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The Roanoke Inlet Company was created by Act outer ledge of the Appalachian system, and in a of Assembly of North Carolina, 1821.
distance of 12 miles above Weldon, the water falls The labours of that state, however, both in and 100 feet. This descent is overcome by the Weldon out of its legislature, have had more direct and ef canal. fective success when expended upon the rivers Weldon is a village, port, and post town of within, than when employed to form channels Halifax county, North Carolina, situated at the through the sounds. No one river of North Caro- foot of the Great Falls, very nearly mid-way belina has nevertheless yet been rendered as naviga- tween Raleigh and Norfolk in Virginia, and, by ble, even along its channel, as the volume of water the road, 85 miles from each. Below Weldon the and moderate requisite expense would admit. Roanoke is very tortuous in its course, the channel
Cape Fear river channel, so important to some being estimated at 90 miles, though the comparative of the best cultivated counties of the state, has length is only about 70. This distance is navigatbeen partially improved. The Board of Internal ed by sloops. Above Weldon the two states of Improvement, on the 22d of January 1827, report North Carolina and Virginia have, by canals and ed to the legislature, that the improvement of the other improvements, made the channel of Roanoke channel of Cape Fear river, from Wilmington to navigable for boats 244 miles to Salem in Botetourt Fayetteville, had been prosecuted the preceding county, Virginia. In the upper navigation, the year to considerable extent, but that much then re- sluicing system has been extensively employed. mained to do in clearing the channel even as high The Dan river navigation, though in reality a as Black or South river. The sluicing system was branch of that of upper Roanoke, is given under a recommended, and also a dam and locks at Smiley's separate head in Armroyd's Internal Navigation of Falls; and by combining the different kinds of im- the United States. That author informs us, under provement, obtain a steam-boat navigation from head of Danville and Dan River Canals, that beside Wilmington to Fayetteville, during ten months of the important canal at Danville, the sluicing im. the year; and a batteaux navigation thence to Hay. provements extended, when the account was writwoodsboro, in Chatham county, at the junction of ten, 152 miles above Rock Landing, and reached Haw and Deep rivers: entire distance by the chan- Leakesville in Rockingham county, North Carolina. nel from Wilmington to Haywoodsboro, 180 miles. The expenditure of capital, up to November
The preceding improvements would be connect 1826, on all branches of the Roanoke navigation, ed with those of the Yadkin, if another projected made by the Roanoke Navigation Company, includroute was carried into effect. The lower part of ing, however, real estate and slaves held by the the channel of Deep river, the western constituent company, amounted to $341,283; and by similar of Cape Fear river, extends about 30 miles, or nearly estimates, up to the 5th Nov. 1828, the amount of half the intermediate distance, directly towards the expenditure and property held by the Company was Yadkin, below the Narrows in Montgomery county. $365,991, A design of a canal has been conceived to leave The Weldon locks and canal unite the lower and Haywoodsboro, pursue the valley of Deep river as higher navigation of this fine stream, the extent of far as necessary, and thence by the most practica- which will be seen at a glance on the subjoined ble route to the Yadkin, at or near Blakeley in the summary. lower part of Montgomery county. This route Roanoke sloop navigation below Weldon has received the title of “ Cape Fear and Pedee to the head of Albemarle Sound, 90 miles. Canal," and would most certainly be, if actually From head of Albemarle Sound to the and efficiently formed, a great link in the net work Atlantic Ocean at South inlet,
do. of internal improvement, but it is yet a project. Upper Roanoke, by the main channel, to
We have already noticed the works already exe Salem in Botetourt county, Virginia, 244 do. cuted and projected in the comparatively large ba Danville navigation,
do. sin of Pedee, but may here, in order to preserve connexion, turn our attention to the Upper Pedee
594 or Yadkin.
The canal line, designated - The Plymouth and The distance from Wilkes Court House to the Beaufort Canal,” recommended by the Engineer point where the Cape Fear and Pedee Canal is in- Department of the United States, the 9th March tended to debouch into the Yadkin, is estimated at 1826, has been already noticed, and deviations and 200 miles. This distance it is designed to render enlargement recommended, under the present head. navigable along the channel to the Narrows in As an adjunct to these interlocking chains, another Montgomery county, where a canal and locks are line was designed, called the Murfreesboro' Canal. stated to be necessary, and where the side canal This latter, as planned, is to leave the Weldon would connect with the Cape Fear and Pedee Ca- canal basin, or some other point near and above nal. See our notice of Pedee basin, whilst we rc. the basin, and be extended thence by a route, a litturn to a review of the important basin of Roanoke. tle north of east, to Murfreesboro' on Meheren ri.
