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its numerous towns, and the aspect of its orchards, tle E. of N. E. from Laurensville, and by post road meadows and fields, would correct the error. 77 miles N. W. by W. from Columbia. N. Lat. 34°

In 1820, the population amounted to 30,934, or 42', and Lon. 4° 38' W. from W.C. to nearly 26 to the square mile.

UNION, county of Ohio, bounded by Franklin UNICORN, SEA. " See Cetology, Vol. V. p. 567. S.E.; Madison S.; Champaign S.W.; Logan W.;

UNION, county of Pennsylvania, bounded by Hardin N. W.; Marion N. E.; and Delaware E. Mifflin S. and S.W.; by Centre W.; by White Deer Length from south to north 30, width 17, and area Mountain separating it from Lycoming N.; and by 510 square miles. Extending in Lat. from 40° 06' Susquehannah river separating it from Northumber to 40° 30', and in Lon. 6° 14' to 6° 34' W. from land E. The greatest length of this county is by W.C. a line nearly from S. 1o N. parallel to the general The slope of this county is southeastward, and course of the Susquehannah river, 31 miles; mean drained in that direction by several creeks which breadth 22, and area 682 square miles. Extending are finally discharged into Sciota river. in Lat. from 40° 39' to 41° 05', and in Lon. from 0° There were in 1831, by the post office list, but 08' E. to 0° 22' W. from W.C.

two offices in this county besides that at Marysville The mountain chains which traverse this county the county seat; these were Darby Creek, and Milare humble when compared with those of some ad- ford Centre. jacent counties, and have but a slight inclination Marysville, the seat of justice, is situated on Mill towards northeast and south west, from extending Creek, by post road 37 miles N.W. from Columeast and west. The general declivity, shown by bus. N. Lat. 40° 15', Lon. 6° 24' W. from W.C. the course of the creeks, which flow over it into UNION, county of Illinois, bounded N. by JackSusquehannah river, is to the east. The principal son; N.E. by Franklin; E: by Johnson; S. by Alexof these creeks, advancing from south to north, are ander; and w. by Mississippi river separating it Western Mahantango, Middle Creek, Penn's Creek, from Cape Girardeau county of Missouri. The Buffalo and White Deer creeks.

two eastern angles of this county are right angles, The soil in quality and distribution, partakes of and of course the northern and southern sides are the character of that of other mountainous coun parallel. The breadth is 18 miles, and the mean ties of Pennsylvania, and much in Union is excel length from east to west being 22, the area is 396 lent. In 1820, the population amounted to 18,619,

square miles.

Extending in Lat. from 37° 21' to and had increased to 20,749 in 1830, showing an 37° 37' N. and in Lon. from 12° 07' to 12° 35' W. augmentation of between 11 and 12 per cent. in the from W.C. intermediate ten years.

Though having the Mississippi river for its westIn 1831, there were in this county post offices at ern boundary, Union county of Illinois is a real taNew Berlin the seat of justice, and at Beavertown, ble land, with the creeks issuing in every direction Freeburg, Hartleton, Lewisburg, Mac Kees Half from its centre. Population 2362 in 1820. Falls, Middleburg, Mifflinburg, Mount Pleasant By the post list of 1831, it contains but two post Mills, New Columbia, and Selin's Grove.

offices; one at Jonesboro', the county seat, and one New Berlin, the seat of justice, stands on the at Mount Pleasant. north and left bank of Penn's Creek, by post road Jonesboro', the seat of justice, is situated on the 168 iniles almost due N. from W.C. and 60 a little central table land, about 35 miles a very little W. W. of N. from Harrisburg. N. Lat. 40° 52'. of N. from the junction of Ohio and Mississippi

