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Long Island is separated from the continent by cal section south-west from the Chesapeake, are a sound, through which the water yet passes to shallow, one river only, the St. Mary's, admitting considerable depth, and when compared, there are the entrance of the largest vessels; and in many instrong reasons to conclude that such was once the stances of apparently spacious harbours, the smallcase with the Delaware and Raritan; with the Dela est coasters are navigated with difficulty. If the ware and Chesapeake, and with the Chesapeake and Atlantic Ocean is still receding, the result, in a seAlbemarle Sound. Beyond Long Island, a similar ries of ages, must produce radical changes, and theory will apply to Cape Cod, and, exterior to the many expensive experiments have been made to de. limits of the United States, to the peninsula of Nova termine a much less important problem. When in Scotia.
Europe the abasement of the Baltic Sea was first Calling in the aid of comparative geography, to suggested, the fact was rejected with something illustrate the particular features of the United like horror, but the only safe test of truth finally States, and seeking another part of the earth most put the contest at rest, and compelled the adoption similar in respect to position relatively, our atten
of the result with all its consequences. tion is arrested by southeastern Asia. By actual interesting part of geographical history will be calculation, the coast of North America from Cape again touched under the head of river basins; we
'ehuantepec, crossing the intermediate land, and now return to our review of the great and general thence along the coast of the United States, des outlines of the physical sections. flects from the meridian 47° 44', whilst the entire Receding westward from the Atlantic Ocean along south-eastern coast of Asia is within an inconsider- the zone, between the 30th and 31st degrees of north able fraction of N.E. and S.W.; the two coasts latitude, the alluvial plain is perpetuated over the only differing in direction 24°. To the remark, peninsula of Florida, and thence westward along how very nearly parallel are these two coasts at a the northern coast of the gulf of Mexico, through distance of under 6880 statute miles, we may add 7 degrees of longitude, or about 450 statute miles that in relation to the respective continents, and to to the estuary of Pascagoula river. Here the vast the general course of atmospheric currents, the Delta of the Mississippi protrudes the alluvion to North American and Asiatic coasts, they are the the 29th degree of North Lat., gradually, however, two objects of such immense extent on earth which again receding to the northward, between 29° and coincide in so many points of resemblance. The 30° North Lat. passes the Sabine, stretching beislands and gulfs of south-eastern Asia are more like yond the limits of the United States. the contiguous continent, on a wider scale, than are There is one feature of the alkuvial zone north of the corresponding features of the United States At the Gulf of Mexico, which demands particular nolantic coast. The application of the resemblance here tice, as it is connected with a phenomenon very litadverted to, will be seen under the head of climate; tle known. Between Vacassansa Bay of the western we now return to our particular subject.
coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the mouth of the The sea-sand alluvial region, falling, as we have Mississippi river, extends an elliptical bay, the shown, from the primitive ledge over which the longer axis of which is North Lat. 29o. This bay rivers are precipitated, is narrow and interrupted curves to North Lat. 39° 23', between the mouths by the ocean reaching the primitive to the north- of the rivers Appalachicola and Pascagoula, and eastward from the Hudson; but thence rapidly along this part of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico widening to the south westward, is traversed by the the alluvial plain is narrow, and confined, indeeri, Delaware, Chesapeake, and lesser bays, and though to the small counter-bays of St. Joseph's, St. Anpenetrated by the tides to the margin of the primi- drew's, Choctaw, Pensacola, Mobile, and Pascative, the ocean and interior mountains seem to re- goula. To the westward from the outlet of Pascede from each other, leaving between the Chesa- cagoula, the coast entirely changes character. The peake and Gulf of Mexico an immense plain of Delta of the Mississippi is protruded upwards of above 600 miles in length, and upwards of 100 miles eighty minutes of latitude directly into the Gulf of mean breadth.
