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to that of the Pedce, now become rare. Long Bay. the latter to N.E. by E. it enters Chatham, and, is followed by two others of nearly equal length, and uniting with Haw river, the combined waters are in a very remarkable manner similar in regard to thence known as Cape Fear river.
Below Hay. their inland curves and the features of their shores. woodboro' the main volume of Cape Fear river, Onslow Bay extends a semi-ellipsis from Cape Fear forming two great elliptical curves first to the eastto Cape Lookout, and Raleigh Bay from Cape
Bay from Cape ward and secondly westward, and passing FayetteLookout to Cape Hatteras. The latter promoniory, ville, Elizabetli, and Wilmington, falls into the At. the terror of mariners, and the great salient angle lantic Ocean almost exactly on the intersection of of the basin of North Carolina, projects into the N. Lat. 349 and Lon. 1° W. from W.C. Atlantic Ocean at N. Lat. 35° 12', and Lon. 1° 36' The general course of Haw river is continued in E. from W.C. The general bearing of this singu- the main volume, and the range of the basin is lar series of curves on the Atlantic coast of the very nearly from N.W. to S.E.; length 200 miles. United States, from the mouth of Pedee, or more Where broadest, the width falls short of 70, and precisely; from Winyaw Point to Cape Hatteras is, is fully estimated by a mean of 40 miles; or the by calculation on Mercator's principles, N. 57° 35' area is about 8000 square miles. This basin exE. and the reverse, and the distance 291} statute tends in Lat. from 34° to 36° 22', and in Lon. from miles.
0° 40' to 3° 08' W. from W.C. With Cape Hatteras the coast, maintaining its From the right, below the junction of Haw and character of long low sand islands extending paral: Deep rivers, the main volume of Cape Fear river lel to the margin of the ocean, inflects 70 degrees, receives no tributary above the size of a large and stretches in an almost direct line of 130 statute creek, and on the left also, the confluents are few miles to Cape Henry, at the mouth of Chesapeake and limited in length, until a short distance above Bay. Combining the two lines of coast on each Wilmington, enter in rapid succession, South riside of Cape Hatteras, we have, from Winyaw Bay ver and North Branch of Cape Fear river. In to that of Chesapeake, a sandy coast of 421 statute either volume or length of course, those two minor miles, enclosing a physical section drained by Cape branches would not deserve specific notice, but Fear river, Neuse river, Pamtico or Tar river, from their relative position they derive great imRoanoke, and Chowan rivers. This section may portance amongst the natural channels which may be with propriety designated the basin of North be made subservient to canal improvement. Carolina, since, though the larger part of the sub South river, or Black river, as it is called in the basin of its principal stream, the Roanoke, is in higher part of its course, rises in Cumberland and Virginia, it is discharged with all its confluents Johnson counties, within 10 or 12 miles from the into the ocean on the North Carolina coast. In main volume of Neuse river, and flowing thence their aggregate forms, as regard the range of their S.S.E. almost parallel to Cape Fear river, and reindividual rivers, the two basins of Georgia and ceiving large accessions of water from Sampson South Carolina, and that of North Carolina, pre- county, it falls into Cape Fear river, between sent a marked contrast. In the basin of Georgia Brunswick and New Hanover counties, and in a and South Carolina, the sources of the rivers direct line 28 miles above the mouth of the main spread 350 miles along the Atlantic side of the stream. Blue Ridge, like the branches of a tree; whilst their North Branch of Cape Fear river has the ex· volumes gradually approach and meet their com- treme source in Wayne courty, within three miles mon recipient within extremes of 200 miles. On from the right bank of Neuse river, from whence the contrary, the basin of North Carolina spreads it pursues very nearly a southern comparative like a fan along the Atlantic Ocean, with an im course of about 70 miles, to where it falls into mense salient curve from Little River inlet to the Cape Fear river at Wilmington, having traversed head of North river, a confluent of Currituck Duplin and New Hanover counties. · Sound, with a chord of 270 miles, whilst the re Pamtico, the first advancing from the south and mote sources of its rivers are restricted to about the most extensive of the two great sounds of 90 miles along the Blue Ridge.