The lower falls in Roanoke, between Northamp- ver; down the Meheren and Chowan to Bennett ton and Halifax counties, North Carolina, must at creek; and thence along the channel of the latter, a future time form a separation between two spe- and from it, by the most eligible route, into the Discies of navigation on that stream. These falls are mal Swamp Canal. The length necessary for the formed by the passage of the river over the great Murfreesboro' chain of canal and river navigation
has been estimated at 80 miles; and the requisite its utmost term in the channel of James river, besum to carry it into effect 761,522 dollars, as re- yond which, the rivers again curve more and more ported in 1818, by a joint Board of Commissioners towards a southern course, and from the Susqueof the states of North Carolina and Virginia. hannah to Penobscot inclusive, all the main streams
The connexions of the Roanoke basin will be have a general course something west of due south, more developed under the succeeding head. It may be also observed, as a general character of
The Basin of Chesapeake. This most extensive the Atlantic rivers of the United States, but most river physical section of the Atlantic Slope of the prominent in the basins of Chesapeake and DelaUnited States, has the united basins of Chowan and ware, that, though uninfluenced as to their respectRoanoke south; the north-eastern part of the basin ive recipients, their intermediate courses are deof Mississippi, or the valley of Ohio west; the basin termined by the mountain chains. This mountain of Ontario, and the north-western part of that of influence extends so far, that the main volumes of Hudson north; valley of Schoharie north-east; Ba- the Chesapeake and Delaware confluents are almost sin of Delaware, and the narrow Atlantic slope of uniformly along the mountain vallies, or at right the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia east. angles to the mountain chains and vallies. The longest line that can be drawn within it ex These observations are exemplified in the higher tends in a direction very nearly from south-west to branches of James river; the northern, James river north-east, and from the extreme western sources Proper, Cowpasture and North river, rising in the of James river, in the Alleghany chain of moun same vallies with the sources of Shenandoah ard tains to those of the Unadilla branch of Susquehan- Potomac, but flowing in an opposite direction or nah, within a small fraction of 500 miles. It is south-westward, and meeting the southern branches, about 260 miles where widest, from east to west, Dunlap creek, Potts creek, Craig creek and Caand from the Eastern Shore of Virginia to the tawba. The main James river, or, as there callwestern sources of James river.
The entire area ed, Jackson river, rises in Pendleton county, Vir. being about 69,000 square miles, the mean breadth ginia, and in the mountain valley east from the will be 138 miles nearly.
Alleghany chain; and flowing thence by comparaIn latitude, this fine natural section of the earth tive courses 50 miles, receives Dunlap creek, in. extends from 36° 40' to 42° 55', and in Lon. from flects to the southward 4 or 5 miles, traverses a 2° 20' E. to 3° 40' W. from W. C.: consequently, minor chain of mountains, passes Covington, reit embraces 6.1 degrees of latitude and 6 degrees of ceives Potts creek, and rapidly bends to the northlongitude. Central latitude, 39° 47}'. If the eastward, 12 miles to its junction with Cowpasture Peaks of Otter are taken into view, the relative river. The latter, a considerable branch, has the height is from the level of the ocean to 4200 feet remote Pendleton, but similar, it flows south-westelevation; but rejecting the mountain height and ward over Bath into Alleghany, uniting with Jackregarding only the declination of the rivers, the dif son river at the north-western side of what is there ference of height will be about 1500 feet.
called Potts' chain. Here the united waters take Taken in its utmost extent, this basin sweeps en the name of James river, bend to south-eastward tirely across the Appalachian system, and embraces 25 miles by comparative course, traversing several at the fountains of Susquehannah, a part of the in- chains of mountains into the valley between Blue terior secondary formation, traverses obliquely Ridge and Kittatinny. Again inflecting to northover the transition and the primitive, and reaches east 16 or 17 miles, receives North river from Authe ocean by a border of recent sea-sand alluvion. gusta and Rockbridge counties, rapidly again bends The great features will appear more distinct by a to the south-east, and piercing the Blue Ridge, ensurvey of the sub-basins, to which we proceed, ad ters on the fine valley between the latter chain and vancing from south to north.