Mexico; and again, to the westward of the Delta to The remains of shell banks along the inner mar- the Sabine, the alluvial zone is spread, as already gin of this great, and but very slightly inclined noticed, about one degree of latitude south of its plain, fully establish the fact, that over its whole extent in that direction, east of the Delta. surface the ocean once rolled, and by a slow reces The writer of this article personally examined sion left most of the surface dry land. The bays the coast of Louisiana and Florida, and, in the proand sounds are, however, remains of the former gress of that survey, found that the debris, or wood shallow ocean border. We are naturally, or more floated out of the Mississippi river, was invariably correctly by custom, led to estimate the depth of borne westward from the outlets of that stream. water on coasts, relative to the draught of ships. These fragments of timber, or not unfrequently and to designate bays, gulfs and river mouths and whole trees of vast size, lie scattered along the gulf channels Jeep, is that depth exceeds the utmost in margin, and afford the only fuel on that dreary coast. which the largest vessels float, but philosophically The northern shore of the great bay between the speaking, a depth of even 40 or 50 feet is really Delta and West Florida is covered with a dense shallow when compared with that of any large sea, forest. This forest is continued on very nearly the much less an ocean. But, on the scale we usually same geographical zone to the Sabine, whilst on, estimate water depth, the rivers and sounds of the and directly westward of the Delta, the much most United States, contained in the great alluvial physi- extensive part of the land surface is denuded of timVOL. XVIII. Part I.
ber, presenting an immense series of grassy plains, Naturally, the highest intermediate summit bewith partial clumps or very thin selvedges of trees tween the Atlantic Ocean and German Sea was only along the streams.
about 70 feet in this interesting valley. It may be placed amongst the most remarkable The North American Glen, on a much larger facts in the hydrography of the earth, that a canal scale than that of Scotland, has the southern exor series of canals, and bay or sound navigation, treme in the outlet of the Hudson into the Atlantic could be constructed from the mouth of Hudson Ocean, between Staten and Long Islands, and its river to that of Sabine, with a rise of very little, if northern termination in the St. Lawrence, at the any, above 200 feet, and seldom more than from 10 mouth of Richelieu, or, as called in the lower 10 20 feet; a series which, if formed, would consti- part of its course, Chambly river. The tide part tute the most important and productive chain of of the Hudson, about 160 miles in length, though inland navigation which the surface of our planet usually denominated a river, is really a bay, in the admits.
strict meaning of the latter term. This bay is merely Over the long and wide alluvial plain we have long and narrow, and in those circumstances only glanced upon, flow the numerous rivers having their does it differ from other bays. Rivers and bays origin on the Appalachian nucleus in its rear. differ materially in the opposing curves of their Those rivers we now proceed to notice, advancing sides respectively. Rivers have opposing sides, from north-east to south-west; giving the name of with usually very nearly coinciding curves; on the the basin to the main stream, which terminates in contrary, bays have entering and retiring curves, the oceanic recipient.
with no apparent compliance in their inflections. Hudson river, as connecting two physical sec Under the preceding distinction, the Hudson, betions, comes appropriately under either head, but low the junction of Mohawk and Hudson proper, when carefully examined on a map, in connexion is a bay. with the minor basins of Passaic and Raritan, the Immediately below Glenn's Falls, the Hudson, as basins of Hudson and Delaware are more intimately stated above, enters the Great Vale, and abruptly blended than is the former with the contiguous ba turns to the southward, and, continuing that course sins of St. Lawrence, Connecticut, and Housatonick. 35 miles, unites with the Mohawk a very little above Taken in its utmost extent, the Hudson basin pre- the head of the tides. The intermediate distance of sents a marked anomaly amongst the Atlantic ri 20 miles from the great bend of Hudson, below vers. By the main channel, the ocean tides traverse Glenn's Falls, to the head of Lake Champlain, at the primitive chains, and reach the base of the cen the mouth of Paulet river, contains the highest tral secondary. The Hudson is formed by two summit level, 140 feet oceanic elevation between branches; the northern, or Hudson proper, and the the tides of St. Lawrence and Hudson. The mind western, or Mohawk.