North Carolina, is the estuary or common recipient Cape Fear river, the largest stream which rises of two rivers, Neuse to the south-west, and Tar riand has its entire basin in North Carolina, has ver to the north-east. Both Neuse and Tar rivers its most remote source in the South East Moun- derive their sources below the South East Mountain, between and overheaded by those of Yadkin tain, and in Person county, North Carolina. and Dan.river branch of Roanoke. Cape Fear ri. Neuse river, leaving Person and traversing Orange, ver is formed by two confluents, Haw river and Wake, and Johnson, and passing Raleigh the capiDeep river. Both rise on the south-eastern border tal of the State, pursues à comparative southof Stokes county, but Haw river derives the larger eastern course of 100 miles to Waynesboro, in share of its higher streams from Guilford, Rock. Wayne county. About twenty miles above the ingham, and Orange counties; from which, flowing latter place, the main volumes of Neuse and Cape to the south-eastward, they unite in the latter, and Fear rivers approach within 25 miles of each other, entering Chatham join Deep river at Haywood- approaching by counter curves, and then rapidly
Deep river, from its highest fountains in receding. Below Waynesboro, with a southern Stokes, flows to the south-eastward over Guilford curve, the course of the Neuse is nearly east 40 and Randolph into Moore county. Curving from miles, to where it receives a large tributary branch,
Contentney creek, on the border between Craven Pittsylvania counties, the now considerable volume and Pitt counties; bending thence to south-east sweeps by an elongated elliptical curve to the 40 miles, it widens into a bay, which, inflecting to north, and round to S.E., but by a general course of north-east another 40 miles, is lost in the wider ex south-east by east 50 miles to the influx of Dan ripanse of Pamtico Sound. The entire valley of ver from the west. Neuse lies in a direction of S. E. by E. and the re Dan river, very little inferior in volume or length
Length 180, mean breadth 4., and area of course to the Roanoke, rises in the valley between 7200 square miles.
the Blue Ridge and South East Mountain, interTar river rises in Person, but flowing thence locking sources on the south with the Yadkin, and traverses Granville and Franklin, and to the cen on the north with the Franklin county branches of 7 tral part of Nash county, 65 miles, by a compara Roanoke, and opposite to the eastern confluents of tive course. Inflecting to a little north of east 30 New river. Pursuing a general comparative course miles receives a large augmentation of volume of 110 miles, and draining the northern parts of from the influx of Sandy and Fishing creeks in Stokes, Rockingham, Caswell, Person, and GranEdgecomb county. Fishing and Sandy creeks ville counties, North Carolina, with all Patrick drain the space bei ween Tar river and the Roanoke, and Henry, and great part of Pittsylvania and Haliand the sources of the former approach very near fax counties, in Virginia, Dan river joins the Roanthe actual margin of the Roanoke. Immediately oke in the western side of Mecklenburg county. Bebelow the union of its main branches, the volume low their junction, the united waters pursue a direcof Tar river passes Tarboro, and sweeping a large tion a little south of east, sixty miles, to the lower southern curve, but by a general, south-eastern falls and head of tide water, at Weldon, having, at course of 40 miles, reaches Washington in Pitt about midway between the mouth of Dan and Wel. county, below which latter place, widening into a don, passed from Virginia into North Carolina. bay of 40 miles in a south-eastern direction, the Having met the tides, the Roanoke, by a very torwater is lost in Pamtico Sound.
tuous channel, assumes a south-eastern comparative The basin of Tar river is 160 miles in length by course of 50 miles, and thence eastward 25 miles, 25 mean width, area 4000 square miles. Extend to its junction with Chowan river, at the head of ing in Lat. from 35° 15' to 36° 25', and in Lon. Albemarle Sound. from 0° to 30' E. to 1° 50' W. from W.C.
The entire valley of Roanoke, by either the main If taken into one view, and including in it the stream or Dan river, is about 250 miles comparanarrow slope of Onslow, between Cape Fear and tive course, but the channel is a greater length, Neuse rivers, and Pamtico Sound, the basin of By comparative courses, it is only 155 miles from Pamtico will reach from Cape Hatteras to the Salem to the falls at Weldon, whilst, by authority of source of Neuse river, 230 miles; mean breadth a report made to the Roanoke Company, the interabout 60, and area 13,800 square miles. Of this mediate actual channel is 244 miles. From the prespace, however, Pamtico Sound and its minor bays ceding proportions, the real windings of this river occupy 1800 square miles, leaving to the land sur amount to near four hundred miles. face 12,000 square miles.