UNION, district of South Carolina, bounded by rivers, and by post road, 154 miles a little W. of S. Newberry S.; by Ennoree river separating it from from Vandalia. Laurens, S.W.; by Spartanburgh W. and N. W.; UNION, county of Kentucky, bounded by Henand by Broad river, separating it from York, N.E.; derson N.E. and E.; by Tradewater river, separatChester E.; and Fairfield S.E. The greatest length ing it from Hopkins, S.E., and Livingston S.W.; of Union district is 40 miles from the extreme and by Ohio river, separating it from Gallatin southern angle on Ennoree to the northern on county of Illinois, W., and Posey county in IndiBroad river. The greatest breadth is about 23, ana, N. Length from south to north 42 miles, mean but the mean breadth about 16, and area, 640 square width 18, and arca 756 square miles; extending in miles. Extending in Lat. froin 34° 25' to 35° 03', Lat. from 37° 23' to 37° 52' N., and in Lon. from and in Lon. from 4° 28' to 4° 52' W. from W.C. 10° 44' to 11° 15' W. from W.C. Population in

The declivity of this district to something to the 1820, 3470. E. of S. E., and is traversed by Tyger and Pacolet In 1831, there were post offices in this county at rivers, and by numerous creeks, all having Broad Morganfield, the county seat, and at Bordley, Cyriver as a common recipent. The soil is generally press, Mount Zion, Raleigh, and Sulphur Springs. good. Population 1820, 14, 126.

Morganfield, the seat of justice, is situated in a By the post office list of 1831, there were offices direct line about 12 miles S. E. from the junction at Unionville, the seat of justice, and at Brown's of Ohio and Wabash rivers, by post road 205 miles, Creek, Cedar Grove, Cross Keys, Fishdam, Goshen rather N. of S.W. by W. from Frankfort. North Hill, Gowely's Store, Hancock, Jonesville, Mac Lat. 37° 41'. Lon. 11° W. from W.C. Bridesville, Meansville, Oak Grove, Pinckney UNIONTOWN, post village, borough, and seat ville, and Reidstown.

of justice, Fayette county, Pennsylvania, situated Unionville, the seat of justice, is situated on a on both sides of Redstone creek, 12 miles S. E. from small branch of Fair Forest Creek, 30 miles a lit- Brownsville, 45 miles S.S.E. from Pittsburgh, and

by post road 193 miles N.W. by W. from W.C.; the Appalachian mountains, rising at four miles 184 miles a little S. of W. from Harrisburg, and distance, the landscape in that direction is pictur284 miles very nearly due W. from Philadelphia. esque and lengthened. North Lat. 390 54'. Lon. 2° 45' W. from W.C. Uniontown, in the early part of its existence, in

This borough was founded in 1775, by Jacob and creased rapidly towards that extent that could be Henry Beeson. It is ranged in great part in a sin- supported from the adjacent country. This gives gle but compactly built street, along the United to the place at present a look of age which is not States road. The adjacent country is rolling, and usual in the central towns of the United States. In very pleasant to the eye, and the western chain of 1820, the population was about 1200.

UNITED STATES.

MILES.

United States, an extensive country of North No. I:- Table of the area contained within each zone America, having the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and of latitude of in breadth, embraced by the terthe Pacific Ocean on the west, the British territories ritory of the United States, advancing from the or Cabotia on the north, Russian America on the northwest to south-east. northwest, the Mexican provinces on the southwest, the Gulf of Mexico south, and the archipelago of Between Lat. N. Between Lon. from W.C.

Square statute

Miles. the West Indies southeast. Without pretending to absolute accuracy, the fol 50° and 51° 371° to 51° W.

41,391 lowing outlines will show the great frontier lines. 49 50 35 50 W.

47,200 48 49 16 48 W.87} to 9° E. 107,670

47 48 13 48 W. 7 to 9 E. 121,175 In common with Cabotia, from the mouth of

46 47 61 48 W. 63 to 9 E. 112,590 St. Croix river to the Rocky or Chippe

45 46 6 48 W. 51 to 9.1 E. 122,292 wayan mountains,

3000
44 45

48 W. 11 to 10 E. With Russian North America, from the Chip

138,240

43 44 51 48 W. Oi to 8 E. 140,640 pewayan mountains to the Pacific Ocean, 600

42 43 53 48 W.2 W.to 6 E. 130,487 Along Pacific Ocean, from the Russian limit,

41 42 6. E. to 31 W.*

136, 125 North Lat. 51°, to that of Mexico, North

40 41 3 E. to 31 W. Lat. 42°,

125,324 560 39 40 3 E. to 301 W.

125,343 In common with the republic of Mexico, from

38 39 2 E. to 28 W.