of the voyager on Lake Champlain, in view of The Hudson has its remote source interlocking massy mountain scenery, can scarcely admit the with those of the Racket river branch of St. Law- proof afforded by mathematical admeasurement to rence, and with those of the Saranac and Sable ri- convince him that the fine sheet of water on which vers flowing into Lake Champlain, at about N.Lat. he is sailing is really only 87] feet above the level 440, Lon. 3° E. from W.C. Flowing south south- of the Atlantic Ocean, and that so small a comparaeastward until only separated by a narrow ridge of tive descent would bring him to the tide level in five miles from Lake George, the Hudson deflects to St. Lawrence. the south, and at about 50 miles comparative course The whole length of the Great Glen of North from the source, receives the Sacondago river from America is within a trifling fraction of 375 miles the west. Both those streams rise in the valleys of in length, extending from north latitude 40° 34' to a ridge or rather chain of mountains, the con 46° 2', and differing so little from the meridian as tinuation of the Catsbergs, as we shall see in the not to deflect one degree of longitude in 328 minsequel. Below their junction the course of the utes of latitude. But what in a very striking man. united waters is to the eastward 12 miles direct, ner gives interest to both the American and Scot. but a much greater distance following the channel, tish glens, is the little deviation of either from a to where it is precipitated down a mountain ledge straight line between the extremes. The Hudson called Glenn Falls, and enters the very peculiar bay and river, Lake Champlain and Richelieu river, valley formed by Hudson river, Lake Champlain, forming the chain of the American Glen, as do and Sorel or Richelieu river. There is only one Loch Linnhe, Loch Eil, Loch Lochi, Loch Oich, other known valley of the earth having specifically Loch Ness, and Murray Frith, that of Scotland. similar features with that we are reviewing. Scot
But to return to our survey. pand is divided into two unequal parts by a vale, The fall in the Hudson waters, from Glenn's 'extending from the Atlantic Ocean on the north- Falls to tide water, is 104 feet, which has been west side of the island, in a direct course nearly overcome by locks on the Hudson and Champlain N.E. into Murray Frith or bay, of the German Sea, Canal. length 120 miles. This valley is well designated by Mohawk river, or the northwestern constituent the term glen, signifiying a confined vale between of the Hudson, has its remote sources interlocking steep and impending hills or mountains. The with those of Black river and Oswego, flowing into Caledonian Canal now unites the small rivers and Lake Ontario, and those of the Chenango branch lochs or lakes of the Scottish Glen, and admits the of Susquehannah. The Mohawk valley lies very navigation of frigates across the island of Britain. nearly at right angles to that of Hudson, and pre
senting the second lowest gorge in the Appalachian mountains in no one instance determine the recipisystem between the Atlantic Ocean and Canadian ent; but, on the contrary, the rivers in most cases inland sea. The higher sources of Mohawk flow, rise on plains higher than the bases of the chains, by a very rapid descent, to the southward about 20 and so far from Aowing from, they are discharged miles, to an alluvial summit level of only 421 feet through the mountains. The Mohawk, though a above tide water in Hudson Bay; the Mohawk sum confluent of the Atlantic, has nearly the whole of mit level being 281 feet higher that of the Hudson its course to the interior of the Appalachian system. and Champlain.
The west branch, and most of the minor confluents In a state of nature, previous to the construction of the east branch of Susquehannah rise also within of the great western canal, in seasons of high floods, the Appalachian chains. The Potomac rises westthe waters were so nearly poised on the level near ward of the central chain, and a similar remark apwhere Rome now stands, that part of the flow passed plies to James and Roanoke rivers. Passing the into Lake Oneida, by Wood creek, and thence into basin of James river, we discover the reverse, as, Lake Ontario, by Oswego river. The discovery of in a distance of 250 miles from the extreme sources this remarkable feature in the topography of the of Roanoke to those of Savannah and Chattahooche table land between the Mohawk and Oneida valleys rivers, the confluents of Ohio have their most rewas one of the incidents which led, and naturally mote sources in Blue Ridge. The entire force of lead, to the original design of the Hudson and Erie these remarks will be more distinctly seen under canals; and the existence of such a depression in the the respective heads of the rivers; but we may retable land between the tide, deep, and narrow val mark in this place, that the relative aspect of the ley or bay of Hudson and the middle part of the St. rivers and mountains of the United States, almost Lawrence basin, afforded an opening to inland navi enforces the theory, that the latter were formed gation very rarely found in the mountain systems subsequently, and have been broken at various of the earth. It may also be remarked, that this points by the streams, to the courses of which these plateau or table land is alluvial, and that in the great masses of rock formed impediments. By construction of the Hudson and Erie canal, the most tracing the real line of separation between the conextensive masses of rock encountered were found fluents of the two great recipients, the reader will below the summit level; and that feature in the lo be enabled to more distinctly review the individual cal line of the great canal of New York leads on to basins. the remark, that the mountain chains which com Commencing this river line at the summit level pose that section of the Appalachian system, south between the valleys of the Mohawk and Oneida, it west from the Hudson, do not ever generally, much curves first S.W. and thence W. and N.W. by an less uniformly, constitute the dividing ridges be- elliptic indenting into the basin of Susquehannah, tween the sources of the rivers of the Atlantic slope and out of which flow the higher sources of Ononand those which flow into the Mississippi basin. dago or Oswego river. This curve, forming the This relative structure of our mountains, and the extreme northern boundary of the basin of Susquecourses of our rivers, so contrary to common opi hannah, is about 120 miles in length, and affords an. nion, demands and deserves particular notice and other and striking instance of the conformity of the description, since without understanding this per- line we are surveying, with the curves of the adjacent haps peculiar structure, no adequate idea can be recipient, as the curve which separates the basin of obtained of the true configuration of the United Susquehannah from the Valley of Onondago, comStates.