That part of the basin of Roanoke comprising Roanoke or Albemarle basin follows and bounds the valleys of that stream and Dan river, above on the Yadkin, Cape Fear, and both sub-basins of their junction, is 110 miles from east to west, with Pamtico. The Roanoke is the first Atlantic river a mean width of 60, or 6600 square miles. The which, advancing from the south-westward, derives lower part of the basin is very narrow, as, in a diits remote sources from the interior of the Blue rect distance of 125 miles from the mouth of Dan Ridge. This stream has its most distant fountains in river to the head of Albemarle Sound, the mean Montgomery county, Virginia, at an elevation of width can hardly be stated at 15 miles, area 1875 about 2200 feet above the Atlantic tides, and within square miles. Taking the whole surface into one eight miles from the main channel of New river, view, the area amounts to 8475 square miles, mean with the Kittatinny chain intervening. From this breadth 37, very nearly. comparatively elevated origin, and deriving con Chowan river enters the head of Albemarle Sound fluent water from numerous creeks from the valley to the north of the mouth of Roanoke, and is itself between the Blue Ridge and Kittatinny, and between formed by two branches, the Meheren and Nottathe sources of Little river branch of New river and way. The Meheren, or south-western branch, rises those of James river, Roanoke flows north-eastward in Mecklenburg, Charlotte, and Lunenburg coun, 20 miles to Salem in Botetourt county, having al. ties, Virginia, interlocking sources with those of ready fallen upwards of 1200 feet. The water level Nottaway, Appamattox, and some small confluents at Salem is by actual admeasurement 1002 feet of Roanoke. The comparative length is about 100 above the level of the Atlantic Ocean. Below Sa- miles in a direction of south-east by east; 18 or 20 lem, the main stream bends to eastward 20 miles miles of the lowest part of its channel in North to its passage through Blue Ridge. Below Blue Carolina. Ridge the Roanoke flows to the south-eastward 25 The united waters of Nottaway Proper and Black. miles, receiving the entire drain of that part of the water form a considerably larger stream than the valley between Blue Ridge and South East Moun. Meheren. The extreme sources of Nottaway are in tain which is occupied by Franklin county. Pass. Prince Edward county, Virginia, between those of ing South East Mountain, between Bedford and Meheren and Appamattox. Flowing thence, by com. VOL. XVIII. Part I.
200 40 1801 40 160 25
parative distance, seventy miles, in a direction very
TABLE VI. little S. of E. and draining, on the left, a part of Nottaway, Dinwiddie, Prince George, and Sussex
Summary of the North Carolina Basin. counties, and, from the right, part of Lunenburg, Brunswick, Greeneville, and Sussex. At very near
Between the centre of the latter county, the Nottaway inflects
Sub-Basins. to south-east, and continues that direction 40 miles,
Longitudes to its junction with Blackwater, almost exactly on
North Lat. the line between Virginia and North Carolina. The Blackwater is one of those rivers of the At Cape Fear R.
8000 34°00' 36°22'0°40' 3°08 W Neuse,
720034 50 36 22 1 00 E.2 15 W. lantic slope of the United States, which appears to
4000 35 15 36 25 0 30 E.1 50 W. have been formed by nature to facilitate the con
1 30 E3 2 struction of an inland line of canal navigation. This Sub-Basin, 290 581 17,000 35 30 37 25 1 30 E. 3 24 W. stream rises in Prince George county, and very
Aggregate, 310/117 36,200 34 00 37 25 1 30 E. 3 24 W. near the junction of Appamattox with James river. Flowing thence southeastward 40 miles, by compara To which add tive courses, between Surry and Sussex, and between Basia of Geo.& Southampton and Isle of Wight, it thence bends to
5 36 35 2 10 nearly due south, 30 miles, to its union with Not
Aggregate, 510200 100,800 31 15 37 25 1 30 E.7 20 W. taway. The latter, below the influx of Blackwater, flows about eight miles a little west of south, to its Exclusive of the peninsula of Florida, which junction with the Meheren, to form Chowan river.
forms another and very distinct natural section, we The course of the Meheren is preserved by the have, from the Alatamaha to the Roanoke and united waters for twenty miles, between Hertford Chowan inclusive, a great physical section exceedand Gates counties, and thence gradually opening ing one hundred thousand square miles, and eminto a bay which extends a little east of south, 25 bracing within its extremes a small fraction above miles, to the mouth of Roanoke.