113,383 North Lat. 42° on the Pacific Ocean, along

37 38 1 E. to 23 W. that curve of latitude to the Chippewayan

92,328 37 1 E. to 23 W.

93,456 mountains, and thence to the mouth of the

35 36 1 E. to 23 W.

94,740 Sabine into the Gulf of Mexico,

2300
35 01 E. to 23 W.

93,861 Along the Gulf of Mexico to Florida Point, 1000

33
34 3 W. to 23 W.

80,540 Along the Atlantic Ocean to the mouth of St.

32 33 4 W. to 17 W.

53, 154 Croix,

1850
31
32 41 W. to 16* W.

49,600
30
43 W. to 16} W.

50,134 9310

29 30 4 to 7 W. & 12 to 17 W. 33,754 To determine the exact surface contained within 28 29 31 to 54W.

6,394 this extended perimeter, would demand a very te

27 28 31 to 5. W.

6,450 dious and complex calculation, admitting every

26 27 3 to 51 W.

10,847 part of the outline to be fully defined, and the length 25 26 3 to 41 W.

5,562 exactly determined, but as the elements are far 24 25 31 to 64 W.

100 from being either adequately ample to decide the problem, we must adopt a proximate tabular result.

Aggregate, 2,132,730

36

34

31

Thus far southwardly into the territory of the United States, the British territory indents the former, and interrups the continuity of the zones.

This zone is chiefly in water, comprising the small islands and keys off Cape Florida.

It ought to be carefully remembered, that the called the Atlantic and Pacific systems. Rising data on which Table I. was constructed were used from the Atlantic, and in the first part near that without reference to minute fractions. If, indeed, ocean, by a very moderate ascent, swells a plain, the entering and retiring angles were disregarded, which gradually breaking into hills, finally termiand the outlines assumed as regular curves or nates in a system of mountains. This system, destraight lines, as the case might be, the actual area signated by some writers "the Appalachian,” but of the United States might be assumed at two mil more generally "the Alleghany Mountains." To the lions of square miles; or, if taken comparatively, at latter name, there is an insuperable objection, as a the 'one-twentieth part of the habitable land area of generic term; that objection is, that the same term, the earth.

Alleghany, is applied to one of the minor chains. In the construction of this article, we shall first Therefore, to avoid confusion of names, the eastern take a succinct view of the gencral structure and or Atlantic system of mountains will, in this treamost prominent physical features; secondly, a view tise, be designated Appalachian. of the climate; thirdly, survey the political subdi If the structure of that part of North America visions; and fourthly and lastly, give a sketch of its between the deep gulfs of Mexico and those which history. In the latter section will be included the compose Hudson's bay and Davis' straits was caremost prominent and important principles of the fully and scientifically examined, it would be very United States' constitution, and of those of the in- probably found, that the Appalachian system of dividual states.

mountains is not confined to the United States, nor

limited to the extent usually assigned to it on even Part 1.-PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

our best maps. But, as correctly known, this system

appears to rise in lateral chains, and to form the This article being a continuation, or more cor base of an immense continental protuberance, elonrectly a supplement to section United States, under gated from southwest to northeast, and maintain. the head of AMERICA, in the first volume of the En- ing a course in general accordance with that of the cyclopædia, the reader is referred to that part of adjacent Atlantic coast. On the southwest, towards the work for much matter necessary to a compre the gulf of Mexico, the Appalachian chains rise hensive view of the subject.

imperceptibly from the general level of the counTaken in its utmost extent, as given in Table I., try; but it is a common and great error to suppose the territory of the United States extends, in lati. these mountains to be confounded with the hills. tude from Thompson's Island, 24° 30' N. to 48° 2' Though at the extremes, and particularly at that of on the northern part of Maine, as laid down on the south west, the Appalachian chains sink graduTanner's map; but to N. Lat. 51° on the Pacifically; these chains are every where, if at all visible, ocean;* or perhaps more correctly, to Vancouver's utterly distinct from those remains of abrasion by Sound, Lat. 54..