plies in its general inflections with the south-eastern Departing from the Hudson Bay, and without shores of Lake Ontario. garding the mountain chains or ridges, the table Sweeping round the sources of the Tioga branch land rises slowly, and between the sources of Sus- of Susquehannah, which it separates from those of quehannah and those of the confluents of Lake On Genessee, the latter a confluent of Lake Ontario, the tario, one or more valleys exist where the summit river line now inflects to a general southern course level between the Atlantic tides, in Chesapeake Bay, 65 miles, to that elevated table land from whence and the surface of Lake Ontario falls under nine flow northwardly the higher sources of Genessee; hundred feet, but passing the basin of Susquehannah, north-westward the extreme source of Alleghany, the mountain table land rises more rapidly, and and semicircling round from east to south, and on also more uniformly. With some but partial inter to west, the numerous fountains of Cowanesque, ruptions, the rivers flow, and the mountains lie on Pine Creek, Sinnamahoning, and other confluents a vast inclined plain from the valley of the west of Susquehannah. From this plateau the waterbranch of Susquehannah southwestwardly, to where courses flow in every direction, like radii, from a the sources of the Yadkin, Kenhawa, and Watauga common centre. From it, the nearest tide water branch of Tennessee separate. From the latter is the mouth of Susquehannah, at a direct distance point, occupied by Ashe county, North Carolina, of 185 miles; but the head of tides round from the great plain declines in the contrary direction, Albany in the Hudson, including the entire course and if the distance is continued to tide water in of the Hudson, the head of tides in Delaware, Alabama and Tombigbee rivers, the length of de Schuylkill, and Potomac, all fall within 210 miles, scent in the two plains is very nearly equal.
and of course within 25 miles of being equi-distant If we draw a line on a good map along the di from that great crown which stands at the extreme viding ridge between the sources of the rivers, we north-eastern source of the immense basin of the shall by the operation discover the fact, that the Mississippi and the north-western source of the less
extensive, but very interesting basin of Chesapeake. the south-east, the Yadkin, Catawba, Broad, PacoIt is also distant 90 miles from the mouth of Cata- let, Saluda, and the numerous branches of Savanraugus river into Lake Erie, and 110 from Lake nah river; and to the south-westward the extreme Ontario, at the mouth of Genessee river. The pla- higher and north-eastern sources of Chatahooche teau before us is not, however, a mathematical and Coosa rivers. point: its length from the source of Pine creek to It may be premised, that the continuation of the ihat of Clarion river, a branch of Alleghany, is 35 Blue Ridge, westward from the sources of Chalamiles, in a direction from east to west, nearly. hooche and Hiwassee, is drawn on our maps, so
From the sources of Pine creek and Clarion river, discordant to all the other parts of the Appalachian for a distance of 70 miles, the dividing ridge of the system, as to excite a doubt of accurate discriminarivers is, for the first instance from the Mohawk tion of the chains. On Tanner's United States, the valley, a chain of the Appalachian system, but what Blue Ridge is blended with the Unika or Iron renders that chain singularly remarkable, as con Mountain, between the sources of Coosa and Hiwasnected with the rivers, is, that it is the most north see rivers, and represented as inflecting thence upwestern, and most humble in height, of all the wards of two hundred miles, separating the sources chains of the system to which it appertains. Thus of Coosa, Black Warrior, and Tombigbee from whilst the base of the Chesnut Ridge is the most those of the extreme southern confluents of Tenelevated, a circumstance demonstrated by the course nessee, and in the intermediate distance receiving of the streams, the chains rise in elevation, descend- the termination of all the other chains of the Appaing the river valley towards the Atlantic tides; and lachian system. If this geography is correct, the so far is the source of the rivers at this place from country it represents is an anomaly in the physical being regulated by the mountains, that the entire section to which it belongs. course of Susquehannah is across, and not from, the Leaving the southern extremity of the AppalaAppalachian system. If we regard the head of the chian system to future and more scientific examinatides as the real mouth of the Susquehannah, the tion than it has yet obtained, we may proceed with whole of that stream and its minor branches flow our review. Sufficient well established data exist to down an inclined plain 200 miles wide, and com decide the truth of the important fact, that the mensurate with the breadth of the Appalachian mountain chains of the south-western section of the system.
