwealth and resident therein, a committee, and adopted by the house of delegates who has attained the age of 21 years and upwards, in January 1832, by a vote of 64 to 59.. and who would have been entitled to vote under Preamble. - Profoundly sensible of the great the former constitution; or if owner of a freehold evils arising from the condition of the coloured popof 25 dollars value; or if the holder of a joint inte- ulation of this commonwealth; induced by humanity rest in a freehold to the amount of 25 dollars; or as well as policy, to an immediate effort for the rewho has a life estate in, or title in reversion to land moval in the first place, as well of those who are of 50 dollars value, and had been in full possession now free as of such as may hereafter become free; of such an estate or reversionary title, six months believing that this effort, while it is in just accorbefore the election at which he offers to vote; or dance with the sentiments of the community on the who shail own and be in the actual occupation of a subject, will absorb all our present means; and that leasehold, estate, have put such title on record, a further action for the removal of the slaves should two months before he shall offer to vote; original await a more definite development of public opinterm at least five years, and rent value 200 dollars; ion, or who has been a housekeeper and head of a family Resolved, as the opinion of this committee, that twelve months before offering to vote; and shall have it is inexpedient for the present, to make any legispaid a state tax within the preceding year.

lative enactments for the abolition of slavery." The legislative power is vested in a Senate and On the 28th of the same month, Mr. Broadnax House of Delegates, who together bear the style of from the Select Committee on Slaves and Free Ne“General Assembly of Virginia.” The House of groes, reported a bill for the removal of free negroes, Delegates consists of 134 members, chosen annually or such as may become free, and are willing to go and apportioned as follows. Thiriy-six from tide to some place beyond the limits of the United water district; 42 from that above tide-water and States; this bill excludes coercion, except as to below Blue Ridge; 25 from the third or mountain free negroes who remain in the state.contrary to district, and 31 from that of Ohio or the western the law of 1806. The bill as amended, and finally district. Senate 32 members, 19 from the eastern passed by the House of Delegates, by a vote of 79 and 13 from the western side of the Blue Ridge: the to 41, appropriates 35,000 dollars for 1832, and senators elected for four years, and one-fourth going 90,000 for 1833, for the purposes above-mentioned out of office annually.

-the place of removal left to the discretion of a The apportionment of the relative numbers of the central board, to consist of the Governor, Treasmembers of both houses to take place in 1841, and urer and Auditor ex officio, who have power to apdecennially afterwards, but the ultimate numbers of point agencies at Norfolk, Petersburg, and other the senators limited to 36, and of the delegates to places. 150.

This bill, after passing the House of Delegates Executive power is vested in a governor, elected by so respectable a majority, has been indefinitely · for four years by a joint vote of both houses of the postponed in Senate, by a vote of 18 to 14; and thus legislature, and ineligible for the next three years the whole subject rests for the present. after the expiration of his term of service. The

VISION. See Optics, Vol. XIV. p. 749. a mile long, very narrow, and of such a sandy na

UIST. Under the name Uist, may be compre- turc, that it is literally in danger of being blown hended a large portion of that range of the He- away by the wind. The latter is three miles long, and brides going under the appellation of the Long Is- half a mile broad, and of a soil partly sandy, and land. It may be divided into North Uist, Benbecu- partly black, and yielding tolerable crops of barley la, and South Uist, which, with their smaller is. and pasture. Grimsay, also an island at high walands, are all politically attached to Inverness-shire. ter, lies between North Uist and Benbecula; it is

North Uist is a parish by itself. It is bounded two miles long, and covered with heath, but is very on the N.N.E. by a sound of a mile broad, dividing valuable for its kelp shores. it from the isiand of Berneray; on the E.S. E. by a Benbecula, lying to the south, is isolated from channel denominated the Litile Minch, dividing it North Uist, only by a shallow sound, fordable at low from the Isle of Sky; on the S. S. W. by a strand water; it is divided from South Uist by a strait se. overflowed by the sea at high water, which divides ven miles broad. This island is ten miles in circumit from Benbecula; and on the W.N.W. by the ference; its western coast is low, but its castern Western ocean. It is about twenty miles in length side is hilly. from north to south, and from twelve to eighteen