water, called hills. If we suppose the whole AppaThe most easterly point in the United States is lachian region to have once formed a gradual and on the eastern side of Manan Island, off Passama- regular protuberance, without any valley or hill, quoddy Bay, 10° 20' E. from W.C., and the most and then suppose this parabolic surface exposed to westerly point, if the latitude is extended to 54°, the action of water, hills and valleys must be the will be on the northwestern coast of Queen Char: necessary production; but this, nor any ordinary lotte's Island, 56° W. from W.C. These geogra- known operation of nature, by ihe agency of water, phical limits give an extent of twenty-nine and a will tend to form a mountain. The action of water half degrees of latitude, and sixty-six and one-third may, and no doubt does, by wearing away and dis. degrees of longitude.

placing the soil, expose mountain masses. This The longest line that can be drawn in the exten latter operation is yet in progress, as may be seen sive regions included in the preceding outlines, and by a cursory survey; but the effect is very different over land without intersecting any sea, would be from what would be requisite to form a mountain. from the Atlantic coast at Cape Connaveral, North A long and careful examination of the rivers enLat. 28° 20', Lon. 3° 25' W. io the northern end of tirely round the Appalachian region, first suggested Queen Charlotte's Island, say North Lat. 54°, Lon. to the writer a suspicion that the mountains which 56° W. from W.C. This line would deflect from compose the nucleus of this system were deeply laid the meridians by an angle of 56° 28', and measure in the earth, and that what is in common language a fraction above 32 14 statute miles, Based upon called “the mountains,” were only prominent ridges this diagonal, the mean breadth is 664 very nearly. emerging from the surface. The Chippewayan reThe whole territory is equal to an immense square gion I have never had means to examine, but from of about 1460 miles each side.

analogy am inclined to the induction, that there Combined into one view, the United States' ter- also, if examined, the laws of structure would be ritory comprises four, or part of four vast inclined found similar to those which regulated the Appaplanes. These great planes are the descents from lachian system. With these preliminary remarks, two systems of mountains, which, in relation to we proceed to a general physical view. contiguous oceans, might have been very correctly It has already been remarked, that the United

• Fixing the northwestern limit on the Pacific Ocean al 51° N. is only following common usage. Consulting the convention of 1824, between ihe United States and Russia, 64° in Vancouver's Sound appears to be tacitly the boundary agreed upon by the parties.

Lyman's Diplomacy, vol. ii: p. 307.

States comprised four vast inclined planes. Per the basin of the Delaware, but with diminished haps the natural structure would be more easily heighi. Before we advance farther with the geneand more correctly comprehended by regarding ral description, we may pause to remove, by stating this great physical region as comprising the two a few facts, a very general error as respects the distinct mountain systems; the Appalachian on the connexion of the rivers with the mountains of the east, and Chippewayan on the west, and then view United States. the adjacent and dependent slopes or inclined planes It has been already shown, that the Appalachian as only parts of the mountain systems.

chains are not the superlative of hills, though such The Appalachian system, as defined on the gene is the received' opinion on the subject. The mounral maps of the United States, is divided into two tains are considered as the dividing ridge of the great sections by the tide vale of Hudson's river. waters. So far from this being the fact, the MoThis very remarkable natural water separation has hawk branch of Hudson, the higher branches of induced many lo consider the two mountain regions Delaware, and Susquehannah river all rise to the on each side, as distinct systems, but we shall soon westward of the Appalachian nucleus. It is, theresee adequatc element to demonstrate the connexion, fore, in a qualified sense that the mountain masses although the Atlantic tides are rolled through the can be considered as the most elevated part of the gaps which intervene. The Hudson forms, how- physical section to which they belong. We shall ever, a demarcation altogether sufhicient to warrant have another and more appropriate occasion to noits adoption in classifying the natural features of tice this important feature of the geography of the the United States, and to justify separating, in our United States, and now proceed to survey the description, the Appalachian system into two sec mountain system under view. tions, that of the southwest, and that of northeast. Taking the extremes of the northwestern section