Appalachian system are only incidentally, or perInflecting again to the south-east, the river line haps more correctly only partially, demarcations recrosses the intermediate valley, and extends south between the sources of the Atlantic rivers and those eastwardly from Laurel Hill to the Alleghany Moun- of the great tributaries of the Ohio valley. Taking tain. The latter chain becomes a real and unbroken the Susquehannah at one extreme, and the Tennesdividing ridge of river source 250 miles, discharg see at the other, we find the former deriving its ing in succession towards the Atlantic Ocean, the most remote western fountains from the extreme Juniata, the numerous branches of Potomac and western chain, and the latter directly the reverse, James rivers, and into the valley of Ohio, Conne or springing from the easternmost chain of the maugh, Youghiogany, Monongahela, and Green- system; both rivers, in their course from source brier branch of Great Kenhawa. From the sources recipient, traversing the gorges of the various of the Tioga branch of Susquehannah, North Lat.
chains. 42° 40', to the point where the Alleghany Moun It ought, however, to be noticed here, that a part tain is pierced by New river, at North Lat. 37° 20', of the physical appearance we have been noticing, or through 320 minutes of latitude, the dividing line as seen on our best maps, is deceptive. The Blue of river source does not differ quite 3° or 180 mi- Ridge is usually marked as the outer south-eastern nutes of longitude, whilst the general course of chain, which so far from being the fact, there are the mountain chains is in the intermediate distance two lateral chains between it and the lower falls of something to the east of north-east.
the rivers. These chains will be examined in the With the valley of New river, a change again sequel of this head, and under the survey of the takes place; as that stream rises in the north-west respective chains of the Appalachian system, to ern valleys of Blue Ridge, the dividing ridge of which we now proceed. water source is carried to the south-east from the It has already been stated, that the tide valley of Alleghany to the Blue Ridge chain, discharging the Hudson occupied only a part, and did not tervery short creeks into New river, on the south-west, minate the Appalachian system ; and it may be and giving source to Roanoke river north-east. doubted whether a single chain of that system is From the geographical point where North Lat. 37° confined to one side of that remarkable bay. The is intersected by the third degree of longitude west chains are, however, more distinctly defined and from W.C., and where Black Water branch of Roan set apart from each other in the basins of Delaware oke rises on the south-east, and Little river branch and Susquehannah than towards either extreme; we of New river on the north-west side of Blue Ridge, may therefore take the head of tide water in the two that chain becomes the dividing line of river source, latter rivers as our points of departure in examinand continues so about 300 miles, discharging to ing the respective Appalachian chains. the north-west the branches of New river, Watan It would be far from an unsupported theory, as I ga, Nolachucky, French Broad, Tennessee Proper, have already observed, to consider the lower falls and Hiwassee, streams tributary to the Ohio; to of the rivers as the outer margin of the Appalathe east the south-western branches of Roanoke; to chian system; but beside these falls, which we may
observe, are not themselves marked on our best through which flows the Potomac; it enters Virgimaps, there exists a distinct, though neglected ohain, nia, within which it traverses the counties of Louwhich is cut through by the Delaware, about five doun, Fauquier, Culpepper, Madison, Orange, Almiles below the passage of the same stream through bemarle, Nelson, and Amherst, reaches James rithe Blue Ridge, at the influx of Lehigh river. This ver above the town of Lynchburg. Beyond James overlooked chain has been confounded with Blue river, the South East Mountain, maintaining its Ridge between the Delaware and Hudson rivers, general parallelism to the Blue Ridge, separates though in no one place are the two chains really Bedford from Campbell, and Franklin from Pittsylblended, or even touch each other. In New Jersey, vania, and traversing Henry county enters North the narrow but fine valley of Musconecung river Carolina, between Surry and Stokes counties, and lies below the Blue Ridge, and above the South merges into the valley of Yadkin, having been traEast Mountain. Preserving a relative distance of versed in Virginia by the Roanoke between Bedford from four to seven or eight miles, the two chains and Pittsylvania counties. range towards the Hudson, and make their nearest In North Carolina the South East Mountain is approach at the Highlands. In fact, where the Hud- traversed by the Yadkin in Surry; thence separates son traverses both chains, it demands a knowledge Wilkes from Iredell, and once more broken by a of their prolongation each way to determine that mountain stream, is traversed by the Catawba river the apparently confused masses belong really to between Burke and Lincoln. Again bending with two, and not one chain of mountains.