The island of South Uist is about twenty-seven miles in breadth. Almost the only cultivated parts miles in length from north to south, and from seven of the island are those on the west and north coasts, to nine broad. The channel called the Little Minch, which are low and level for nearly a mile and a half on the east, separates it from Arissag and Ardnainland. In favourable seasons, these parts yield murchan on the main land; and it is divided from luxuriant crops of bear. The soil nearest the sea Barra, lying to the south and west, by a sound is sandy, and between that and the moor is a thin eight or nine miles broad. The soil on the western black ground, covering either a hard gravel or so coast is light, sandy, and almost rendered useless lid rock, interspersed in some places with flats and · by the constant storms from the west; for although meadows. In winter the grass entirely disappears, there are fine fields of natural grass here in sumso that cattle are then fed, partly on straw, and mer, many of these spots are covered in winter by partly on sea-weed. The rest of the country con drifted sand, so that not a trace' of verdure is to be sists of a barren, soft, deep, moory soil, and hills seen for many months. Farther inland, there is one of no great height covered with heath. The fresh continued assemblage of swamps and lakes: still water lakes are extremely numerous; many of them more to the eastward there are high mountains, coare large, and contain rocks and islands. So nu vered with heath, but with verdure enough intermerous are the shoals on the western coast, that it mixed to pasture cattle, horses, sheep, and goats, is inaccessible even to small boats, excepting in during the summer and autumnal months. The very fine weather. The east coast is bold and rocky, natural harbours are on the east coast, and are called and much indented by inlets of the sea, many of Loch Skiport, Loch Enort, and Loch Boisdale: they them forming safe and commodious natural har are well adapted for fishing stations. South Uist bours. That farthest to the north is called Cheese and Benbecula form one parish. Bay; it is of easy access from the S.E., and vessels Kelp is the most important produce of Uist, the may ride safely in it at all seasons of the year. Loch manufacture of which was totally unknown until Maddie is a well known harbour, much frequented the year 1735, when it was imperfectly introduced by ships trading to the Baltic. It extends five or by one Rory M’Donald, who had been invited from six miles into the country, and is subdivided by Ireland to make experiments. of this valuable the great number of islands it contains, into several commodity, more than 1200 tons were made per smaller havens. Lochevort lies a few miles farther annuin in North Uist alone. All the inhabitants, south, and is of the same extent, but, from its vicinity with the exception of the principal taxman, and a to Loch Maddie, it is less frequented. More to the few tradesmen, were employed in the preparation south still are the harbours of Rueneva and Kellin. of it from the 10th of June to the 10th of August.

A league to the northward of North Uist, lies In South Uist not less, on an average, than 1100 Berneray, a fertile island of a mile and a half long. tons were manufactured every year. Cattle constiWithin it lies Orinsay, an island only at high wa tute the next valuable production of Uist, of which ter; it is half a mile long, of a sandy soil, but fertile about 750 head are annually exported. The total in good seasons. Three miles westward lies Val- number of horses is probably about 2400, which is lay, likewise insulated at high water only, and, very large, considering the low state of agricul. when the tide is out, separated from the shore by ture; but they are of very diminutive size, and a a sand two miles broad. It is a mile and a half great proportion of them are employed in the translong, not half a mile broad, and of a sandy soil, fer portation of sea-weed for the manufacture of kelp; tile in corn and grass in a good season, but very indeed, a good many horses are imported from Sky unproductive in bad years. Two leagues to the and Lewis. There are about 12,000 sheep in Uist, northward of North Uist lies Heisker, about two of a very small breed, covered with very fine wool, miles long, but very narrow. It is valuable for its of which about 15 fleeces go to a stone. Goats are kelp shores alone; yielding very little grass, and not numerous. but a small quantity of corn. Kirkbost and Ileray There has been no improvement upon agricultustretch pretty closely along the west coast of North ral implements for near a century. The plough in Uist, being separated from it, and from one another, general use is little known beyond the Long Island. by a sand overflowed at high water. The former is It is drawn by four small horses, has one handle, Vol. XVIII. Part I.

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held in the right hand of the man who guides it, The basking shark (squalus maximus), is often killwho at the same tinie uses a lash with his left hard. ed on these coasts by the inhabitants, for the valuaAnother machine is drawn by one horse in front of ble oil produced by the liver. this plough, having a crooked iron. like a reaping Druidical circles are numerous all over Uist. hook attached to it, to cut the ground, so that the Danish signal forts, built without cement, are very plough may turn it up with greater facility. The frequently met with: some of these are situated on number of men and horses requisite to keep this rocks in the middle of the fresh water lakes, and plough going, makes it very expensive; for it re are accessible from the shore by a causeway raised quires one man to direct the plough, another to almost to a level with the water. lead the horses, one to direct the iron for cutting The island of Eriskay lies a little to the south of the ground before the plough, and another to lead the extremity of South Uist; and a little to the S. the horse harnessed to it. Some of the gentlemen and W. is Barray or Barra, (see that article,) with farmers have discarded these rude machines, and its attendant islands Flodday, Hellesay, Gigay, have introduced the improved plough; but the most Watersay, Sanderay, Pabbay, Mengelay, and Bercommon mode of turning up the ground, is with an ' neray, all inhabited, and from one to three miles in instrument called the cascroim or crooked spade. extent. The productions of these islands are in Harvest generally begins about September, and is every respect similar to those of Barra and Uist. completed about the end of October. They begin See Macdonald's Agricultural Survey of the Hebri. to manure the ground early in winter, continuing bes, and Macculloch's Description of the Western at this occupation until seed time. On the patches Islands. of arable ground set apart to them from year to VITRIFIED FORTS. In our article Forts, year, they raise crops of barley, oats, and potatoes. Vitrified, giving an account of these singular reIn years of scarcity, the people live much on the mains, we promised to state in this part of our dried roots of the potentilla anserina, growing in all work, whether any thing new had been discovered, the pastures in great plenty. The number of carts throwing additional light on the subject equally inin Uist is very trifling; the common mode of trans- teresting and obscure. We were surprised by what portation is on horses' backs.