South East Mountain, and flowing 25 miles, traJames river is the southernmost confluent of verses this lower distinct chain of the Appalachian Chesapeake Bay, deriving its most remote sources system near Lynchburg, and between Amherst and from the Alleghany chain opposite to those of Campbell counties. Once more this now considerGreen Brier branch of Great Kenhawa; south from able stream bends to north-eastward, and flows in those of Shenandoah and other branches of Poto that direction about 40 miles, and in that part of mac; and north from some of the small confluents its channel almost completely parallel to the Blue of New river, and froin the higher sources of Roan- Ridge, distant from 20 to 22 miles from that chain, oke. It is remarkable that the extreme source of and nearly along the south-eastern foot of the South Potts Creek, the most south-western constituent of East Mountain. Below the latter chain James James river, rises only seven or eight miles from the river assumes its final course of south-east by east, main channel of New river, upwards of 100 miles which, with a very tortuous channel, it maintains comparative course below the higher fountains of the by comparative length 70 miles, to the head of tide latter.
water at Richmond, and about 80 from thence to It has been observed under the present head, but its entrance into Chesapeake bay, between points may be more distinctly seen by inspection of a gen- Willoughby and Old Point Comfort. James river eral map of the United States, that the river chan is remarkable for the great number of small connels from the Great Pedee, or Yadkin, to the north- fluents, and receiving below Blue Ridge but two eastward were gradually assuming general courses streams really deserving the name of rivers. Ri. more to the eastward. This change has reached vanna, rising by numerous branches from the Blue
Ridge opposite the sources of the South Fork of opposite to the South Fork of Shenandoah, and inShenandoah, is a fine stream of about 45 miles com- terlocking sources on one side with those of Riparative length, draining great part of Albemarle vanna, and on the other with those of Hedgman and Fluvanna counties, and falling into the left river, draining Madison and Orange counties, and side of James river, 59 miles, by the actual chan- separating Culpepper from Orange and Spottsylnel above tide water at Richmond.
vania counties, joins Hedgman river after an eastAppomattox is the principal confluent of James erly course of 50 miles. The North Fork, or Hedgriver, either above or below the mountains. This man river, rises in the Blue Ridge to the northstream rises in Prince Edward, Buckingham and ward from the sources of Rapid Ann, and draining Cumberland counties, interlocking sources_with the greatest part of Fauquier and Culpepper, purthose of some minor confluents of James and Roan. sues a south-eastern course of 50 miles to its juncoke, and also with the higher branches of Notta- tion with Rapid Ann, to form the Rappahannoc. way. The intermediate windings and actual chan. This stream, 10 or 12 miles below the union of its nel of Appomattox are very tortuous, and may ex two main constituent branches, falls over the primiceed 130 miles, but the comparative length is about tive ledge and meets the ocean tides at Fredericks85; 75 above tide water at Petersburg, and 10 be- burg. The Rappahannoc at the head of its tides low that city to its entrance into James river. is within 10 miles from the Potomac, at the great
The valley or sub-basin of James river lies in a bend of the latter between Charles county in Maryposition inclining a few degrees to the north of land and Stafford in Virginia; and again, 15 or 16 west and south of east, in length 250 miles; mean miles lower the two rivers approach each other to breadth 40, and area 10,000 square miles. Extend- within 5 or 6 miles. Below those points of aping in Lat. from 36° 40' to 38° 20' N.; and in Lon. proximation, in a distance of 75 miles, the interfrom 1° E. to 3° 40' W. from W.C.
vening peninsula between the two streams is in no For the relative elevations see Tables at the end place 22 miles wide, and varying from that to 5 or of this head.
6 miles in breadth. Below the head of tide water, York river sub-basin, is overheaded by the inter- the channel of the Rappahannoc extends 90 miles locking sources of Rivanna branch of James river, in a direction from north-west to south-east, and and the Rapidan branch of Rappahannoc; the two similar to all the confluents of the Chesapeake gralatter originating in Blue Ridge, whilst the extreme dually opens into a bay, and unites with its recifountains of the former are in the South East Moun- pient by a mouth of 6 miles between Stingray and tain. York river is formed by two confluents, Pa- Windmill Point. In all the space from the head munky to the south, and Maitapony to the north. of the tides to Chesapeake, Rappahannoc does not The Pamunky is the main branch, and rises in receive from either side a confluent above the size Orange and Louisa counties, by numerous creeks, of an ordinary creek, nor does that part of its basin which enter and unite in Hanover near the head of exceed 12 miles in mean width. The entire basin tide water, below which it flows by a very crooked extends from north-west to south-east 140 miles, channel, but comparative distance of 40 miles, to with a mean width of 20 miles; area 2800 square its union with the Mattapony, having an entire miles. Extending in Lat. from 37° 34' to 38° 44', comparative course of 90 miles S. E. by E.