six degrees of latitude, and rising from the level of The entire sub-basin of Chowan is about 125
the ocean to upwards of two thousand feet. If the miles in length, and where widest 60 miles; but the effect of relative height is therefore taken into the mean breadth about 30 miles; area 3750 square estimate, this region comprises fully the extremes miles.
of ten degrees of latitude on its mean and extreme Included in the great basin of Albemarle, and temperature. The winter climate on the high val. drained directly into Albemarle Sound, are two lies drained by the sources of New river, Yadkin, slopes, with very slight descent; the one to the Roanoke, and James river, assimilates to that on southward from the sound is drained by the outlet the Atlantic coast at latitude 41° or 42° north. This of Lake Phelps and Alligator river; and the oppo- subject will be more particularly and more approsite by Perquimans, Pasquotank, North river, and priately noticed under the head of Climate. We some other smaller inlets. The southern slope em proceed to review the commercial connexion of the braces the northern and larger section of that flat North Carolina basin, with those on each land side. and inundated peninsula between Pamtico and Al Without possessing a previous knowledge of the bemarle Sounds; and the opposing plain of similar depth of water, a glance on a map of North Caronatural features, comprises the southern part of the lina would suggest the idea, that the Atlantic secpeninsula between the Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake tion was from nature peculiarly fitted for inland na. Bay, James, Blackwater, and Chowan rivers and vigation; but a survey of the sounds and small bays Albemarle Sound. This lower section of Albemarle discloses the fact, that a depth of seven feet is the Basin, including the intermediate sound and bays, utmost that can be calculated on; and further, that is 80 miles long from north to south, with a mean the sub-basins of Albemarle and Pamtico, so far breadth of 60; area 4800 square miles.
from offering greater facilities, oppose very formiFrom the eastern extremity of Albemarle Sound dable physical difficulties against connecting the to the head branch of Roanoke is 290 miles, in a Chesapeake and Cape Fear basins by a line of mixed direction from S.E. by E. to N.W. by W. The river and canal navigation. mean breadth of the basin is within a small frac The basins of Albemarle and Chesapeake are setion of 58 miles; aggregate area 17,000 square miles parated by an almost dead level and marshy peninvery nearly. Extending in Lat. from 35° 30' to 37° sula of sixty miles width, and bisected into two 25' North, and in Lon. from 1° 30' E. to 3° 24' W. very nearly equal sections by the line of demarcafrom W.C.
tion between North Carolina and Virginia. The Embracing the entire basin of Albemarle, it pre- geographical position of this peninsula may be parsents at once a physical section and a physical limit. ticularly remembered by the facts, lhat north latiIf we reject the elevated valley from which the remote tude 36° passes nearly along the middle of Albesources of Roanoke are derived, the difference of marle Sound, and 37° enters centrically into the level is about 1000 feet, or an equivalent for 2. de- mouth of Chesapeake Bay. The character of this grees of latitude in mean temperature.
tract is given by the name imposed on its central
part. "The Dismal Swamp” is a name and a de- with, and both widen and deepen, the Dismal scription. From this dreary waste of lakes, swamps, Swamp Canal, and, in place of debouching in Pasand tangled woods, are discharged Bennet's creek quotank river, carry it into Chowan river, at or southwardly into Chowan river; and south-east near the mouth of Bennet's creek, and thence down wardly, Perquimans, Pasquotank, and North river, the channel, or along the bank of Chowan, to its into Albemarle Sound. On the opposite side Nan- junction with the Roanoke, and on to Plymouth, semond and Elizabeth rivers carry the surplus wa- and up the Roanoke to the port of Williamston. ter into Hampton Roads, or the mouth of James From the latter point it is 21 or 22 miles nearly river. Along the ocean, Currituck Sound extends due south to Washington on Tar or Pamtico river. fifty miles northwardly from that of Albemarle, se From Washington, again, it is only 16 miles, also ' parated from the ocean by only a long, narrow, and in a southern direction, to the navigable waters of low reef of sand. The extreme northern part of Neuse river, in Swift creek, at Dawson's Bridge. Currituck Sound approaches to within ten miles of From Dawson's Bridge, a natural channel of 35 tide water in Lynnhaven Bay. The space, indeed, miles down Neuse river, past Newbern, leads to between the northern end of Currituck Sound and