has been published by Dr. M'Culloch since our arFrom the constant employment of the people in ticle appeared, because we could not have believed kelp-making, and in cultivating with great toil the it possible, that any author could allow statements little spots of ground, the fisheries on the coasts, to go before the world which could be so very easily which might be rendered such a source of wealth contradicted. A long time did not elapse when to the inhabitants, are in a great measure abandon- Sir G. S. Mackenzie, to whom Dr. M. very pointed to adventurers from other parts of the kingdom. edly, though not very correctly alluded, published

The population in North Uist may be widely es a letter to Sir Walter Scott on the subject, in timated at about 4000, who are almost all protest- which, ironically we presume, he endeavoured to ants. In South Uist, there are about 5000 inhabit- prove that Dr. M. knew nothing of his theory. In anis, of which latter number about five-sixths are this letter we find not only an exposure of Dr. Roman Catholics. The people are in general sober, M'Culloch's misrepresentations of what was stated industrious, and acute, and so full of curiosity, as in our former article, every word of which in reto be inquisitive to a degree bordering on imperti- gard to fact has been amply confirmed, but some nence, or at least having that appearance to stran additional information. Since our last article was gers. They are for the most part honest and peace. written, we visited Barryhill in Strathmore. There able; all their little quarrels are determined before are no vitrifications on the summit, only the remains the baron bailie, with whose decisions they remain of a rampart of loose stones, and of divisions within perfectly satisfied. Gaelic is the language generally the area. But it is remarkable that vitrified stones, spoken.

similar in all respects to those sound elsewhere, are The climate of Uist is so variable, that it is not to be seen below. The stone of the hill is sand. uncommon to have frost, snow, sleet, and deluges stone, of which the defences of the upper area are of rain, all in the course of a few hours: wet wea constructed, but the vitrified masses are primitive ther however predominates.

rock. The hill of Dunsinane, or Macbeth's Castle, Little or nothing is as yet known of the minera in the same quarter, is a vitrified sort. It has been logy or botany of these islands.

There are no reported to us by a gentleman who visited Dun trees, and even bushes will not rise higher than the Sniochan, that Dr. M'Culloch's account of it is alwall which protects them. Game of all kinds together incorrect. A great number of hill forts abound, as well as all sorts of sea fowl; birds of have been discovered, some with and some without prey are also numerous, particularly ravens (corvus vitrifications, on the Beauly, and the Glasswater in corax), which at particular seasons come in such Inverness-shire, by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, as deflocks, that they literally cover the country. The scribed in his letter above referred to. One in fresh water lakes are full of remarkably fine trout Ross-shire on the Ord bill of Kes'sock was subse(salmo fario). The sea fish are herrings (clupea quently discovered by Mr. George Anderson, seharengus), ling (gadus molva), cod (gadus mor cretary to the Northern Institution. This is dehua), mackerel (scomber scomber), turbot (pleuro- fended by a mass of loose stones, not vitrified, nectes maximus), skate (raia batis), and flounders while the melted masses are on the slope of the (pleuronectes flesus); also great variety of shell fish. summit, where it is evident they could not have

been intended as ramparts. Vitrified masses have into the Hudson river nearly opposite the town of been recently found by Dr. John Home on the hill Rhinebeck in Duchess county. of Cowdenknows near Earlstoun. At the request The Rondout, or northwestern branch of Walof Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Mr. Fraser of Lovai di- kill, rises in the eastern side of Sullivan and westrected the summit of the hill of Dun Lion to be ex ern of Ulstcr, unites with the Walkill in the latter. amined by making a cut across it. Charcoal and The Esopus creek rises in the northwestern angle burnt bones of ruminating animals were found in of Ulster, and flowing first to the north westward, considerable quantities, but nothing else that seem- directly towards the Walkill, until reaching within ed to throw any light on this curious subject. One two or threç miles of the junction of the latter with additional argument against Lord Woodhouselee's the Rondout.