and in Lon. 0° 41' E. to 1° 22' W. from W.C. The Mattapony rises in Spottsylvania county to The whole aggregate surface of the three subthe south-westward from Fredericksburg, from basins of James, York and Rappahannoc, are comwhich, without receiving any accessory stream of prised in Virginia, of which political section they consequence, it flows to the south-east 70 miles, constitute the south-eastern, lowest, and warmest between the Pamunky and Rappahannoc to its part, if we except a small section of James river junction with the former, below which the united basin above Blue Ridge. This comparatively trowaters are known as York river.
pical physical section of Virginia is followed by The name of York river is really confined to a the important basin of Potomac, which forms connarrow bay of about 35 miles in length, extending nexions physically and politically deserving of more from south-east to north-west, with, however, depth attention than the limits of this head will admit. of water at its mouth for ships of the line of the The Potomac derives the far greater part of its largest class. The entire sub-basin of York river water above the Blue Ridge, and the passage of its extends in length 130 miles, in a direction nearly volume through that chain constitutes so striking from south-east 10 north-west; the mean breadth a point of division, as to justify separating in dedoes not exceed 20, nor does the extreme width in scription the two sections of the basin. any place amount to 40; area, 2600 square miles. Potomac, above the Blue Ridge, is formed by Extending in Lat. from 37° 15' to 38° 16', and in the North Branch or Potomac Proper, Patterson Lon. from 0° 41' E. to 1° 12' W. from W.C. South Branch, Cacapon, Back creek, Opequan and
The Rappahannoc basin or sub-basin follows that Shenandoah rivers, from the south-west, and a series of York, but as already noticed the former extends of comparatively small confluents from the north. to Blue Ridge. The Rappahannoc has been com The stream to which the distinctive name of Potopared to a high tree with a small head and long mac has been given, rises in the Alleghany chain trunk. The head is formed by two branches, Rapid opposite to the sources of Cheat and Youghiogany, Ann and North Fork, or Hedgman river. Rapid N. Lat. 39° 10', and Lon. 2° 30' W. from W.C.; Ann rises in the south-eastern vales of Blue Ridge, and flowing about 30 miles to the north-eastward,
receives Savage river from the north, and inflecting on the opposite side of Blue Ridge from the sources to the south of east, in a distance of 10 miles, tra of Rivanna. The entire valley of Shenandoah is verses one or two minor chains, and resuming a comprised within and forms a part of the great north-eastern course of 18 miles receives Wills Kittatinny valley. The main stream is formed by creek at the town of Cumberland. The Potomac two branches, which, taken together, drain the far fed by mountain torrents, has at the influx of Wills greater part of Augusta, all Rockingham and Shecreek become a river of considerable volume, and nandoah counties, and finally unite on the southern again breaking through two mountain chains in border of Frederick; the main or south-eastern rapid succession, through which the channel is so branch having flown at their point of union, by comtortuous, that in one place the course is turned back- parative courses, to the N.E. 85 miles. Gradually wards to south-west, but quickly winding round to inclining upon the base of Blue Ridge, the Shenana course of a few degrees south of east, unites with doah below the union of its two constituents conthe South Branch by comparative courses, 15 miles tinues north-eastwardly 35 miles to its junction below Cumberland.