the great bend of Neuse Bay, and to Adams creek. Cape Henry is a continuation of the sand reef Thence up the latter, which affords 12 feet water, stretching from Cape Hatteras to Chesapeake Bay. and, by an intermediate canal of three miles, to It may be remarked, that in a distance of 128 miles North river, down which, by good navigation, to northward from Cape Hatteras to Chesapeake Bay, Beaufort. The whole of this line of from 180 to 200 the reef has but three openings, New Inlet, South miles, of which at least 70 would be by natural Inlet, and Currituck Inlet; and again south-west channels, would receive the influx of Chowan, Roanward from Cape Hatteras to the mouth of Cape oke, Tar, and Neuse rivers, and, as may be seen Fear river, though there are numerous small inlets by reference to Table VI., would be supported by through the reef, there is but three or four of any the productive labour of the inhabitants of upwards commercial or naval importance. Ocracoke Inlet, of 56,000 square miles. Cedar Inlet, the pass into Beaufort, and New river
By a report made to the congress of the United Inlet, are the deepest along the south-eastern coast States, 9th March, 1826, by the Engineer Depart. of the great basin of North Carolina. The imprac. ment, through the secretary of war, this, or very ticable nature of this coast, of upwards of three nearly a similar route from Norfolk to Beaufort, is hundred miles, with interior waters no where admit strongly recommended; but, from the tenor of the ting more than seven feet water, except at the har report, it is evident the framers had Beaufort har. bour of Beaufort, may be still more strongly de- bour constantly in view, as the southern terminapicted by the fewness of inlets. Seventy miles oc tion, and such a line would, no doubt, be a work curring in one place, having Cape Hatteras near worthy of a nation, but is demonstratively only a the middle point, without a single pass from the part of what is necessary and practicable to unite ocean to the interior.
the deep bay of Chesapeake with the basins of South The first successful attempt to form any
artificial Carolina and Georgia. Any canal carried, as proimprovement on the navigable channels of this re posed, into Neuse river, by Swift creek, could be gion of shallows, led to the completion of the Dis. continued up that stream to its great bend, in Lemal Swamp Canal. This canal of intercommunica- noir county, and thence into the North branch of tion between the basins of North Carolina and Vir- Cape Fear river; or could leave the Neuse at Newginia was navigated, and produced tolls as early as bern, and follow the Trent into Duplin; and thence 1822. It commences on Deep creek, a branch of into the North branch of Cape Fear river; followElizabeth river, and extends through Dismal Swamping either of the latter routes, and down the North to Joyce's creek, a confluent of Pasquotank. It is branch, would enter Cape Fear river at Wiliningin length 23 miles, and rises 161 feet above the At
ton. lantic level; 40 feet wide at top, with 6; feel water; Cape Fear river itself, from the relative position it is connected with Lake Drummond by a feeder of its basin, and the course of its channel, comparaof five miles in length and 41 feet water.
tively with those of the Neuse to the north-eastSince the original plan of the Dismal Swamp ward, and Great Pedee to the west and southCapal was partially carried into effect, it was suge westward, is a region of great interest. In our degested to give it a depth of eight or ten feet water, scription of the basin of Pedee, it may be seen how to render its capacity adequate to receive any vessel very near the main volume of Cape Fear river apwhich could pass the Chesapeake and Delaware proaches the sources of Waccamaw and Little Pe. Canal; but the shallowness of the southern sounds dee, and with how little comparative expense a carestricted their navigation to vessels drawing seven nal could be made from the basin of Cape Fear river feet water at most, and therefore unless the Dismal into that of Pedee. The canal and river improveSwamp Canal could have been followed by a line of ments southward from Pedee basin inclusive, have equal depth, it was useless to give it a greater depth been noticed under the heads summed in Table V. than requisite for the coasting trade of North Caro. We now proceed to review the canal and road. lina.