the Rondout. Thence the Esopus bends nearly at theory is found in the fact of the ramparts of loose right angles, and assuming a northeastern course unvitrified stones, appearing at what we suppose to continues that direction to its entrance into the have been the entrance, or least defensible part. Hudson at Saugerties. This, probably, would be the first to have been set Though amid groups and chains of mountains, a fire to, had it been constructed of sand stone. continuous valley extends from the Delaware river Some further discoveries must be made before any along the valley of the Nevesink, and along the thing approaching to freedom from objection can Rondout and Esopus to the Hudson. It is along be offered. We must, therefore, still refer to the this remarkable vale that now extends the Hudquestions proposed at the conclusion of our former son and Delaware canal. article. See Letter to Sir Walter Scott, Bart., con Advancing from the Delaware, this canal extends taining Observations on Vitrified Forts, fc. by Sir to the northeastward, entire length 64 miles; rising G. S. Mackenzie; published by Waugh & Innes, from the Delaware 80 feet, and falling from the Edinburgh, 1824; and the article Forts, Vitrified. summit level 535 feet to tide water in Hudson. VITRIOL. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V.

The course of the Hudson and Delaware canal in VITRUVIUS, M. Pollio, a celebrated writer on Ulster, demonstrates the peculiar structure of the architecture, is supposed to have lived in the reigns country. Leaving the summit level, between the of Julius Cæsar and Auguştus. Formia is believed sources of some creeks of Nevesink, and those of to have been his birth-place. His work on archi. Rondout, it thence follows the latter to near Momtecture was translated into English by Mr. Newton bacus. Here it is taken from the valley of Walin 1791; but the most magnificent edition is that kill into that of Esopus, and again along the latter which was some years ago published by W. Wil to near Kingston, where it is returned into the valkins, Jun., F.R.S. in two parts, royal folio. ley of Walkill, and down the latter to its final junc

tion with the Hudson at Eddyville.

The Hudson and Delaware canal may be regardULSTER, county of New York, bounded S. by ed as continued in the Lackawaxen canal, and formOrange; S.W. and W. by Sullivan; N. W. by Dela- ing a navigable connexion between the Delaware ware county; N. by the Catsberg chain separating and Hudson rivers, and into the rich coal district of it from Greene; and E. by Hudson river separating Pennsylvania on the heads of Lackawaxen and it from Duchess. The outline is rather irregular, Tunkhannoc rivers. but the mean length from north to south is about By the post list of 1831, there were 24 post offices 40 miles, whilst the mean breadth is near 30; in Ulster. These were at Kingston, the county the area 1200 square miles. Extending in Lat. seat, and at Accord, Brunswyck, Daslville Falls, from 41° 35' to 42° 09', and in Lon. from 2° Ellenville, Esopus, Lattintown, Liberty ville, Malog' to 3o E. from W.C. The general declivity of den, Marbletown, Marlborough, Milton, Modena, this very diversified country is from the west to New Palız, New Paltz Landing, Plattekill, Roseneast towards the Hudson valley. Except the ad- dale, Saugerties, Shandaken, Shawangunk, Tuthill, jacent.county Greene, there is perpaps no other Ulsterville, Wawarsing and Woodstock. county in the United States which differs so much Kingston, the seat of justice, stands on a plain in relative height and variety of feature as Ulster. between the Esopus and Walkill creeks, two miles Though on the northern side, the boundary does westward from Rhinebeck ferry, by post road 93 not reach the high summits of the Catsbergs, still miles very nearly due north from the city of New many parts of Ulster must rise to at least 1500 feet York, and 58 miles a very little west of south from above tide water in Hudson.

Albany. N. Lat. 410 55', and Lon. 3° E. from W.C. The surface is every where most delightfully Kingston, though adorned by many modern builddecorated with hill, dale and plain; but the most ings, contains remains which attest the style of its remarkable feature is the peculiar, and now united founders the Dutch, and in the industrious habits vallies of Walkill, Rondout, and Esopus creeks. of its existing residents, and the fine appearance of The extreme source of Walkill is in Sussex coun the adjacent well cultivated country, also appear ty, New Jersey, from which it flows N.N. W. into the moral relics of those ancestors. Orange county, New York; and again sustaining the A cursory glance would naturally inspire very original course, enters, and traversing Ulster, falls unfavourable impressions of the soil of Ulster, but

• These vitrifications which we bave seen on this bill itsell, are exactly similar to those obtained from the other vitrified forts in Scotland. Ep.

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