The southwestern section rises very prominent of the Appalachian system, the course is between from the Hudson valley, at two distant points. At S.W. and S.W by W., bul between these extremes the distance of very nearly one degree of latitude there are very considerable inflections. For innorth from the outlet of the Hudson into the At stance, leaving the Hudson basin, the chains incline lantic ocean, and between N. Lat. 41° 20', and 41° to the westward, and still curving in that direction, 30' the tides are borne into the interior of the con traverse the Delaware basin and enter that of Sustinent between enormous walls of native rock, quehannah, ranging something W. of S.W. by W. rising to from 1200 to 1500 feet above the high A curve is again made in the opposite direction in water level. To the primitive mariners who dis- passing over the latter, and when reaching the Pocerned the Hudson, this passage, now appropriate. iomac basin, the course of the chains is very little ly called the Highlands, must have appeared on a west of south. Passing over the northern side of distant view, as an impassable barrier, in place of the Potomac basin, the system once more deflects, an opening to the concealed regions beyond. But and with the basins of the Potomac, Rappahannoc, clearing this narrow, and deep vale, the distant York, James, Roanoke, Yadkin, and Santee, to the ridges of mountains seem to lie scattered on the southeast, and the great confluents of Ohio, the far distance, until advancing about one degree of Monongahela, Little Kenhawa, Great Kenhawa, latitude farther north, the masses again rise to be. Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Cumberland, and Tentween 3000 and 3500 feet. This very striking nessee, on the northwest. group now called the Catskill, or Catsberg chain, With the higher valley of Tennessee, the Appadischarging the Delaware river to the southwest lachian chains undergo a noted change in their reand the Schoharie river to the north, seem, when Jative courses. From the Hudson basin to the first viewed ascending the Hudson, as if the chains higher Tennessee valley, the chains which compose at their bases rose from the stream, though at the the system deflect in a general conformity to each nearest ten miles distant. The oceanic level the other, but with the latter physical section, the two Hudson gives full elevation of view and raises the most prominent chains, Blue Ridge on the southpeaks of the Catsbergs to an imposing height. east, and Cumberland mountains on the north west, Amongst the objects brought before the voyager first diverge from, and thence incline upon each for the first time up the Hudson the mountains ar. . other, enclosing one of the most remarkable mounrest far most attention. Those parts of the north tain vallies of the earih. This singular valley will east section of the Appalachian system are seen be more particularly noticed in the sequel, but we distinctly, but on the edge of the horizon, whilst may here observe, that with its southwestern exthe Highlands and Catsbergs protrude their masses treme, the distinctive chains of the Appalachian into the very presence of the observer.

system no longer appear, and the basins of Mobile, If we assume the extreme of the southern side and Appalachicola, commence the declivity or of the Highlands, and the northern of the Cats. slope of the Gulf of Mexico. bergs, as the breadth, the Appalachian system con Considering the Mobile basin on the southwesttiguous to the channel of the Hudson is something ward and the Hudson basin on the northeastward, about 90 miles wide. A line, however, parallel to as the limits of the southwestern section of the Apthe Hudson, cuts the system rather obliquely, but palachian system, the general course does not maeven when traversed at right angles from High. ierially differ from N. E. and S.W., nor does the lands, the system is upwards of 80 miles wide. length vary essentially from 900 miles. The rela

From the Hudson valley the chains, in no place tive bearing and length are easy to determine, howclearly defined, range nearly southwestward into ever, when compared with the breadth of the sys

tem. An attentive observer, comparing the objects inner verge of the sea-sand alluvion meets the pri. in nature with any of our maps, must very soon mitive rock in a line very nearly coinciding with perceive, that the chains of the Appalachian sys. southwest and northeast, from the lower falls of tcm, southwest from the Hudson, are too much re Raritan to the lower falls of Delaware, leaving the stricted on both sides. Again, comparing the peninsula now forming the southern and rather courses of the rivers with the ranges of the moun- larger section of New Jersey on the sea-sand phy. tains, will enforce the conviction that the mountain sical tract. Here occurs a phenomenon, nowhere structure prevails and exerts influence over the else to be found on the Atlantic slope of North water channels far from the extreme chains marked America. That is the rise of a stream on the sea. on our maps. With these remarks we proceed to sand tract, with its course towards and over the examine the chains specifically, premising that as primitive; this very remarkable case is afforded no connected and scientific survey of this mountain by Millstone river; which, rising on the sea-sand system, much of what will be given under the sec alluvion, flows directly from the opposite Atlantic tion of chains may be regarded as theory to stimu- coast, and towards the Appalachian chains, crosses late to future inquiry.