improvements in the North Carolina basin. A line of canals and river navigation has, how The rendering even partially navigable the sounds ever, been proposed, which will, no doubt, with along the lower part of the basin of North Carolina, modifications to suit local circumstances, be in were such a work practicable, would do honour to time effected. This great plan is to commence a nation; but there is one alternative too often lost
sight of in projects of every kind in the United connexion between Albemarle and Pamtico Sounds States, and that is, “ Is this work the most eligible by mole or embankments across Croatan and to effect the purpose intended?” By an act of Con- Roanoke Sounds or straits, and to make a new pasgress, the 20th of May 1826, it was required, that sage or inlet by dredging. The engineer then sub
a survey be made of Roanoke Inlet and Sound mitted two plans of execution: (Albemarle), with a view to ascertaining as to the Estimate for stone embankments, $2,363,483 practicability of making a permanent ship channel do. of timber and earth do. 1, 206, 297. between Albemarle Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, The engineer in closing his report throws doubts at Roanoke Inlet.” The prefatory remarks of a re on the practicable execution and preservation of port made in virtue of the required survey, as such works, exposed to the winds and waves of the quoted in Armroyd's Internal Navigation of the Atlantic Ocean, and farther, “not still perceiving United States, contains more than a doubt of at a great probability that the country could, in containing the object. “It is impossible,” states the sequence, be benefited in its intercourse, and home report, to enter upon the discussion of the pro and foreign trade, to an extent that would counter. posed project, involving such important conse- balance the heavy expense involved in erecting and quences to the populous and productive portions of maintaining the needful works: but especially duthe country watered by the Roanoke river, without bious as to the possibility of guarding the proposed feeling deeply sensible of the difficulties in effecting usefulness of them against future encroachmenis or so desirable an object, and the degree of uncertainty accidents of impediment, induced by an unsettled attending the result of any operations where the ocean." causes to be governed are so infinite and powerful. To this we may add, that if the proposed inlet Wherever the course of nature, in her marine ope was successfully completed, and its eventual de rations, is to be governed, there is probably no sub terioration by the aciion of the Atlantic Ocean ject within the range of the science where so much guarded against to full security, the embankment is deduced from hypothesis, and where, necessarily, over the two straits on each side of Roanoke in the result, there is so little certainty.”
island would put a total stoppage to water interIt demands no abstract reasoning to determine communication between the two extremes of the the preference, where the object in view is the same, North Carolina basin, by its two principal Sounds, between an intended work, where “ Nature, in her and render more necessary the existence of a counmarine operations, is to be governed,” and another ter canal across the general course of the rivers, placed beyond the reach of so uncontrollable an and to the interior of the Sounds. The state engi. agent as an ocean. There is, perhaps, no other con neer himself doubting, however, either the easy extrast more striking than to see the volume of water ecution and preservation of such a work on the in a canal so completely under the control of man; ocean border, or its extensive benefits if in existand yet performing operations beyond all human ence, presents another plan in the following terms: force, and the utterly ungovernable mass of water " The general features of the plan now presentrolling to and from an ocean coast.
ed for consideration are, the excavation of a chianIt would, indeed, be most desirable, if practica- nel through the shoal ground in the sound, cutting ble, to find a situation admitting a good harbour, if across the sands between it and the sea, and, by only of 15 or 20 feet depth, between Charleston the intervention of a tide lock, secure to the trade harbour and the mouth of Chesapeake Bay; but an outward navigation at all times, between half leaving the hypothesis where it was left by the tide and high water. In submitting this plan, we United States engineers, we proceed to investigate must regret the entire impracticability of giving to what has been performed and planned to improve the import trade the benefits of the same channel. the inland navigable channels in the North Caro. This will be evident at once in the smallness of the lina basin.
sea mouth of the cut, thereby causing great risk in About North Lat. 35° 50', at a place called Nag's attempting its entrance, with a lee shore, as it Head, 45 or 46 miles along the reef to the north must always prove and in the immediate vicinity ward from Cape Hatteras, it appears there formerly of a cape, the most dangerous, with one exception, existed an inlet with 10 feet water, which has long of our extended coast, without the protection of a been closed by oceanic deposit. This, when open, breakwater, in case of unfavourable weather. The was called Roanoke Inlet, and was directly outside hopelessness of combining such an auxiliary, howof Roanoke Island and the two straits uniting Pam ever, is most conclusive, when we reflect upon the tico to Albemarle Sound. The same powerful agent unremitting tendency of the currents of the ocean which closed Roanoke Inlet opened New Inlet, op on the southern coast, and the abundance of the posite the north-east part of Pamtico Sound, and elements which go into the formation of the shoais, 30 miles northwardly from Cape Hatteras.
and which, in this instance, would endanger the Conflicting plans have been proposed to melior- safely, if not, indeed, the very existence of the ate the navigable facilities of this coast. One proposed inlet.” was, that under the influence of which the Act of The defects of this plan are candidly stated, but Congress of the 20th May 1826 was passed, and the engineer proceeds to dwell upon the greater which has been already, together with its object, cheapness of execution and security for the works stated under this head. To carry such a project when completed. He gives the aggregate of into effect, the engineer recommended to cut off all $327,734 10, as the necessary expenditure.