the corresponding curve of Blue Ridge, it inflects The South East Mountain* is, perhaps, the same to nearly due south, separating Rutherford from as Haverstraw, between Orange and Rockland coun- Lincoln, and entering South Carolina, between York lies, New York, and traverses the Hudson valley and Spartanburg districts, is no longer noticed even between Peekskill and West Point; and thence in- in fragments, on the large State Map of South Caflecting with the Blue Ridge to the north-east, rolina, or any other map I have seen. From the stretches towards and reaching is traversed again courses of the rivers, and the boundaries of the by another river, the Housatonick, in the western districts of South Carolina, I have no doubt of its border of Litchfield county, Connecticut. Here continuity over that state to Savannah river. Of once more the South East Mountain, similar to all the correctness of this theory I would not speak so the other chains of the Appalachian system, inflects confidently, if I had not actually traced the same 10 a course only a few degrees east of north, form- chain in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, ing the Housatonick mountains of Massachusetts, Maryland and Virginia, where it rises and extends and Green mountains of Vermont. In Massachu- with all the boldness and distinctness of a mountain setts, and the southern part of Vermont, the South chain, and where its existence is not represented on East Mountain is kepi separate from the Blue any map I have had the good fortune to examine. Ridge; but between the sources of Onion and Confined to its known range in the United States, White rivers the two chains are confusedly deli- from the southern border of Lower Canada to the neated on our maps, and the name of Green moun north-western of South Carolina, its length is about tains appropriated at different places to both chains, 900 miles; 300 north-eastward from the Hudson, and in the existing state of our topographical know- and 600 south-westward from that tide boundary. ledge sets at defiance accurate specific classifica The Blue Ridge, if we regard the preceding as tion. We may remark, nevertheless, that, reason the outer chain of their common system, is the seing from all analogy, the two chains remain dis- cond, and following with each a similar coarse of tinct beyond the limits of the United States. survey, we trace the former, from where it is tra
Returning to the channel of Delaware river, we versed by the Delaware river directly below the are able to trace the South East Mountain in its mouth of Lehigh. Rising from the Delaware, it south-westward range with tolerable certainty. In ranges over New Jersey and New York, in a northcommon with the general conformity in the relative easterly direction to the Hudson, which it reaches, courses of the chains, the South East Mountain, between West Point and Newburg. Many of the leaving the Delaware river, curves with the Blue river passages through mountains have been noRidge and Kittatinny chains, is cut by the Schuyl. ticed and celebrated, and, amongst others, the paskill above Pottstown, forming the boundary be. sage of the same chain by the Potomac at Harper's tween Northampton and Bucks county; between Ferry, but it may be doubted, whether any other Bucks and Lehigh, and between Berks and Mont. similar phenomenon on earth combines so many gomery and Chester counties. Thence traversing very remarkable circumstances as the tide stream Lancaster and York counties and cut by the Sus- of the Hudson through the two chains, the South quehannah river between those two counties, passes East Mountain and Blue Ridge. from the latter into Maryland, which it traverses Profoundly deep, far below the utmost draught by the name of Parr Spring Ridge, having the val- of the largest vessels of war, the flux and reflux of leys of Gunpowder, Patapsco, and Patuxent on the the tides rush along a tortuous channel, bounded south-east, and Monocacy on the north-west. Im- by enormous and almost perpendicular walls of mediately below the mouth of the Monocacy into rock, rising to from one thousand to twelve hunPotomac, this chain rises into the remarkable Peak dred feet
. Passing along this truly wonderful gorge, called the Sugar Loaf, but rapidly sinks to the gap the mind involuntarily demands, by what operation
* I have given the name of South East Mountain to this chain from real necessity, to avoid circumlocutioą.