with the Potomac, at Harper's Ferry, after an enWhat is called the South Branch, is the real and tire comparative course of 120 miles. main Potomac, having its remote source in Pendle The entire upper valley of Potomac stretches ion county, Virginia, as far south as Lat. 38° 32'. along the Blue Ridge, from south-west to northThe numerous mountain streams which, by their east, 160 miles from the sources of the Shenandoah final union form the South Branch, originate in the to those of Conecocheague. It is 75 miles where mountain vallies, between the Kittatinny and Alle- broadest, between the Alleghany at the source of ghany chains, and froni thence by a general course Potomac to the Blue Ridge, opposite the sources of north-east, they unite near Morefield, in Hardy of Hedgman river; but the mean width is only county, and also near the intersection of N. Lat. 390 about 50 miles; area 8000 square miles.. and 20 W. Lon. from W.C. Below the union of By reference to the tables of relative height, it its principal constituents, the South Branch, with will be seen, that the low water level in the river, out receiving much additional water, continues its at its passage through Blue Ridge, is 288 feet north-eastern course over Hardy and Hampshire above the level of tide water in Potomac. The counties, 40 miles to its union with Potomac. The lowest elevation that can be given to any part of enlarged volume formed by both streams, traverses the arable soil of Upper Potomac valley, is at least a mountain chain immediately below their junction, 350 feet, or a full equivalent to a degree of latitude, and again winding round to a course of north-east, as regards mean temperature. Under the head of continues that direction by a very crooked channel, the Appalachian chains, the rapid rise of their rebut comparative distance of 25 miles, to Hancocks spective vallies were shown, and we may, to save town in Washington county, Maryland, having re- reference, observe here, that the valley of ihe South ceived several creeks from the north, and beside Branch, and which is continued northwardly across some others of less consequence, Great Cacapon the valley o? Juniata, and southwardly in the higher from the south. At Hancockstown the channel of valley of James river, has its lowest point of dePotomac has reached its extreme northern point, pression between Susquehannah and New river at N. Lat. 39° 41' nearly, and less than two direct miles Cumberland, where the common water level is 578 from the southern boundary of Pennsylvania; but feet above the Chesapeake tides. We may thereagain infecting to a course of S.S.E. 20 miles to fore safely assume 600 feet as the lowest arable surthe influx of Conecocheague, from the north, have face of the South Branch of Potomac. Where the ing traversed the Kittatinny and entered the fine Ohio and Chesapeake canal is to pass the Alleghany valley between that chain and the Blue Ridge. Be. mountain, between the sources of Little Will creek low the mouth of Conecocheague, the course is and Casselman river, or the extreme eastern west of south 5 or 6 miles to the influx of Opequan branch of Youghiogany river, the summit level is river from Frederick, Berkeley and Jefferson coun 1903 feet by actual admeasurement. The extreme ties, Virginia, but having received the latter stream, highest peaks or ridges of Alleghany exceed 2800 the Potomac bends to a general course of S.S.E., feet; and we are safe in stating a difference of 1200 20 miles to its junction with the Shenandoah, and feet between arable land of the lowest part of the passes through the Blue Ridge at Harper's Ferry. Upper Potomac valley, and the most elevated farms
The real length of the channel of Potomac will along the higher mountain vallies; and as many of be shown partially in the subjoined tables, but it these farms are actually on mountain table lands, may be observed 'here, that in order to preserve the rapid change of temperature experienced in a consistency between the actual area drained, and few miles is fully accounted for from relative height. the channel, only the general length can be ex Passing the Blue Ridge the Potomac flows 15 pressed in the verbal description.
miles S. E. by E. to the influx of Monocacy, and Shenandoah briugs to the Potomac little less passage of the main stream through the South East volume than the main stream above their union. Mountain. At this latter pass the water level is The former rises in the Kiitatinny valley, as far still 224 feet above tide water; and similar to its south as 37° 55', and in the southern angle of Au- inflections below Cumberland, and below its pasgusta county, Virginia, two degrees W. of the me. sage through the Kittatinny, the Potomac bends 5 ridian of W.T., interlocking sources with the North, or 6 miles to the south-westward, after passing or Great Calf Pasture Branch of James river, and South East Mountain, and thence very gradually
curves to a course of S. E. which it maintains 30 Extending in Lat. from 37° 50' to 40° North, and miles to its final descent over the outer primitive in Lon. from 0° 45' E. to 2° 45' W. from W.C. ledge, into tide water at Georgetown. Below the From its relative position, and from the great head of tide water in Potomac, occurs one of those distance inland to which its channel admits ships river resemblances which demonstrate the extent of the heaviest draught, the basin of Potomac is a of mountain influence. Like the Delaware below very interesting object in physical and political geTrenton, and the Upper Chesapeake below the in- ography; and it is naturally, and by the erection of flux of Susquehannah, the Potomac, after meeting the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road, already artifithe tide, first inflects along the base of the primitive cially connected with the western shore of Chesaledge, by a course south of west upwards of 20 peake Bay, between its own estuary and that of miles, and thence, by a very extensive curve, re- Susquehannah. In a direction very nearly from gains a south-eastern direction. It is in the above north to south, and from the southern boundary of noted great curve that the Potomac so nearly ap- Pennsylvania to the lower part of St Mary's county, proaches to the Rappahannoc, as we have shown Maryland, extends a strip of about 110 miles in under the head of the latter river.