the primitive ledge, and unites with the Raritan It may seem, indeed, the excess of hypothesis to about ten miles above the head of tide water. The consider the fails of the rivers as the outer chain Millstone, it may, however, be premised, is one of of the Appalachian system, but if we trace a line a series of small rivers and creeks which flow from the perpendicular rocks on the Hudson, northwestward by west, having the Raritan and through the lower falls of Passaic, Raritan, Dela- Delaware as recipients; but, as has already been ware, Schuylkill, Christiana, Susquehannah, Gun- noticed, the Millstone is the only stream which has powder, Patapsco, Patuxent, Potomac, Rappahan its source on the alluvion, and final discharge within noc, Mattapony, Painunky, James, Appamattox, the outer margin of the primitive. Nottaway, Mehexin, Roanoke, &c., and continue a The series of water courses, which commence, similar demarcation to the Mississippi, and then advancing from north to south, with the lower concompare its inflections with those of the Blue fluents of the Raritan, and which flow inland, is not Ridge, the correspondence will appear in a remark- terminated by Delaware Bay, but is continued on able manner striking. The series of falls in the the Chesapeake and Delaware peninsula to its exAtlantic rivers, southwest from the Hudson outlet, treme southern point, Cape Charles. The Manalais in no place passed by the ocean tide, but these pan and Millstone flowing into Raritan, and the cataracts do not, however, regularly bound the Assanpink, Rancocus, Pensauken, Coopers, Oldtides, as they are not in every river channel reach mans, Salem, and other creeks entering the Delaed by the ocean swell. A remark on the great de ware, are followed beyond that estuary by the Elk; fect of our maps is here irresistible. On the very Sassafras, Chester, Choptank, Nantikoke, Pocoexpensive maps. of Pennsylvania, Virginia, North moke, and numerous smaller streams which, rising Carolina, and South Carolina, the limit of ocean on the sea-sand alluvion, find their discharge in tides is alike wanting, and what renders the omis Chesapeake Bay. sion the more to be regretted, is the great import In the physical features of the small rivers origiance of such data, in the commercial and physical nating on the sea-sand alluvion, and which have the history of the Atlantic rivers. In fact, the still Delaware bay as a common recipient, and those of more obvious if not equally important feature, the similar origin on the Chesapeake and Delaware river falls are also omitted, but the points are in peninsula, there are two marked distinctions. The most instances marked by the rise of cities, and northwestern slope of the New Jersey peninsula very prominent landmarks are determined by the does not exceed à mean breadth of 15 miles, and cities or towns of New York, Paterson, New Bruns the Millstone and Rancocus, the longest of the wick, Trenton, Philadelphia, Wilmington, Balti streams it produces, both fall short of thirty miles more, Georgetown, Fredericksburg, Richmond, Pe direct course; the direction of these numerous tersburg, Weldon, Fayetteville, Columbia, Mil but short water courses almost invariably beledgeville, and others of lesser note. By drawing tween N. W., and N. W. by W. directly at right a marked line through these points on a map, a angles to the great opposing primitive ledge. great physical limit is obtained, separating the sea But passing the Delaware bay, and traversing the sand alluvial region from the hilly, or more cor Chesapeake and Delaware peninsula, we discover rectly, the mountainous interior. The most care the rivers have changed their courses, and now flow ful view of external nature, cannot in every place south of S.W., parallel to the Appalachian chains. trace the line of separation, but if that line is A critical survey of the Atlantic slope of the crossed at right angles, or nearly parallel to the United States, superinduces the induction, that general course of the rivers, the features of the Long Island Sound, Delaware bay, and Chesapeake country so completely change as to demonstrate bay, are specifically similar to Albemarle, and Pamthe essential distinction between the components tico Sounds; and, that Long Island, the peninsula of formation above and below the river falls. between Delaware river and the Atlantic Ocean; that

The sea-sand alluvial region has a very promi. again, between Delaware bay, the Atlantic Ocean, nent termination on the northeast, at the mouth of and Chesapeake bay, the low capes outside of the Hudson, or more correctly at that of the Rari. Albemarle and Pamtico sounds, and finally, the pen. ian. The Nevesink hills are detached and belong insula of Florida, were all protuberances of specifistrictly to the chain which forms Long Island, the cally similar nature.

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