length, and where broadest, in Harford and BaltiFrom its leaving Blue Ridge to where it finally more counties, 45 miles wide. The mean width, quits the primitive ledge, between Charles county however, about 25, area 2750 square miles. This in Maryland, and Stafford in Virginia, the Potomac slope is drained by Patuxent, Patapsco, and Gunreceives from the left Coloctin, Monocacy, Seneca, powder rivers. Rock, East Branch, Piscataway, and Mattawoman; The western shore of Chesapeake, broken into and from the right, Goose creek and Occoquan, minor bays by the confluent rivers, is opposed by of lesser note from each shore.
another slope still more indented. The eastern The Monocacy valley is a part of that between shore of Chesapeake is, in one respect, very reBlue Ridge and South East Mountain, the main or markable; that circumstance is, that the confluent middle stream flowing, a little south of west, along creeks and rivers rise almost on the margin of the the mountain valley, having interlocking sources Atlantic Ocean from Cape Henry to Indian river; with those of Conewago and Codorus branches of and again, a similar remark, with some limitation, Susquehannah, comprising the far greater part of may be extended to that part lying between ChesaFrederick county, in Maryland, and the southern peake and Delaware bays, as, in the latter case, the part of Adams, in Pennsylvania; length 50 miles, comparatively large streams of Pocomoke, Nantimean breadth 20, and area 1000 square miles. koke, Choptank, Chester, Sassafras, and Elk rivers,
Below the influx of Monocacy, no stream above are opposed by a series of mere creeks, flowing the size of a large creek enters Potomac from Ma across a strip of about one hundred miles in length, ryland. Rock creek, entering between Washington with a mean width of fifteen. The whole elliptić and Georgetown, and the North East Branch, both curve, from Cape Charles to the head of Elk river, rise near Mechanicsville, in Montgomery county, following the shores of the Atlantic Ocean and and within twenty miles from the city. The latter Delaware Bay, in a distance of two hundred miles, opens to the width of a river, and forms the har does not exceed an average width of more than ten bour at the United States navy yard, and gains im- miles; area 2000 square miles. portance from this circumstance; but its extreme The Chesapeake slope of the peninsula we are head is not quite as far remote from their common surveying is also very narrow, not exceeding a mean recipient as is that of Rock creek. Indeed, from breadth of five miles for the first seventy miles from the source of the Patuxent, in South East Moun Cape Charles to the mouth of Pocomoke river, but tain, to its outlet into Chesapeake, the distance be thence rapidly widens in the basins of Pocomoke, tween its channel and that of Potomac in few places Nantikoke, and Choptank rivers to a mean breadth amounts to twenty miles, and does not average of 50 miles, and length of 70 miles. Again, confifteen. On the opposite side to the vallies of Mon- tracting over the basins of Chester and Elk rivers, cacy, Rock creek, and North East Branch, there is to a point towards the source of the latter, the whole a small section of Virginia drained into Potomac. eastern slope of Chesapeake Bay presents an elonThis section, embracing the northern part of Fau- gated ellipse of 200 miles from south to north, mean quier, and all Loudon, Fairfax, and King William width 25, and area 5000 square miles; extending counties, is watered by Goose creek, Occoquan, in Lat. from 37° 7' to 40° N., and in Lon. from oo and some smaller streams. But, as noticed under 40' to 1° 40' E. from W.C. The entire peninsula, the head of Rappahannoc, the valley of Potomac be- by careful measurement, including the space becomes restricted to a narrow slip below tide water tween the head fountains of Elk river and Cape in the former. The whole of that part of the basin Charles, embraces a superficies within a trilling of Potomac below the Blue Ridge, from the source fraction of 7000 square miles; extreme breadth 65, of Monocacy to Smith's Point, on the right side but mean breadth 30, very nearly. From these eleof the mouth of Potoinac river, is in length 165 ments, five-sevenths of the peninsula is drained into miles; the mean breadth 30; and area 49 50 square the Chesapeake Bay. miles.
For specific description of the residue of the Combining the two sections above and below the Chesapeake basin, see article SuSQUEHANNAH. The Blue Ridge, the whole basin of Potomac extends relative extent and elevations of the sections are over an area of 12,950, say 13,000 square miles. shown by the subjoined tables.
VOL. XVIII.- PART I.